# Chapter+16 by lanyuehua

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```									Chapter 16- Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Section 1~ Kinetic Theory

Vocabulary

Kinetic theory- explanation of how particles in matter behave
Melting point- temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy
Heat of fusion- amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to
the liquid phase at its melting point
Boiling point- of a liquid is the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the
liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
Heat of vaporization- amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to
become a gas
Diffusion- the spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformly
distributed
Plasma- matter consisting of positively and negatively charge particles
Thermal expansion- an increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is
increased

Reading Check Questions

What is thermal energy?
~Total energy of a material’s particles, including kinetic-vibrations
How are kinetic energy and temperature related?
~Temperature and the average kinetic energy of particles in the substance, or how fast the
particles are moving
What is heat fusion?
~ Amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid
phase at its melting point
Why do liquids flow?
~Kinetic energy allows particles to partially overcome the attractions to other particles,
allowing particles to slide past each other
How does external pressure affect the boiling point of a liquid?
~ Of a liquid is the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to
the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
What is occurring at the two temperatures on the heat curve where the graph is a flat line?
~At zero Celsius ice is melting at 100 Celsius water is boiling; temperatures are constant
What is plasma?
~ Matter consisting of positively and negatively charge particles
What are the two examples of amorphous solids?
~Glass and Plastics
Caption Questions

The boiling soup on the stove and the visible steam above the boiling soup is in the liquid
state. The ice cube dropped into the soup to cool it, is the solid state.

Boiling of a liquid is the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is
equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid evaporation is the
amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas

Plasma is matter consisting of positively and negatively charge particles.

Water molecules arrange themselves according to charge, empty spaces are larger in ice
than in liquid water, water expands going through a liquid or a solid; solid ice is less
dense than liquid water.

Self Check

List three basic assumptions of the kinetic theory.
~All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, and ions).
~These particles are in constant, random motion.
~These particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their container.
Describe the movement of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
~Liquids flow making the shape of their container, solids have particles closely packed
together, and gases spread far apart or contract to fill the container that they are in
Describe the movement of the particles at the melting point in a substance.
~ The temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy.
Describe the movement of the particles at the boiling point of a substance.
~ Boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the
liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
Would the boiling point of water be higher or lower on the top of a mountain peak? How
would the boiling point be affected in pressurized boiler system? Explain.
~ Higher, the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid; had a higher pressure.
Using the graph in figure 7, describe the energy changes that are occurring when water
goes from -15 Celsius to 100 Celsius.
~ At zero Celsius ice is melting at 100 Celsius water is boiling; and increase in
temperature between.
The melting point in acetic acid is 16.6 Celsius and the boiling point is 117.9 Celsius.
Draw a graph similar to the graph in figure 7 showing the phase changes for acetic acid.
Clearly mark the three phases, the boiling point, and the melting point in the graph.
120
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100
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10

Section 2~ Properties of Fluids

Vocabulary

Buoyancy- the ability of a fluid- a liquid or a gas- to exert an upward force on an object
immersed in it
Pressure- force exerted per unit area, or P=F/A
Viscosity- fluids resistance to flow

Reading Check Questions

Pg. 485 When the weight of the water displaced-the buoyant force becomes equal to the
weight of the ball, it floats. Weight of the water displaced is less than the rocks, so it
sinks.
Pg. 488 As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Pg. 489 Warmer temperatures have lower viscosity and cooler temperatures have higher
viscosity

Section Review

Describe the two opposing forces that are acting on an object floating in water.
~Buoyancy, Pressure
Explain how a heavy boat floats on water.
~Overall density of boat and air is less than the density of water
Use Pascal’s principle to explain why squeezing a plastic mustard bottle forces mustard
out the top.
~Cause the pressure applied to the mustard to transmit throughout the entire contents in
the bottle pressuring it to the top.
Describe, using Bernoulli’s principle, how roofs are lifted off building in tonados.
~Viscosity of the tornados winds was greater than the air below it and the net force
pushed the roof upward.
If you fill a balloon with air, tie it off, and release it, it will fall to the floor. Why does it
fall instead of float? What would happen if the balloon contained helium?
~Pressure is applied to the balloon where the net force pushes it downward; helium is less
dense and would float in the air.
~ (120)(9.8)= 1176 Buoyant Force

~ 20000(.072)/2.8= about 871.42 N

Caption Questions

Explain why a boat that takes in water will sink.
~Because the density begins to equal out, sinking it.
Define Bernoulli’s principle.
~As velocity of a fluid increase, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

Applying Math

F(2)= F(1)XA(2)/A(1)= 1500N X .80 / 25 = 48N

Section 3- Behavior of Gases

Vocabulary

Pascal – SI unit of pressure

Reading Check

Pg. 490 forces cause collisions, particles increase, the area expands, and objects that can’t
expand much have an increase in pressure
Pg. 493 Boyle’s Law of Action
Pg. 495 Volume decrease as the temperature of the trapped gas decreases.

Section 3 Review

Explain why a gas has pressure
~Gas in smaller places, particles will strike the walls more often giving an increase
pressure.
Describe Earth’s atmosphere at sea level. How does the pressure change as the distance
for Earth increases?
~At sea level there is noticeable pressure; distance form the Earth causes a less dense
pressure.
Explain using Boyle’s law, the volume change of an inflated balloon that a diver takes to
a pressure of 2 atm.
~The pressure becomes greater than the balloon can hold and it explodes.
Explain, using Charles’s law, the purpose of gas burner on a hot-air balloon.
~Balloon walls have room to expand so instead of increased pressure, the volume
increases.
Labels on cylinders of compressed gases state the highest temperature to which the
cylinder may be exposed. Give reason for this warning.
~If you place the cylinder above that temperature so the pressure becomes more than it
can hold, which will cause it to explode.

~V(2)= 2X101/97=202/97= about 2.1 L
~ 5/25 X n/30= 25n=150 15/25 n= 6 L

Applying Math

~ V(2)=98X11/86.2=1078/86.2= about 12.51 L

Science Stats

1. -269 + (-89) = 180 degrees Celsius
2. Rhenium, Osmium, Tantalum

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