Load Modeling

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					MVWG Report to TSS
     August 2009

     Shawn Patterson
Load Modeling
       Load Model Development Process
• Develop and Implement Composite Load Model
  – PSLF – done, PSS®E – almost done
• Load Model Data
  – Default data sets are under review
  – Data management tools need to be developed (progress
    slower that we would like)
• Load Model Validation and System Impact Studies
  – Currently under way, need wider participation
• Load Model Approval for Production Studies in
  – Voltage dip criteria needs to be addressed
        Composite Load Model Structure
• Existing Interim Model does not reproduce behavior
  of loads known to occur, particularly Fault-Induced
  Delayed Voltage Recovery
• Composite Load Model is developed, prototyped
  and extensively tested
   – Rigorous model acceptance tests are done in PSLF
   – Thousands of WECC-wide studies are done in PSLF
   – PSS®E development is in late stages
• WECC MVWG unanimously added Composite Load
  Model Structure to the list of WECC-approved
 Composite Load Model Structure



UFLS                   Electronic

FIDVR Event Validation Studies
                  Load Model Data
• Load Model Data
  – End-use testing and model development are largely
  – Load composition data sets are developed and being
• Load Model Data Tool
  – Essential for managing large data sets
  – Database-type approach is considered
  – Development is slower than expected
           Load Model Validation and
            System Impact Studies
• BPA and PG&E developed two set-ups for creating
  load model records
  – Post the set-ups on WECC web-site
• Load Model Validation Studies
  – SCE ran several FIDVR validation studies
  – BPA is working on system-wide validation case
• Load Model System Impact Studies
  – Under way (SCE, BPA, PG&E, CISO and IPC)
  – Need wider participation within WECC
                 WECC TPL Standards
• Existing WECC transient voltage dip criteria was developed under
  presumption that load does not experience a structural change during
  a disturbance (mostly constant current active and constant
  impedance reactive components were used for load representation)
• WECC voltage dip criteria was developed as a proxy for low voltages
  at which load loss may occur
• Transient voltage dip criteria is used only by WECC (not in NERC
  TPL Standards)

                                                 WECC transient
                                                 voltage dip criteria
                                                 (developed under
                                                 assumption of constant
                                                 current load model)
                        WECC TPL Standards
• Transmission faults are likely to results in a wide-spread stalling of air-
  conditioners, when a stalled motor becomes a locked-rotor short
  circuit for several seconds until it is disconnected by a thermal relay
• Actual system performance (and that captured by the new loads
  model) may not be able to meet the WECC voltage dip criteria
• See next slide …

                           Bus Voltage
Actual system
performance (and that
simulated with a new
composite load model)
may not meet WECC
transient voltage dip
Palo Verde – Devers Fault Simulations and Actual
Wind Generation Models
    Wind Generation Modeling – Key Points
• Powerflow Models are developed and used in
• Generic wind turbine generator models are
  approved for Type 2, 3, and 4 generators
  – Type 1 needs additional work
• Methods for Wind Power Plant testing are being
            Wind Generation Data
• Wind GOs need to provide “as-built” data
• TSS Approval Item: Add Wind Power Plant Data
  requirements (see attached) to WECC
  Generating Facility Data Requirements
Generator Models
    Generator Model Validation – Key Points
• Review of machine data shows a huge number of
  obvious data errors
• Review of hydro-governor data shows a number of
• WECC will create the list of modeling errors and
  check them against the test reports
System Wide Model Validation
      System Wide Validation – Key Points
• NERC / WECC are developing a White Paper on
  System Model Validation
• Validation base cases are available from WECC
• MVWG is planning to do model validation study for
  Utah July 28 fault to test the process
• BPA is working with Univeristy of Wisconsin on
  developing tools for system model validation
PMU Placement Criteria
             PMU Placement Criteria
• MVWG discussed revisions to the existing WECC
  Monitor Siting Criteria (please see attached)
  – To support WECC efforts on Western Interconnection
    Synchro-Phasor Project
• MVWG is asking TSS to consider recommending
  the proposed revisions to the new Sycnhro-
  Phasor Working Group
SVC Modeling
                                   SVSMO1                                                  Supplemental V-
                                   (TCR/TSC     SVSMO2                SVSMO3 (VSC          based MSC
Task                               based)       (TSC/TSR based)       Based)               (swshnt)            POD
Develop Dynamic Model              Done         Done                  Done                 Done                Done
                                                                                           to be done in
                                                                                           PSLF; exists in
Test Dynamic Model                 Done         Done                  Done                 PSS/E               Done
                                                                      Done; to add extra   Done; to add
Finalized & Approve Dynamic                     Done; need to make    lead/lag; reactor    breaker delay and
Model                              Done         changes discussed     switching            counter             Done
Implement Dynamic Model as                                                                 to be done in       Done; to add hook in
standard library model in PSLF,                                                            PSLF; exists in     PSS/E back to SVS
PSS/E                              Done         Done in PSS/E         To be done           PSS/E               model
Release beta version for Dynamic   tentative    tentative 8/17/09;
Model in PSLF, PSS/E               8/17/09      plus specs            tentative 9/09       tentative 10/09     tentative 10/09
Test beta release                  8/17/09      to be determined      tentative 9/09       tentative 10/09     tentative 10/09
Finalized and release dynamic      to be
model in PSLF, PSS/E               determined   to be determined      to be determined     to be determined    to be determined
                                                Exists (SVD table
Develop Powerflow Model                         type 4); similar in
Specifications                     Done         PSS/E                 Done
                                   Done;        Exists (SVD table
                                   except       type 4); similar in   9/09 in PSLF; ?
Implement Powerflow model          Sl-Sup Reg   PSS/E                 Exists in PSS/E
                                   8/10/09;     Exists (SVD table
Release beta version of            without      type 4); similar in   9/09 in PSLF; ?
Powerflow Model                    Sl-Sup Reg   PSS/E                 Exists in PSS/E
                                                Exists (SVD table
Test beta version of Powerflow     to be        type 4); similar in
Model                              determined   PSS/E                 to be determined
                                                Exists (SVD table
Finalized and release powerflow    to be        type 4); similar in
model in PSLF, PSS/E               determined   PSS/E                 to be determined
HVDC Modeling
                 HVDC Models
• EPRI Looked at existing HVDC modeling and gaps
• HVDC Modeling needs:
  – The largest need is to develop powerflow models for
    Voltage Source Converter HVDC systems
• EPRI is starting a project on HVDC modeling:
  – Looking for $$$ sponsors
  – Likely to start in 2010
  – Can or should WECC be a participant ?

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