Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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					Mycobacterium tuberculosis


    Presented by Katherine Sawyer
    For BIOL 306 Genome Project
    October 14, 2009
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Presented by Katherine Sawyer

1.   How many nucleotides, genes, and
     chromosomes are in the Mycobacterium
     tuberculosis genome?
2.   Why is it important to study the M.
     tuberculosis genome?
3.   What are 2 recent research findings related
     to the M. tuberculosis genome?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis facts:
Type of organism: bacillus (rod-
   shaped) bacteria (eubacteria)
Lineage [NCBI Taxonomy]:
  Cellular organisms;
  Bacteria; Actinobacteria;
  Actinobacteria(class);
  Actinobacteridae;
  Actinomycetales;
  Corynebacterineae;
  Mycobacteriaceae;
  Mycobacterium;
  Mycobacterium tuberculosis
   complex;
  Mycobacterium tuberculosis
M. Tuberculosis infection (M. tuberculosis are pink rods)

Image from http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/INFEHTML/INFEC033.html
.   Image from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( public domain.)
More M. tuberculosis facts


   According to CDC, 1/3 of the world’s population are
    infected with TB.
   Each year, nearly 9 million people around the world
    become sick with TB and almost 2 million die from
    illness caused by M. tuberculosis
   TB is the primary cause of death of people who are
    HIV infected.
   Some strains are multi-drug resistant
   Most common strains lead to respiratory and lung
    disease, some strains can also affect brain
    (meningitis), liver, and other organs
W.H.O. Map of New TB cases, 2006
image from http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_EstimatedTB_ITHRiskMap.png
M. tuberculosis infection




   Left image From http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1607.htm
   Right image from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1034.htm
M. tuberculosis genome

   Over 70 identified strains
       First sequenced was H36Rv: 4,411, 529 bp
       T46: 4,347,699 bp
       Average bp = approximately 4.4 Mbp
   4183 Genes
   1 chromosome
   Large genome for a bacteria, slightly smaller
    than E. coli
Genome size comparison with other bacteria

         5


         4

                                      Streptococcus
         3                            pneumoniae
                                      M ycobacterium
                                      tuberculosis
         2
                                      Escherichia
                                      coli

         1


         0
             Genome Size (Mbp)
Genome size comparison with other organisms




 10000
                                        3000
                                               Streptococcus
  1000                                         pneumoniae
                                               Mycobacterium
                                  180          tuberculosis
   100                                         Esherichia coli

                                               Drosophila
    10                       5                 melanogaster
                      4
                2                              Homo sapien

     1
                    Genome size (Mbp)
M. tuberculosis genome research

   First complete sequence project in 1998 by
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (whole
    genome shotgun sequencing method).
   (Fleishman, et al, 2002) Genetic variation
    between strains was more than expected,
    including long sequence polymorphism.
   (Caws, et al, 2008) Both the host and the
    bacterial genome affect the disease process.
    There are specific strains adapted to specific
    human populations
Why did I choose this M. tuberculosis?

   Understanding of M. tuberculosis makes better drug
    development possible. Successful drug therapy for this
    disease could benefit millions of people.
   Bioinformatics play a key role in comparing the huge variety of
    strains of this bacteria in addition to the sequencing process
    itself.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Presented by Katherine Sawyer

1.   How many nucleotides, genes, and
     chromosomes are in the Mycobacterium
     tuberculosis genome?
2.   Why is it important to study the M.
     tuberculosis genome?
3.   What are 2 recent research findings related
     to the M. tuberculosis genome?
References: complete genomes
   Cole S. T., Brosch R., Parkhill J., Garnier T., Churcher C., Harris D.,
    Gordon S. V., Eiglmeier K., Gas S., Barry III C.E., et al., (1998)
    Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the
    complete genome sequence. Nature 393: 190-198, 537-544.

   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_002755?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSy
    stem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum

   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_009565?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSy
    stem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum

   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_009525?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSy
    stem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum

   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_012943?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSy
    stem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum
Other references
   Smith, I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Molecular Determinants of Virulence (2003 July)
    Clinical Microbiology Review 16(3): 463-496.

   Caws M., Thwaites G., Dunstan S., Hawn T.R., Lan N.T.N. , Thuong N.T.T., Stepniewska K., Huyen M.G.T.,
    Bang N.D., Loc T.H., et al.. (2008) The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of
    Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Public Library of Science (PLoS) Pathogens 4(3)
    e100004.

   Fleischmann, RD, Allnad D, Eisen, JA, Carpenter L, White, O, Peterson, R., Deboy, R, Dodson, R, Gwinn,
    M, Haft, D., Hickey, E, Kolonay, JF, Nelson, WC, Umayam, A, Ermolaeva, M, Salzberg, SL, Delcher, A,
    Utterback, T. , Weidman, J. Khouri, H. Gill, J, Mikula, A., Bishai, W. Jacobs, WR, Venter, JC, and Fraser,
    CM, (2002) Whole Genome Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical and Laboratory Strains.
    Journal of Bacteriology 184 (19) : 5479-5490.

   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=genomeprj&cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=224


   http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/MTB/MTB.html


   http://www.cdc.gov/tb/

   http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_EstimatedTB_ITHRiskMap.png

				
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