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									System of Profound
Knowledge
          Applied to Systems
          Analysis




          Group 4
Systems Development Life
      Cycle (SDLC)
 The SDLC has four stages:

                Analysis

                           Design
           Testing

                 Implementation
Examples of SDLC in System
  of Profound Knowledge

• All parts of Deming’s System of
  Profound Knowledge can be found in
  and applied to the Systems
  Development Life Cycle.
• The following are examples of how the
  System of Profound Knowledge can be
  applied to the Systems Development
  Life Cycle.
System Life Cycle vs. System of
     Profound Knowledge

    Analysis       Appreciation for a system


     Design        Understanding of Psychology


  Implementation
                   Theory of Knowledge


     Testing       Theory of Variation
Appreciation for a System


            Analysis


                        Design
       Testing

             Implementation
Appreciation for a System

 • Dr. Deming’s “appreciation for a
   system” most closely matches systems
   analysis in the Systems Development
   Life Cycle.




                                   Analysis
Appreciation for a System

 • Requires understanding of how the
   current system works.
 • Requires understanding of how a sub-
   system fits into the “big picture” of a
   company’s system.



                                       Analysis
In Systems Analysis We:

• Study current business and information
  systems.
• Define requirements of the new system.




                                    Analysis
To Incorporate Deming’s System
  of Profound Knowledge with
        Systems Analysis
 • We must think outside of the actual
   scope of the project to see how any
   changes will affect the “big picture”.




                                            Analysis
Understanding of
  Psychology

            Analysis


                       Design
  Testing


        Implementation
     Understanding of
       Psychology
• Understanding of psychology is needed
  because we deal with people.
  – It is important that when designing a
    product, this product should meet the
    standards the clients are looking for and
    also to be delivered to them in time. This
    will affect the psychology of the clients
    whether to accept the product or not.

                                          Design
       Understanding of
         Psychology
• There are three types of motivation: intrinsic,
  extrinsic and over-justification.
   – Intrinsic motivation: This is the type of motivation that
     comes from within people.
   – Extrinsic motivation: This type of motivation is from
     external factors.
   – Over-Justification: Means receiving extrinsic rewards for
     something you would do anyway out of intrinsic interest
     undermines intrinsic interest. It will destroy intrinsic
     motivation.
• Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and over
  justification can affect how a company will do the
  work, whether to improve its products or not.
                                                         Design
Theory of Knowledge


        Analysis


                   Design
   Testing


       Implementation
  Theory of Knowledge

• The Theory of Knowledge from Dr. Deming’s System
  of Profound Knowledge, instructs us that:
   – A thousand facts cannot prove a theory, but one fact can
     disprove a theory.
   – Knowledge is incomplete without a complete understanding
     of the system and the environment it is in.
   – There is no such thing as a True Value. There exists only the
     results of a procedure.
   – The most important values are unknown and unknowable.
     What is the cost of a disgruntled employee?


                                                       Implementation
System Implementation

• Deming’s Theory of Knowledge has been incorporated into the
  SDLC, and can be seen in System Implementation
• Companies implement system changes after predicting the likely
  reaction of employees
   – Many companies plan for resistance and develop programs to
     make transition smoother
• Unknown costs are given consideration
   – Developers consult end users to ensure that interface is
     appropriate
   – Developers provide for adequate training to avoid alienating
     workers
• System environment is studied prior to implementation
   – Planning is done prior to implementation
                                                             Implementation
Theory of Variation


            Analysis

                       Design
  Testing

             Implementation
 Theory of Variation

   Within the Systems
Development Life Cycle, the
Theory of Variation takes on
     two personae…

                         Testing
     Personae of Variation


Testing      Maintenance




                           Testing
What ISD Directors Need
       to Know
• Variation within the two personae will
  occur.
• Variation can be recognized and
  perhaps controlled.
• Failure to notice variation will cause
  more variation.

                                     Testing
        Sources of Variation
            Documentation
                                 Measurement Methods
Tools




   Input       Process                  Output



Raw Data                              Human Inspection

           Users            Methods
                                                  Testing
                   Summary

• Appreciation for a System
   – Emphasizes the need for managers to understand the
     relationships between functions and activities.
   – Organizations are interactive systems and must be managed
     as systems.
• Other examples of how this applies to the SDLC
   – Testing
      • What are the overall effects of improving one part of the
        system?
      • All parts work in conjunction with each other.
                  Summary

• Understanding of Psychology
   – It is necessary to understand human interactions through
     intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
   – Managers must recognize that people are different and they
     will interact differently with the same system.
• Other examples of how this applies to the SDLC
   – Implementation
      • Will users need motivation for the system?
      • Is the system easy to use?
      • Will users fear it?
                   Summary

• Theory of Knowledge
   – All plans require prediction based on past experience. An
     example of success cannot be successfully copied unless
     the theory is understood.
   – A systematic approach to learning will enable individuals to
     develop their own theories for continual improvement
     processes.
• Other examples of how this applies to the SDLC
   – Analysis
       • Prediction is analysis - What happened before? Why?
       • What should be changed?
       • Create theories and modify as needed
                   Summary

• Theory of Variation
   – In order to have effective leadership, it is necessary to
     recognize the two personae of variation.
   – Variation exists in all systems - and it exists to improve the
     system.
• Other examples of how this applies to the SDLC
   – Design
       • By understanding causes of variation in the design phase,
         variation sources can be controlled and in some cases
         eliminated.
                    Summary

• All four stages of the
  SDLC are inter-
  related                      Analysis
• All four stages
  interact with one                       Design
  another
                           Testing
• All four stages are
  needed to have a               Implementation
  complete system

								
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