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Behavior is behavior - The Center on Disabilities and Human

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					Welcome to the Intensive
Behavioral Intervention Professional
Certification Course




Instructor: Lindsay Olsen, MA, BCBA
Email: lindsayolsen16@gmail.com

                                       1
3 Part Certification Process
   Level 1: IBI Course
    ◦ Present for each session, pass each standard
      quiz with minimum score of 80% and
      participate in activities, assignments and group
      work
   Level 2: State Exam
    ◦ Pass exam with minimum score of 80%
   Level 3: Student Project
    ◦ Complete project with minimum score of
      85%

                                                         2
IBI STUDENT PROJECT




                      3
           STANDARDS 1-3
   Standard 1: Introduction to
    Developmental Disabilities

   Standard 2: Professionalism and Ethics

   Standard 3: Coordination of Family,
    School and Community


                                             4
               Group Activity
   Create group name




   Research and present on disability
    ◦ Include: symptoms, incidence, treatment,
      etiology, learning barriers
    ◦ Designate 1 person as group presenter


                                                 5
                QUIZ
 Quizzes 1-3
 20 minutes to complete




                           6
              Standard 5:
     Foundations of Applied Behavior
                Analysis
1)    Define basic behavioral terms and
      concepts
      PWOP Chapter 2 and 9


2) Differential reinforcement
      PWOP chapters 6,7,8

3) Writing behavioral objectives

                                          7
                     Standard 5
           Explanations of Human Behavior
Disorder        Genetic               +/- of           ENV                Other
                Hereditary            substances       influence          factors
                                      in the body
Epilepsy         some cases traced    Imbalance of     Exposure to lead   Infectious disease
                to single gene        neuro            and carbon         that affect blood
                                      transmitters     monoxide           supply

Down Syndrome   Excess of genetic
                material (47
                chromosomes)

MR              Genetic and           Metabolic        Toxic exposure
                chromosomal           disorders        and malnutrition
                abnormalities

Autism          Suspect 10-30 genes   Compromised      Exposure to        **3 tier insult
                                      immune system    neuro toxins
                                      Body unable to
                                      process



                                                                                               8
Areas of Brain Affected by Autism




                                    9
Standard 5: Biological Explanations




                                      10
   Behavioral Explanation 1


  Antecedent          Behavior     Consequence

• Stimuli/events   • Observable   • Stimuli/events
  that occur         response       that happen
  just before                       after behavior
  behavior




                                                     11
    Behavioral Explanation 2
  Antecedent        Behavior          Consequence

• Phone rings    • Push answer       • Pleasant
  friend           button and          conversation
                   talk


   Antecedent        Behavior          Consequence

• Phone rings    • Push ignore       • Avoid
  unknown 800#     button continue     unpleasant
                   playing angry       conversation
                   birds


                                                      12
     Behavioral Explanation 3
     Antecedent           Behavior          Consequence

• Teacher sitting   • Answer question   • Pleasant interaction,
  across from you                         easy tasks
                                        • Access to
                                          reinforcement



     Antecedent            Behavior          Consequence

• Teacher sitting   • Hitting           • Unpleasant
  across from you   • Running             interaction, difficult
                    • arguing             tasks
                                        • Removal of
                                          reinforcement



                                                                   13
    Behavioral Explanation 4
   Antecedent        Behavior    Consequence

• Entering                      • Access to
  library for                     reinforcement
  class


    Antecedent       Behavior     Consequence

• Entering library              • Constant
  for class                       difficult demand
                                • Removal of
                                  reinforcement


                                                     14
    Behavior Change Process
    Antecedent               Behavior         Consequence

• 2) What are          • 1) What is the    • 3) What is the
  precursor events       target behavior     pay-off


    Antecedent               Behavior         Consequence

• Teacher request to   • High pitched      • Placed in time out
  sit at desk            screaming           area


    Antecedent               Behavior         Consequence

• Teacher request to   • Sit at desk       • Listen to music
  sit at desk



                                                                  15
            Terms and Concepts
            What is and is not behavior?
  Raise hand        Non-compliant        Scream


Put away pencil    Follow directions   Head down on
                                           desk


     Read              Off task         Calm body


   Thinking            Irritated        Frustrated


 Fall on floor        Processing       Deep breath


                                                      16
Terms and Concepts


           CONSEQUENCE=
 Bad             unpleasant
         bummer
Hurt                      not good
                loss
Dreadful                  unlikable
                terrible




                                      17
Terms and Concepts
      Behavior           Behavior

Positive Reinforcement




                                    18
        The Science of “WANTING”

Primary AKA:                   Becomes more valuable     Evokes Behaviors that
Unconditioned R+               when……                    have resulted in……….
Food                           Deprived of food          Getting food in the past
                                                         (grocery store, asking,
                                                         ordering, foraging)
Sleep                          Deprived of sleep         Sleeping in the past (laying
                                                         down, getting into bed,
                                                         crying)
Increase of Painful Stimulus   You are in pain- have a   Removal of pain in the past
                               headache                  (taking aspirin)
              Science of “WANTING”
Primary AKA:          Becomes less valuable        Decreases or stops
Unconditioned R+      when……                       behaviors that have
                                                   resulted in……….
Food                  Have just consumed food      Getting food in the past
                                                   (grocery store, asking,
                                                   ordering, foraging)



Sleep                 12 hours of sleep            Sleeping in the past (laying
                                                   down, getting into bed)


Decrease of Painful   You are no longer in pain or Removal of pain in the past
Stimulus              have no pain                 (taking asprin)
          Types of Reinforcers
   Primary                      Secondary
(Unconditioned)               (Conditioned)

   Basic Human needs
                                  Generalized r+:
   Food, water, air, sleep,
                                Tokens, money, tickets,
       reduce pain,
                                    poker chips
    temperature, etc…



                                 Social reinforcers:
   Sensory reinforcers:               Verbal praise,
       includes self                participation in
   stimulatory behaviors        activities, attention, NV
                                       expressions
    Positive (+) Reinforcement
Antecedent      Behavior          Consequences            Future
situation                                                 Occurrence
Jonny sitting   Throws book       Teacher turn to Jonny Jonny begins
alone playing   on floor and      “don’t say that       cursing more
with            yells “*$!!@”     word!” “pick up your
worksheet                         book and let’s get
(20+ min)                         working.”


Antecedent      Behavior          Consequences            Future
situation                                                 Occurrence
Has not had     Engages in        Attention from          Behavior increases
attention for   behavior that     teacher (eye contact,
20 minutes      has resulted in   physical proximity,
                attention in      verbal engagement)
                past
Schedules of Reinforcement

          2 categories of schedules



   1) Continuous             2) Intermittent



                         Ratio          Interval
                       (Number)          (time)


                        1) Fixed        1) Fixed
                       2) Variable     2) Variable
Fixed- Ratio
 A worker receives a pay credit after
  assembling 15 pieces of equipment
 A student receives a sticker on their
  chart after completing 5 math problems
 A student receives a personal size pizza
  after reading 3 books
Variable -Ratio
   Hitting the jackpot playing the slots. After a
    varying number of lever pulls (behavior)
    money delivered (reinforcer)
   Scammers sending out emails requesting for
    bank information so they can wire you
    money. After so many responses (sending
    email) someone gives account information
    (reinforcer).
   Door to door salesman. After so many
    responses (knocking on doors)
    reinforcement occurs (someone buys item)
Fixed- Interval
 Mail is delivered approximately 4:00 each day.You
  could check the mailbox (response) all day but
  your response will only be reinforced after 4:00
  (passage of time)
 Picking up your paycheck. Going to accounting
  and asking for check (response) will only be
  reinforced after a fixed passage of time (every 2
  weeks)
 Teachers setting a 2 minute interval timer and
  each correct answer on a math worksheet after
  the passage of time results in reinforcement
Variable- Interval
   Jenny’s therapist assessed Jenny’s on task
    behavior (writing, reading a page or
    calculating problem) an average of every 6
    minutes (4,5,6,7,8). If Jenny was on task
    she would receive 1 point. Points can be
    redeemed for extra recess time.
Terms and Concepts
      Behavior           Behavior

Positive Reinforcement




Negative Reinforcement




                                    28
Antecedent          Behavior           Consequences          Future
situation                                                    Occurrence
ESCAPE:             Behavior that      Removal of aversive   Increase in behavior
Aversive stimulus   has removed        stimulus              that terminated
present             stimulus in past                         stimulus


AVOID:              Behaviors that     Avoid or delay        Increase in behavior
Condition where     have delayed in    aversive stimulus     that terminated
aversive stimulus   the past                                 stimulus
could occur


ESCAPE:             Give rice          Baby stop crying      Keep rice cookies in
Baby crying in back cookie                                   car and give when
seat while driving                                           fussy



AVOID:               Give cookie       Avoid crying          When need to ride
Carseat + Baby +                                             in car give cookie
caride =
Antecedent           Behavior        Consequences        Future
situation                                                Occurrence
ESCAPE:

Seat belt alarm in   put on seat belt Removal of alarm   Putting on seatbelt
car                                                      when alarm sounds

AVOID:
Stimulus situation   Put seat belt on Avoid alarm        Putting on seat belt
where alarm will                      sounding           when first get in car
sound (getting in
car)



         Group activity:
         1. review examples of Negative reinforcement in PWOP
            (page 27)
         2. Come up with 1 everyday example of negative
            reinforcement
Terms and Concepts
      Behavior                Behavior
                           Punishment type I
Positive Reinforcement
                         (Positive punishment)




Negative Reinforcement




                                                 31
Antecedent           Behavior        Consequences           Future
situation                                                   Occurrence
Hungry and in        Eat lots of     Stomach ache (+)       Decrease eating
candy store          candy                                  candy when hungry


Skiing in -20        Take off        frost bite (+)         Decrease taking
degree weather       mittens                                mittens off when
                                                            cold
Sally has the ball   Grab the ball   Bite on arm (+)        Decrease in taking
                     from Sally                             ball from Sally


Closing the door     Hand stays on   Hurt finger (+)        Decrease leaving
                     door                                   hand on door


Access to lighter    Set a fire      1 hour hard labor      Decrease fire setting
                                     (+)


Adult direction      Follow          Hug, smile high five   Decrease following
                     direction       (+)                    directions
Terms and Concepts
      Behavior                  Behavior
                             Punishment type I
Positive Reinforcement   (Punishment by contingent
                                stimulation)



                             Punishment type II
Negative Reinforcement   (Punishment by contingent
                                withdrawal)




                                                     33
Antecedent          Behavior       Consequences            Future
situation                                                  Occurrence
                    Smoking        Donate 1$ to            Decrease in smoking
                                   disliked organization   from 85/day to 5/day
                                   (-)

                    Call to 411    $.20 charge to bill     Decrease in calls to
                                   (-)                     411


                    Interrupting   lose 3 minutes of       Decrease in
                    class          computer time           interruptions
                                   (-)

Recess playing on   Kick peer      Sit on bench for 3      Decrease in kicking
slide                              minutes- Time out       peer on slide
                                   (-)
                      Response Cost
            Behavior                              Response Cost
Talking out in class without raising         Lose 1 minute of free time
             hand first                    (15 minutes available each day)




            Behavior                          Bonus Response Cost
Talking out in class without raising      Lose 1 minute of bonus free time
             hand first                (15 minutes of extra free time each day)




                                                                              35
 Terms and Concepts
       Behavior                   Behavior
                               Punishment type I
 Positive Reinforcement    (Punishment by contingent
                                  stimulation)



                               Punishment type II
 Negative Reinforcement    (Punishment by contingent
                                  withdrawal)




Recovery from Punishment


                                                       36
   Recovery from Punishment
Behavior                  Consequence              Effect on Behavior
Cursing                   Mom put hot sauce in
                          mouth



Cursing                   No hot sauce in mouth-
                          mom gone



Going through red light   Red light camera
                          installed- ticket


Going through red light   Camera removed- no
                          ticket




                                                                        37
 Terms and Concepts
       Behavior                   Behavior
                               Punishment type I
 Positive Reinforcement    (Punishment by contingent
                                  stimulation)



                               Punishment type II
 Negative Reinforcement    (Punishment by contingent
                                  withdrawal)




Recovery from Punishment           Extinction


                                                       38
Antecedent       Behavior          Consequence               Effect on
                                                             Behavior
Mom on phone     Scream and pull   “STOP! I am on the
                 cord              phone!” (R+)
Mom on phone     Scream and pull   Continue to talk
                 cord              ignore behavior

Antecedent       Behavior          Consequence               Effect on
                                                             Behavior
Math worksheet   Ask for help      Receives help (R+)

Math worksheet   Ask for help      “you can do it” no help


Antecedent       Behavior          Consequence               Effect on
                                                             Behavior
Snack time       Sign cracker      Get cracker (R+)

Snack time       Sign cracker      no cracker


                                                                         39
                    Verbal
                 interaction




              Maintaining
Exaggerated
   facial        R+:             Physical
                               interaction
 expression

              Attention

                   People
                  looking




                                             40
     Antecedent        Behavior            Consequence
      Situation
Nap time mother lays    Crying         Mother goes in and lays
child down in bed                      with child and verbally
                                       soothes (R+)
Nap time mother lays    Crying         Terminate consequence-
child down in bed                      parent does not go in
                                       room


                         Scream + throw+
                            cry= mom
 Crying = no
    mom




                                                                 41
   Antecedent          Scream
     “potty”         Runaway               Removal of
                                        aversive stimulus-
     Pull-up         Head bang
                                       allow to stay in pull
 Teacher leading        Claw                    up
you to bathroom     Alligator roll


   Antecedent
                       Scream
     “potty”                           Physical assistance
                     Runaway
     Pull-up                            to bathroom and
                     Head bang         team up to change
 Teacher leading
                    Alligator roll
you to bathroom


                        TB +
                   Claw, spit, bite,
                       vomit




                                                             42
Differential Reinforcement
               Behavior1     Reinforcement
Antecedent
               Behavior 2      Extinction



                               Attention
                Scream
                              from mom
Mom on
 phone
                Color in     No attention
             coloring book    from mom
                                            43
Differential Reinforcement
                    Throw book on      Attention from
                        floor             teacher
Independent work
      time
   No attention
                   Complete problem   No attention from
                       in book             teacher




                   Complete problem   Attention from
                       in book           teacher
Independent work
      time
   No attention
                    Throw book on        Ignore/no
                        floor            attention



                                                          44
            DR group activity

 Instruction         Throw              Removal
with 1:1 aide      scratching            work



                                   R+: removal work
                     Sign
                                       Access to
                    “break”
 Instruction                       preferred activity
With 1:1 aide
                                   Ext: continue with
                Throw scratching
                                          task



                                                        45
                DR Practice (1)
   Lacee is a non-vocal 6 year old with autism.
    She has approximately 5 signs which include
    milk, cereal, candy and ball. During her 1:1
    instruction with her tutor she will engage in
    a few tasks and then will start throwing
    materials and scratching her aide. Her aid
    cleans up the work items and throws her
    hands up saying she is not paid enough for
    this. Work time is then over.


                                                46
Differential   What is it?                           Variation of Schedule
R+ Strategy

DRO            Reinforcement provided when           1) DRO Reset
               learner does not engage in a target   2) DRO fixed Interval
               behavior. Pay learner off for doing   3) DRO Increasing
               any OTHER behaviors except the           Interval
               target behavior                       4) DRO Progressive

DRL            Used to decrease high rate            1) DRL-IRT
               behaviors to a more manageable        2) DRL- Below criterion
               rate by providing reinforcement for
               lower rates of responding

DRA            Choosing a behavior that is           1) DR Incompatible
               topographically different from           behaviors
               target behavior and providing         2) DR Competing
               reinforcement for the alternate          behaviors
               behavior



                                                                               47
                 DRO

      ?         Stripping    R+: automatic
Sensory needs    clothes     sensory need




                 Any other   R+: listen music,
                 behaviors   swing, blankets
       A
                               Extinction=
                 Stripping
                             keeps clothes on



                                                 48
3 Factors for DR Success!
  Select and define the target behavior
  • List and prioritize!




  Determine the right time interval
  •   observation time     (60) = IRT (12)
  •    # of responses       (5)
  •   IRT                    (12) = DRO interval (6)
  •   2                      (2)


  Identifying and selecting reinforcers
  • What maintains problem behavior can we use it?
  • What reinforcers will compete with reinforcers
    maintaining problem behavior

                                                       49
               DRO Reset
 Timer is RESET each time target behavior
  occurs
 R+ delivered at end of each interval (as
  determined by IRT) target behavior is
  absent
 When target behavior occurs no R+
  delivered and interval RESET
 PWOP example page 72 (figure 6.1)



                                             50
     DRO Reset Schedule (2)
   Kalee engages in TV talk that involves loud
    vocalization of movie lines and some
    inappropriate phrases from TV shows. During
    initial observation (baseline) Kalee engaged in TV
    talk 20 times during a 60 minute observation
    during writing class. When Kalee would engage in
    TV talk her aid would ask her to be quiet and
    direct her back to her assignment. Kalee would
    then continue TV talk and draw on her paper.
    Kalee loves drawing, art, listening to music,
    watching movies and playing solitaire.


                                                         51
           DRO Fixed-Interval
 Interval schedule is fixed and R+ delivered
  at end of interval during which the
  response does not occur
 Must go for the entire interval with no
  occurrence of behavior to receive R+
 If target behavior occurs, no R+ delivered
  at end of the interval and student gets
  another chance at next interval
 PWOP page 73-74 figure 6.3


                                                52
           DRO FI Schedule (3)
   Amy frequently engages in stripping behaviors.
    She takes off her shoes, pants and shirt while at
    school. She has identified sensory needs and is
    receiving treatment from an Occupational
    Therapist throughout the school day but she still
    strips. Amy has to keep her clothes on in order to
    be in school.You observe Amy for 3 hours during
    which she stripped 3 times. When you observed
    Amy during her “free time” she also wrapped
    herself up in blankets, listened to music, read
    books and cocooned herself in the nylon bungee
    swing.


                                                     53
         DRO Increasing Interval
 Way of thinning or fading R+
 As student can refrain from engaging in TB
  over several intervals, slowly increase the
  interval size
 Must increase reinforcer quality or quantity
  as intervals increase
 PWOP 74 figure 6.4




                                                 54
    DRO Increasing Interval Schedule
                  (4)
   Jack was doing really well on his DRO FI-
    30min schedule. He currently has ten 30
    minute intervals in a row where he has
    refrained from spitting. Each 30 minutes Jack
    refrains from spitting he gets to play 2
    rounds of angry birds. The amount of time
    spent accessing his reinforcer is starting to
    interfere with the school day and making it
    hard for his teachers to keep up with, plus
    he has almost mastered all the levels.


                                                    55
             DRO Progressive
 Another schedule to thin and fade R+
 Interval size remains the same but as
  student refrains from TB for more
  consecutive intervals the R+ gets bigger and
  better
 PWOP 74 figure 6.5
 Free access rule!!!




                                             56
DRO Progressive Schedule (5)
   Mike was really getting good at controlling
    wetting his pants. Mike was on a FI-1hr
    schedule. For each hour he was dry he was
    allowed to play on the computer for 5
    minutes. Mike had been doing this for half
    the school year and was on the computer
    most of the day. His teachers knew he could
    stay dry for the day but they didn’t want to
    just pull all his reinforcement for fear of his
    urinating returning.


                                                      57
Differential   What is it?                           Variation of Schedule
R+ Strategy

DRO            Reinforcement provided when           1) DRO Reset
               learner does not engage in a target   2) DRO fixed Interval
               behavior. Pay learner off for doing   3) DRO Increasing
               any OTHER behaviors except the           Interval
               target behavior                       4) DRO Progressive

DRL            Used to decrease high rate            1) DRL-IRT
               behaviors to a more manageable        2) DRL- Below criterion
               rate by providing reinforcement for
               lower rates of responding

DRA            Choosing a behavior that is           1) DR Incompatible
               topographically different from           behaviors
               target behavior and providing         2) DR Competing
               reinforcement for the alternate          behaviors
               behavior



                                                                               58
                 DRL-IRT Example
 Target behavior: Asking for help
 IRT= 10 minutes



                      Ask for help         (R+)
                      @<10 min         Receives help
    Working on
    assignment
                      Ask for help      Extinction
                       >10 min       No help delivered




                                                       59
                     DRL-IRT(6)
 Charlie is a non-verbal 8 year old boy who used to scream
  and bite his aide whenever she asked him to sit and do work.
  His previous IBI provider did some analysis and discovered
  when he engaged in this behavior the task was removed and
  he was placed in time out. His behavior of screaming and
  biting increased over time. She was able to teach Charlie a
  replacement behavior of asking for a break which resulted in
  removal of the task for a period of time. She also made his
  work time less difficult and made sure Charlie had lots of
  reinforcers available. If Charlie does engage in the target
  behavior, he is redirected back to his assignment and the task
  remains in place. The problem now is Charlie asks for a
  break all the time.
 During a 1-hour observation, Charlie asks for a break 20
  times




                                                               60
        DRL- Below Criterion
 Target behavior: knocking materials off
  table
 Criteria for R+= 3 times or less/ hour



                   Table swipe
                occurs 3,2,1 or 0        (R+)
                times in an hour

                   Table swipe        Extinction
                occurs 4 or more
                times in an hour    No R+ delivered




                                                  61
        DRL- Below Criterion (7)
   Ava’s teacher complains about Ava being
    out of her seat too often. She is
    integrated in her math class for 15
    minutes per day. During observation Ava
    was out of her seat 10 times during the
    math class. Ava will jump out of her seat
    and orbit around her desk a few times
    then sit back down..



                                                62
Differential   What is it?                           Variation of Schedule
R+ Strategy

DRO            Reinforcement provided when           1) DRO Reset
               learner does not engage in a target   2) DRO fixed Interval
               behavior. Pay learner off for doing   3) DRO Increasing
               any OTHER behaviors except the           Interval
               target behavior                       4) DRO Progressive

DRL            Used to decrease high rate            1) DRL-IRT
               behaviors to a more manageable        2) DRL- Below criterion
               rate by providing reinforcement for
               lower rates of responding

ALT-R          Choosing a behavior that is
(DRA, DRI)     topographically different from
               target behavior and providing
               reinforcement for the alternate
               behavior



                                                                               63
DR of Alternate and Incompatible Behaviors
                 (ALT-R)
 Alternate
                        Ask for break         (R+)
                                         Break delivered
       Difficult task
                                           Extinction
                           tantrum         No break
                                           delivered

   Incompatible
                                             (R+)
                           typing
                                             music

                                          Extinction
                        Hand flapping
                                        No R+ delivered

                                                           64
               DRA/DRI (8)
   Joe almost exclusively engages in verbal self
    stimulation by producing a constant string of
    the “eeeee” sound.You have determined that
    Joe most likely does this for automatic
    sensory reinforcement.You think he likes the
    sound and maybe the feeling in his throat.
    Create an example of an alternate behavior
    and an incompatible behavior for the listed
    target behavior.




                                                65
Behavioral Objectives:The Big Picture




        PROBLEM                     GOAL                         OBJECTIVE
      Liz is unable to                                       When given a choice
 communicate her wants       Liz will learn functional     between two food items,
      and needs in an       communication skills to        Liz will point to the item
  appropriate manner. Liz         appropriately                she wants without
 uses tantrum behavior to   communicate her wants         screaming or grabbing the
let others know when she    and needs so she can be      item at 100% success for 4
     needs something.        understood by others                out of 5 trials




                                                                                        66
  Operational Definition: Is it a public
          or private event
        Behavior                  Operational Definition
Understands

Points             Extends pointer finger to touch item or if item is out of
                   reach extends pointer finger in direction of item
Whispers           Uses a volume of voice that is lower than common
                   conversational volume and is audible for a distance no
                   greater than 2 feet away.
Feels




                                                                               67
Complete the following activities:
1) Components of a Behavioral Objective
2) Writing Behavioral Objectives
  Worksheet
3) Write Objectives from Sample




                                          68
                QUIZ
 Standard 5 quiz
 15 minutes to complete




                           69
                        STANDARD 6
   Material needed for this standard:
        What do I need?                      Where do I find it?

SELECT TARGET STUDENT FOR          •Diagnosis?
PROJECT!                           •Problem behaviors, functional skill
                                   deficits?
                                   •Available for duration of project
                                   •Consent to video?
1) A copy of IBI Student Project
Manual, printed and in binder
2) IBI Project Grading rubric      Appendix A in project manual
3) Copy of Functional Assessment   Appendix C in project manual
Observation Form
4) Copy of Behavior Path: FBA      Appendix D in project manual
visual Diagram
5) Copy of Prevent, Teach and      Appendix G in project manual
respond Visual path forms
6) Copy of Behavior Support Plan   Page 37-39 in project manual
Observation Form                                                          70
Standard 6: Positive Behavioral
           Support
                      Decrease
                      Problem
                      Behaviors



       Functional                     Increase
       Assessment                   Adaptive Skills



                    Therapeutic
                       Plan



         Use of
        PROVEN
                                    Individualized
        effective
       approaches



                    Comprehensive




                                                      71
Information Gathered from FA
  Problem        • Operational Definition
  Behaviors

                 • What is maintaining the
Consequences       behavior? What is the pay off?


                 • Conditions under which behavior
Antecedents        will AND will not occur


                 •Establishing operations OR
Setting Events   motivating operations

                                                     72
Maintaining Consequences

Antecedent      Behavior      Consequence



                                 Internal
              Hand flapping
Antecedent                     stimulation
                  (SS)
                               feels good



                                 External:
 Antecedent      Scream       People leave me
                                   alone
                                             73
                Triggers for Behavior

  Antecedent            Behavior       Consequence




 Request to sit         Run away       Sit in break are
   down for               scream        to calm (task
 reading group         fall to floor   removal/delay)



“write name on                          Head down
     paper.”            Scream &
                                       (difficult task
                      throw pencil
 (Difficult task)                        removed)

                                                          74
      Identifying Antecedent Events
                     Smiling, answering    Continuation of
Playing word mash
                         questions,       activity (visual and
   on computer
                         humming           auditory stimuli)




                      Eating food          Satisfying
Eating snack        rocking in chair      hunger, oral
with 2 peers
                       laughing           stimulation



  Recess time                             Proprioceptive
                       Laughing,
hanging on bars                            input, visual
                     hanging on bar
 upside down                                  input,


                                                             75
    Setting Events: the 4th contingency


Antecedent             Behavior              Consequence




EO- setting
              Antecedent          Behavior      Consequence
  event




                                                              76
     Antecedent Events (Sd’d)                Setting Events (EO’s/MO’s)
Precede behavior                         Precede behavior

Evoke Behavior                           Evoke Behavior
    •That have been associated with          •Because a particular consequence
    reinforcement in the past                is wanted or NOT wanted

Have to do with availability of a        Have to do with effectiveness of a
particular reinforcer                    reinforcer

                                    Asking for                  Food
    Waitress
                                      food                  delivered/eat

                                    Asking for                 No food
  No waitress
                                      food                     delivered

   Have not
                                             Asking for
  eaten for 5            Waitress                                 Food/ eating
                                               food
    hours

                                                                                 77
     Setting Events: Altering Reinforcer
                    Value
Setting event     Increase/Decrease                Effect on behavior
                  effectiveness of ………..
Hunger- food            Food as reinforcer                behavior that
deprivation                                               results in getting
                                                   food
No hunger-              Food as reinforcer                behavior that
satiation                                                  results in getting
                                                   food
Headache-                Aspirin as a reinforcer          Behavior that
painful                                                    results in getting
stimulation                                        aspirin
No headache- no          Aspirin as a reinforcer          Behavior that
painful                                                    results in getting
stimulation                                        aspirin



                                                                                78
  Classroom Examples of SE
     EO- setting
                    Antecedent          Behavior      Consequence
       event




                                         Any          Removal of
                   Typically easy
  Child did not                      behavior to      demand is
                     teacher
   sleep well                          remove         WANTED
                     demand
                                      demand          reinforcer



     Sensory
                   Nylon body        Put sock on       Sensory
  system under-
                      sock              body         stimulation
    stimulated


                                     Scream and     Remove/avoid
Sensory system
                   Nylon sock       throw self on      Sensory
over- stimulated
                                        floor        stimulation



                                                                   79
1) When asked about her medical history, Ava’s mother
   reports that Ava often experiences urinary tract
   infections. Because Ava is non-verbal she can not tell
   verbalize when she is in pain or feeling discomfort. Ava
   is currently working on potty training as a goal. Ava will
   hold her urine for so long OR will not empty her
   bladder completely when she urinates which can cause
   bladder infections. Fill in the 4 part behavioral sequence
   from the scenario given:
It was snack time and Ava was shown her visual schedule.
   He teacher pointed to the toilet picture indicating it
   was time to go potty and wash her hands before snack.
   Ava ran around the room screaming, arching her body
   and flopping to the floor.


                      What
                                                      What is
What is the EO-    Antecedent      What is the
                                                    valuable as a
 setting event?   event evoked     behavior?
                                                     reinforcer?
                    behavior?

                                                                    80
2) During the functional assessment interview, Raj’s
  mom indicated that her son is sometimes very
  sensitive to sound. He will cover his ears and mom
  is not sure why until shortly after when she hears a
  siren or other loud noise approaching. Fill in the 4
  part behavioral sequence from the scenario given:
Raj’s family uses a pressure cooker to cook rice in
  their kitchen. When it is time to go outside to play
  you must go through the kitchen to get to the back
  door.You say to Raj “let’s go outside” as you point
  to the back door. He screams and runs away from
  you into the basement.

                      What
                                                 What is
What is the EO-    Antecedent    What is the
                                               valuable as a
 setting event?   event evoked   behavior?
                                                reinforcer?
                    behavior?

                                                               81
     Steps to Conducting a Functional
               Assessment
               STEP                     How to Collect Information
1. Define the target behaviors and   •Review of daily schedule and routine
   pattern of occurrence



2. Develop a hypothesis about the    •Conduct interview
target behavior                      •Direct observation




3.Validate your hypothesis           •Functional Analysis: can you turn TB
                                     on and off?




                                                                             82
                            Results of
                           assessment
                           and analysis




                                                         Alter
                                                      patterns of
Contextual
                                                     behavior by


                           PBS
   fit
                                                     manipulating
                                                         A+C




                           plan
                Make
              problem
                                           Based on
              behaviors
                                          principles of
             irrelevant
                                              ABA
                and
             ineffective


                                                                    83
Contents of Quality Behavior
       Support Plan
  Address ALL problem behaviors

   Implemented across multiple
            settings

      Use multiple methods of
           Intervention

   Use Functional Assessment as
           foundation
                                  84
  Positive Behavior Support

    Prevent          Teach          Respond

• Changing       • Teaching      • Manipulating
  antecedent       replacement     consequences
  conditions       skills          to Increase or
  that lead to                     decrease
  behavior                         behaviors




                                                    85
Antecedent Interventions
                         Redesign
                       Environment




   Positive                                    Offer
   rapport                                    Choices

                       PREVENT




                                       Non-
          Behavioral
                                     Contingent
          Momentum
                                     Attention



                                                        86
      Teaching New Skills
                   Functional
                     Skills




                                   Skills that
Skills that are
   easy to
  perform
                  TEACH             Produce
                                     same
                                  consequence




                   Skills that
                  are Effective
                  and Efficient
                                                 87
Manipulating Consequences
                  Designed from
                       FBA




                                   Manipulation
 Individualized   RESPOND               of
                                  Consequences




                    Produces
                     quality
                   reinforcers

                                                  88
  Standard 7: Skill Acquisition

Discrimination  learning
Barriers to learning
Behavioral Approach to teaching
Instructional Procedures
Selection of target skills




                                   89
           Discrimination Learning
       Stimulus                 Stimulus
(Become antecedent/Sd   (Become consequences
     and S-deltas)        that affect behavior)




     Mom                 Needs met

                           Needs not
    Stranger
                             meet
                                                  90
Relevant                          Irrelevant
                                               Features which
           Features which must
                                               should be ignored
           be attended to in
                                               and do not
           order to make
                                               contribute to making
           discrimination
                                               discrimination


           SHOE: Shoelaces,
           shape, tongue, foot                 SHOE: color, size,
           opening, heel shape,                location
           toe shape



           MOM: Body size
                                               MOM: 2 arms, 2
           facial features, eye
                                               legs, clothing
           color, voice, smell




                                                                    91
                Stimulus event (Sd)



                                       Prompt


                     Response




  Correct               Incorrect      Natural Correction




                        Punishment
Reinforcement            Extinction
                      Inadvertent R+
                                                            92
               Add pops up: “you
                  won $100”


                                   Warning/ secure
                                        site

                  Click on add




                                          Natural
 Correct              Incorrect          Correction-
                                       Computer blocks




Receive 100$             virus

                                                         93
                        Sitter calls and
                        cancels for the
                             week

                                                 Husband
                                                suggestion

                       ask your mother in
                              law




                                                      Natural
     Correct                   Incorrect            Correction-
                                                    She declines



                          Criticizes how you
verbal praise, cooks
                          do things, makes a
dinner, does dishes
                          mess, asks for food
                                                                   94
                    Something happens
                     (stimulus event)


                                            ???Prompt???

                     Not sure what to
                       do- random
                        response




Something happens      Something happens     Something happens




                       Not sure what that
    Who cares
                              was
                                                                 95
                           Fire alarm



                                               Prompt????

                         1) Go out door
                        2) Play with trains




                                                False alarm -shuts
   1) Correct                 2) incorrect
                                                        off




Safe from fire praise       Cough eyes burn
   Social approval          but not sure why
                                                                     96
   Behavioral Approach to Cognition
   Antecedent
                           Response
  Stimulus event


   Red light             Apply brake

“what is 8x8?”               “64”

Bladder full- internal
                          Void in toilet
       signal

                                           97
              Discrimination Training
                         Antecedent Stimulus:
 Event that occurs in environment. Gives us clues about what response to
                                   emit

Friendly Professor                            Smile and wave
   Pompous Professor                      Look down walk other direction


                                                Whisper/ nonverbal
  Library with friend
                                                 communication

Car with friend                             Talk loudly, laugh

     Church                                   Tell clean joke
        Bar                                Tell offensive joke
                                                                           98
                 Discrimination Training

    Antecedent
situation/Stimulus                    Reinforcement
      event 1



                        Behavior A




    Antecedent
situation/Stimulus                      Extinction
      event 2




                                                      99
   Discrimination Training Example

Light on                       Food Delivered




             Neck Stretching




                                 No Food
Light off
                                 delivered




                                                100
      Discrimination Training Example

     Sd
                                 Outside on way
Door with Exit
                                     home
    sign



                 Open the door




      S                            In another
Door with Room                   classroom- not
   #443 sign                         outside




                                                  101
Discrimination Training Example

                             Attention:
 Sd
                            “honey stop
Mom
                           don’t do that!”



           Bang on table




 S                         No response
Dad                        No attention




                                             102
       Discrimination Training Example

      Sd                        Clothes off-
 Purple square                    naked




                   undress




       S                       Clothes remain
No purple square                     on




                                                103
Discrimination Training Activity

Sd                       Reinforcement




            Behavior




S                          extinction




                                         104
Group Presentations activity#15

Sd                      Reinforcement




            Behavior




S                         extinction




                                        105
             Simple Discrimination

                Response 1            Reinforcement
   Sd
                Response 2           No Reinforcement



             Simple Discrimination

                  Stopping behavior          R+
   “Stop”

                  Movement                  No R+


             Simple Discrimination

                Sitting                        R+
“sit down”

                standing                          No R+
                                                          106
                  Simple Discrimination

                    Response 1             Reinforcement
    Sd
                    Response 2            No Reinforcement




             Conditional Discrimination

             Sd               Response 1         Reinforcement

Stimulus A

             S               Response 2           No R+




                                                                 107
             Examples of Conditional
                Discriminations
                         Sd

                                         R1: touches     R+

Verbal: “find baby”

                      S-delta          R2: touches     No R+




3 stimuli to attend to:
     1. Verbal direction “find baby”
     2. Picture of baby
     3. Picture of shoe



                                                               108
                         Sd

                                         R1: touches     R+

Verbal: “find shoe”

                      S-delta          R2: touches     No R+




3 stimuli to attend to:
     1. Verbal direction “find shoe”
     2. Picture of baby
     3. Picture of shoe



                                                               109
       Barriers to Learning

1)Attention       2)Motivation

  Stimulus over      Unmotivated
    selectivity        by natural
                      reinforcers


   Focus on           Deficits in
   irrelevant          internal
    features          motivation
                                    110
        Basic Instructional Unit


  Antecedent         Behavior     Consequence

• Stimulus        • Learner     • Outcome
  material          response    • Natural or
• Teacher                         artificial R+
  request                       • Correction
• Environmental                   procedure
  stimulus




                                                  111
112
You are ready to teach when….
 Learner             Is learner approaching you? Are you paired with good
    Cooperation      outcomes? Are they willing to learn from you?

 Competing           Identified what purpose behaviors serve? What
   Reinforcers       consequences does individual want? Do you have
                     reinforcers that will keep value of escape low?

 Preventions         Identified what antecedents trigger desired and
                     undesired behavior? Are you incorporating these into
                     teaching model?

 Functional Skills   What are you teaching? Are the skills functional?

 What next?          Do you know where skills are going? Where is plan
                     going for this person? What’s the big picture




                                                                            113
Building on the instructional unit

             Discrete Trial

Sd       Response       Consequence

  Prompt (faded)




                                      114
    Student Project: Activity #7
   2 part Video demonstration of skills.

   Segment 1: Behavior reduction-
    demonstration of PBS for problem behavior.
    Prevent Teach Respond

   Segment 2: Skill building- demonstration
    of discrete trial teaching



                                               115
  Problems with PROMPTs




Too     Too    Don’t   Forget
early   late   know    use of
                how     DR
                 to
                fade
                 out
                                116
Order of Prompts
 Full physical assistance


Partial physical assistance


     Gesture/model


      Prepositional


          Verbal

                              117
            2 ways to Fade a Prompt
                                  TYPE: reduce
TIME: reduce time
                               intensity or prompt
 delay from Sd to
                              or move to next level
      prompt
                                   of assistance


          TRIAL 1 (0 sec)             Trial 1: FP
   Sd..Prompt response            Sd….prompt response

          TRIAL 2 (2 sec)             Trial 2: PP
        Sd….Prompt response       Sd….prompt response

         TRIAL 3 (4 sec)              Trial 3: M
       Sd…..Prompt response       Sd….prompt response

                                                      118
 2 ways to transfer prompt to Sd

                              2) Within
1) Extra
                              Stimulus
Prompt
                               Prompt
     Anything you do or               Using already
     add to help person               present stimulus
     respond                          and exaggerating or
                                      defining in some way


                                      Examples: Pivotal
     Examples: Help                   response training
     person perform,                  (PTR), make features
     model, point, move,              bigger or more
     verbal, raise eyebrows           pronounced,
                                      distinctive feature




                                                             119
Extra Vs Within Stimulus Prompts
Example skill                   Extra Prompt                    Within Stimulus Prompt
  HtTCwA book page 20               Sd: find horizontal                  Sd: find horizontal
                                  Prompts: prepositional         Prompts: Fade in and highlight
   select horizontal dots.                 prompt               relevant features (size and position
                                      Gesture prompt                 of dots in systematic way)
                                Errorless teaching (removal
                                        of distracter)
          Study:
Teaching child to branch out           Sd: “go play”                        Sd: “go play”
   from repetitive play to       Prompts: point to kitchen      Prompt: Distributed several articles
 experience and play with        center, physically guide to     child liked such as flashing toys,
 various centers in school.      kitchen center, “go play at     mirrors, etc, to “lure” child to go to
  Wanted child to play in             kitchen center.”                       the center.
dramatic play area- kitchen


           Study:
Teaching child to engage in        Sd: “play with friends”             Sd: “Play with friends.”
same activity that peers are    Prompts: pointing to friends,    Prompts: Place squares around
   engaging in instead of       physical guidance to friends,   table for peers to stand on, one left
withdraw and repetitive self-    indirect/direct verbal ‘what      empty for child. Empty square
stimulatory behaviors. Using      are your friends doing/go          signals to child the correct
      a sensory table                   with friends.”             response. Fade out square by
                                                                  making smaller and smaller until
                                                                                gone
                                                                                                    120
    Instructional Procedure #2:
             SHAPING
 Procedure to teach NEW behavior or
  strengthen a WEAK one
 What is the SKILL and how can you break
  it down into smaller attainable parts?
 Focus is on reinforcing successive
  approximations of behavior
 Uses differential R+




                                        121
               Origins of Shaping
   Behavior is behavior- animals, people all
    organisms
 Antecedent         Behavior         Consequence
              1) Left hand moves
              2) Raise off table
              3) Raised in air
              4) Raised at tilt
Criticize     5) Raised and lowered Skinner turn
findings         in consecutive     toward and nod
                 motions
              6) Chopping air with
                 left hand




                                                     122
                   Shaping examples
      Antecedent              Behavior              Consequence
                     1)   Flick it
                     2)   Flick harder
Tv flickers          3)   Hit with palm                tv back on
                     4)   Hit with fist
                     5)   Beat tv
                     1)   Walk 10 minutes
                     2)   Walk 20 minutes
                     3)   Walk/jog 20 minutes
Exercise time        4)   Jog 10 minutes               Endorphin
                     5)   Jog 20 minutes        increase, lose weight,
                     6)   Jog/run 30 minutes         clothes fit
                     7)   Run 30 minutes
                     1.   Dimmer on 10
                     2.   Dimmer on 8
Time for bed         3.   Dimmer on 6            Verbal praise, extra
                     4.   Dimmer on 4           story, added R+ next
                     5.   Dimmer on 2                  morning
                     6.   Dimmer on 1
                     7.   Dimmer on 0                                   123
                  Misuse of Shaping
     Antecedent             Behavior            Consequence
                    1) Whine
                    2) Whine and cry
Child hungry        3) Whine cry and scream
Dinner cooking      4) Whine cry scream and   Cookie
                       hit
                    5) Fall to floor and
                       tantrum




                                                              124
Group Presentations: Shaping
  Antecedent   Behavior   Consequence




                                        125
Instructional Procedure #3: Chaining
 Teaching a series of behaviors in a specific
  order
 Linking together a series of already
  mastered responses
 Completion of a step serves as cue for next
  step
 Requires a task analysis




                                             126
        Forward                      Backward                         Global
1. Finished eating/dirty     15. Finished eating/dirty      4. Finished eating/dirty
    dish                          dish                           dish
2. Take all dishes to sink   14. Take all dishes to sink    5. Take all dishes to sink
3. Plug drain                13. Plug drain                 9. Plug drain
4. Turn on warm water        12. Turn on warm water         10. Turn on warm water
    and fill to line              and fill to line               and fill to line
5. 2 squirts of soap         11. 2 squirts of soap          2. 2 squirts of soap
6. Place dishes in sink      10. Place dishes in sink       6. Place dishes in sink
7. Wipe food from dish       9. Wipe food from dish         8. Wipe food from dish
    with sponge                   with sponge                    with sponge
8. Place dish in             8. Place dish in dishwasher    7. Place dish in dishwasher
    dishwasher (repeat 7-         (repeat 8-9 till dishes        (repeat 7-8 till dishes
    8 till dishes gone)           gone)                          gone)
9. Open soap drawer          7. Open soap drawer            11. Open soap drawer
10. Take out detergent       6. Take out detergent          12. Take out detergent
11. Open detergent           5. Open detergent              13. Open detergent
12. Fill dispenser with      4. Fill dispenser with soap    1. Fill dispenser with
    soap                     3. Close drawer                     soap
13. Close drawer             2. Close dishwasher            14. Close drawer
14. Close dishwasher         1. Push start button           15. Close dishwasher
15. Push start button                                       3. Push start button
                                                                                      127
             Group Activity
1.   Perform a task analysis
2.   Indentify Sd, behavior Consequence
3.   Prompts you will use and fading
     procedure
4.   Forward, Backward or global




                                          128
Instructional Procedure #4: Errorless
               Learning
  Keep value of reinforcer high and value of
   escape/avoidance low
  Keep learner successful and
   teaching/learning an improving set of
   conditions
  Systematically sequence discriminations in
   an easy to difficult method



                                            129
                             Example
1) Match picture of item to item- identical
    1. Chip      2. ball   3. string  4. milk              5. blanket

    6. Fan       7. bread    8. juice    9. Play-dough   10. water

    11. Meat     12. rice    13. cracker 14. noodle      15. candy

    16. Swing   17. cookie
2) Match picture of item to picture- identical

3) Match picture of item to representational (categorize)

4) Match representational picture to item

5) Shrink picture to 2x2 and receptively select when shown
item/verbal

5) 2x2 picture identification given verbal
                                                                        130
             Group Activity
 Choose one discrimination task that a
  member of the group is currently working
  on with a student
 Order steps to teach the discrimination in
  an easy to hard sequence
 Present to class (designate 1 person to
  speak and 1 person to write out steps on
  public white board)



                                               131
Instructional Procedure #5:
     Intermixing trials




                              132

				
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