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					Tidal Energy:
Worldwide distribution Cost-effective technology Multiple benefits

Tidal Energy should join other clean, renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, biofuels, and low-head hydro, in receiving official, international support and funding for its development.

The Worldwide Distribution of Tidal Energy

Grey areas in the ocean have the most intense tidal energy.

Almost all nations can receive significant benefits from Tidal/Current/River Energy Turbines
________________________________________

Applicable wherever water speeds reach above 2 knots All coastal nations with tidal passes or channels between coral reefs or offshore islands Tidal energy is extremely reliable: runs every day like clockwork Tidal energy is very predictable: can be accurately calculated a thousand years from now Strong ocean currents, for example Gulf Stream Rivers, especially in hills. Hydro-electric without dams.

Tidal Energy can be captured efficiently and inexpensively using the helical turbine

Schematic view of a helical turbine mounted in a frame

Features of the helical turbine I

Basic concept: • designed for hydroelectric applications in free-flowing water • operates in ocean, tidal, and river currents • does not require expensive dams that can harm the environment • Operation: • self-starting with flow as low as 0.6 m/s • smooth-running • rotates in same direction regardless of the direction of flow, making it ideal for tidal applications

Features of the helical turbine II Efficiency: 35% In testing at the University of Michigan Hydrodynamic Laboratory

Multiple benefits from Tidal Energy include

• Electrification of isolated communities • Power for the grid • Regrowing coral reefs using mineral accretion technology • Substituting imported petroleum fuel

• Practical examples of the first three benefits are given on the pages that follow

Tidal Energy contact information
Thomas J. Goreau, Ph.D. President Global Coral Reef Alliance 37 Pleasant Street Cambridge MA 02139 USA +1 (617) 864-4226 goreau@bestweb.net http://www.globalcoral.org

Scott D. Anderson, Ph.D. Coordinator The Tide-Energy Project near the Mouth of the Amazon +1 (352) 246-8246 (mobile) sdand@bellsouth.net

Mr. Edward L. Kurth President and General Counsel GCK Technology, Inc.* 607 Bluff Cliff Drive San Antonio, TX 78216 +1 (210) 496-5902 kurth@gcktechnology.com

Prof. Alexander M. Gorlov** Chief Technology Officer GCK Technology, Inc. 607 Bluff Cliff Drive San Antonio, TX 78216

+1 (617) 277-0986
gorlov@gcktechnology.com

* Has the licensing rights to this technology

** Inventor and developer of this technology

The Tide-Energy Project Near the Mouth of the Amazon

Applying helical turbine technology at a small scale to generate electricity for rural communities

Project goal: use Tidal Energy to generate electricity
We have developed technology that enables rural residents to meet energy needs in a way that is: economical, decentralized, and environmentally sound

Tidal Energy: clean, renewable, and proven
As we will show, with modern technology there is no doubt that it is practical, efficient, and cost-effective to capture Tidal Energy

A requirement: decentralized technology
Near the mouth of the Amazon, rural residents are dispersed and cannot be reached economically by power lines from central generators. The only decentralized options available to them now are: solar panels and diesel generation.

An important breakthrough: the helical turbine

Rural artisans with a 6-blade helical turbine The man at the left is a skilled woodworker, and on the right, a skilled mechanic. With the aid of a local metal-working shop, they built the turbine frame. They then installed the blades and now operate the turbine.

Generating equipment I

(b) Pulley and belt

(c) Automotive alternator

(a) 6-blade helical turbine

Generating equipment II Configuration:
• The helical turbine rotates on a shaft with a pulley that runs an alternator by means of a belt. • The alternator charges batteries, as is usual with other intermittent sources—solar and wind—when used off the grid.

The result: accessible technology
• About 90% of a Tide Energy station can be built using locally available labor, materials, and equipment. • Only the technically refined helical turbine blades are outside components.

Benefits:
• Energy production: 120 A-h/day • Sufficient to meet basic needs of 10 households—at World Bank and Brazilian government standards for rural, solar electrification projects.

Numbers on: Investment
Energy production: 120 A-h/day
• • 8 solar panels (75 Wp), installed: US$ 5690 Tide-Energy generating station: US$ 2800
Note: investment estimated on pre-pilot project data.

The result: affordable technology
• Tide-Energy generating station: US$ 2800 • Small diesel-powered boat: US$ 2500-3000

Adopting Tidal Energy technology
Thousands of rural residents in the region now own small, dieselpowered boats. This technology was adopted by them over the last twenty-five years at their own cost, with no outside incentives or subsidies. If they see Tidal Energy technology to be to their advantage, we are confident that they will also adopt it.

Numbers on: Annual operating costs (120 A-h/day)* • 1000 VA diesel generator: US$ 1397 • Tide-Energy generating station: US$ 824 * Includes fuel, labor, maintenance, and depreciation

The result: profit and high return
For a single Tide-Energy generating station: Annual Receipts (charging 5 batteries/day) 1750 Costs (labor, maintenance, and depreciation) 824 Profit US$ 926 Return on investment: 33%
Note: cost and receipts estimated on pre-pilot project data.

Overall: producing energy and jobs
For a single Tide-Energy generating station: • Investment requires 7½ worker-months of skilled and unskilled labor. • Annual maintenance requires ½ worker-month of skilled labor. • Normal operation requires a ½ time job.

Present situation: beginning the pilot phase
Pilot phase activities include: • Operation of the station by local community members for a year. • Close monitoring of the full costs and benefits. $ We are seeking funding to carry this out.

For more information:
The Tide-Energy Project Near the Mouth of the Amazon
Scott Anderson, Project Coordinator +1 (352) 246-8246 (mobile) sdand@bellsouth.net

http://globalcoral.org/Tide_Energy_Overview_English.doc

Tidal Energy
at the

Uldolmok Strait, Korea
Testing of the Gorlov Helical Turbine
designed and built by

GCK Technology, Inc.
conducted by the

Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute
(“KORDI”)

The inventor, Dr. Alexander Gorlov, with a sub-unit of the Gorlov Helical Turbine (“GHT”) during construction of the GHT (1m diameter, 2.5 m length) tested by KORDI in the Uldolmok Strait.

The first tidal power generation from a GHT was on July 10, 2002.

The 1 meter GHT turned at 160-180 rpms in a 4 knot current and generated 8-10 kW.

Features of the Helical Turbine
Power increases 8 times when velocity doubles
2500 2000

Power (watts)

I Knot = 1.69 ft/sec
I M/sec = 3.28 ft/sec
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1500 1000 500 0 Free Flow (Ft/sec)

Source: GCK Technology

Features of the Helical Turbine Installation Cost: dollars/kw
14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Red: high estimate Blue: low estimate

IL

R

S

LA R

IN D

A L

O

S O

W

LE

Y

C

N

U C

H

Source: GCK Technology, Inc.

T

ID A

D R

G A

A

O

O

L

GORLOV’S CONCEPTUAL DESIGN for a floating power station in the Uldolmok Strait

KORDI ESTIMATES
OF

TIDAL POWER
IN THE

JIN-DO ISLAND AREA Uldolmok Strait = 470 MW Jaing Juk Strait = 1,230 MW Maeng Gol Strait = 1,910 MW TOTAL = 3,610 MW

This is the equivalent of 3.5 nuclear power plants

Contact Information

Mr. Edward L. Kurth President and General Counsel GCK Technology, Inc. 607 Bluff Cliff Drive San Antonio, TX 78216 +1 (210) 496-5902 kurth@gcktechnology.com

Prof. Alexander M. Gorlov Chief Technology Officer GCK Technology, Inc. 607 Bluff Cliff Drive San Antonio, TX 78216 +1 (617) 277-0986 gorlov@gcktechnology.com

BIOROCK® TECHNOLOGY
The most cost effective solution for: Coral reef restoration Fisheries restoration Shellfish restoration Shore protection Mariculture Building stone and aggregate Protecting reefs from global warming Ecotourism

• On underwater, conductive structures we assemble a positively charged anode and a negatively charged cathode (structure) • Apply a low voltage electric current between them • • – Safe for swimmers Which causes minerals to crystallize from seawater onto structures Calcium carbonate, white limestone (CaCO3) is formed-Similar to natural coral reefs and tropical white sand Corals adhere to limestone and grow quickly Make the only marine structures that get stronger with age and are self-repairing

• •

How a Biorock® Reef works
When a positively charged anode and a negatively charged cathode are suspended in sea water with an electric current flowing between them, calcium ions combine with carbonate ions and adhere to the structure (cathode). The result is calcium carbonate. Corals adhere to CaCO3 and grow quickly.

Solar collector or other power supply
Cathode (-) Conductive Structure

Anode (+)
Coral Fragments

(CaCO3)

Biorock corals
• Grow 3-5 times faster • Heal more than 20 times faster • Survive high temperatures 16-50 times more • Have hundreds of times more baby coral settlement • Attract incredible numbers of fish

In the Maldives
• Biorock reefs turned severely eroded beaches into 15 meters growth in two years • All Biorock corals survived the tsunami undamaged • Surrounding reefs had massive corals fall and table corals break.

• Corals can survive under lethal conditions • Reefs can be quickly restored where they can’t recover naturally • Fishermen can grow reefs and greatly increase fish and shellfish populations and catches, becoming farmers instead of hunters • Breakwaters can be built for a fraction of the price of concrete or stone, with vastly greater environmental benefits • Use low voltage direct current that can be provided by tidal energy turbines, solar panels, windmills, or chargers • Use as much power as beach lights.

Global Coral Reef Alliance
Dr. Thomas J. Goreau President Global Coral Reef Alliance 37 Pleasant Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Telephone: 617-864-4226, 617-864-0433 E-mail: goreau@bestweb.net Web site: http://www.globalcoral.org

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE, STABILIZATION THROUGH SUPPLY AND DEMAND MEASURES
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development May 1-12 2006 Thomas J. Goreau, Ph.D. Global Coral Reef Alliance www.globalcoral.org goreau@bestweb.net

The last time global temperature was 1 degree C higher than now
• Was 125,000 years ago, and • Sea level was 7-8 meters higher • Crocodiles and hippopotamuses lived in London, England • Atmospheric CO2 was 30% lower than it is today

• If no more coal, oil, and natural gas is burned,starting today, climate change will eventually greatly exceed that of 125,000 years ago • If continued use of fossil fuels causes runaway global warming, sea level rise could exceed 150 meters

• Business as usual is a death warrant for coral reefs and fisheries, but many more ecosystems will follow • Climate change models greatly underestimate long term changes because they miss most of the positive feedback mechanisms in the climate system, and have too short a time horizon

• To stabilize the climate system requires reducing CO2 sources (supply) and increasing sinks (demand) • Tidal, solar, and biofuel energy can reduce CO2 emissions • Large scale reforestation and addition of charcoal to soils can increase sinks and increase soil fertility and water holding capacity

The Framework Convention on Climate Change is a treaty to stabilize greenhouse gases, temperature, and sea level, but a treaty to stabilize their rate of increase

THIS IS ONLY BECAUSE THEY CAN NOT IMAGINE THAT RENEWABLE ENERGY HAS THE CAPACITY TO REPLACE FOSSIL FUELS AT COMPETITIVE COST, AND BECAUSE THEY IGNORE INCREASED SINKS. SOIL CARBON SINKS ARE NOT RECOGNIZED BY THE CDM.

WE MUST DO BETTER!
RELIANCE ON FOSSIL FUELS IS A RECIPE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER, A DEATH SENTENCE FOR CORAL REEF COUNTRIES, LOW LYING ISLAND STATES, AND MANY OTHER ECOSYSTEMS


				
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