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					      Definitions, Synonyms, Meanings

References: Black’s Law
  Dictionary Sixth edition,
Order, Command; often capitalized Logos; Gospel, the expressed or manifested mind and
will of God; Saying, Proverb; Promise, Declaration; Something that is said; Talk, Discourse;
The text of a vocal musical composition; A brief remark or conversation; A speech sound or
series of speech sounds that symbolizes and communicates a meaning usually without
being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use; The entire set of linguistic
forms produced by combining a single base with various inflectional elements without
change in the part of speech elements; A written or printed character or combination of
characters representing a spoken ; Any segment of written or printed discourse ordinarily
appearing between spaces or between a space and a punctuation mark

Synonyms: expression, term

Words. Symbols indicating ideas and subject to contraction and expansion to
meet the idea sought to be expressed. Such have been referred to as labels
whose content and meaning are continually shifting with the times. As used in
law, this term generally signifies the technical terms and phrases appropriate to
particular instruments, or aptly fitted to the expression of a particular intention
of legal instruments. (Black’s Law Sixth)
word (n.) Old English word "speech, talk, utterance, word," from P.Gmc. *wurdan (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian word,
Dutch woord, Old High German, German wort, Old Norse orð, Gothic waurd), from PIE *were- "speak, say" (see verb).
 verb (n.) late 14c., from Old French verbe "part of speech that expresses action or being," from Latin verbum "verb,"
originally "a word," from PIE root *were- (cf. Avestan urvata- "command;" Sanskrit vrata- "command, vow;" Greek
rhetor "public speaker," rhetra "agreement, covenant," eirein "to speak, say;" Hittite weriga- "call, summon;" Lithuanian
vardas "name;" Gothic waurd, Old English word "word").
1: an authoritative summary of faith or doctrine : creed 2: something that
stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship, association,
convention, or accidental resemblance; especially : a visible sign of something
invisible 3: an arbitrary or conventional sign used in writing or printing
relating to a particular field to represent operations, quantities, elements,
relations, or qualities 4: an object or act representing something in the
unconscious mind that has been repressed 5: an act, sound, or object having
cultural significance and the capacity to excite or objectify a response

symbol (n.) early 15c., "creed, summary, religious belief," from Late Latin symbolum "creed, token,
mark," from Greek symbolon "token, watchword" (applied c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the
Apostles' Creed, on the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans), lit. "that
which is thrown or cast together," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + bole "a throwing, a casting, the
stroke of a missile, bolt, beam," from bol-, nom. stem of ballein "to throw" (see ballistics). The sense
evolution in Greek is from "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used
in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Hence, "outward sign" of something. The
meaning "something which stands for something else" first recorded 1590 (in "Faerie Queene").

Synonyms: ensign, hallmark, impresa, logo, emblem, totem, trademark

1: an act of determining; specifically : the formal proclamation of a Roman Catholic
dogma 2a : a statement expressing the essential nature of something b : a statement
of the meaning of a word or word group or a sign or symbol c : a product of defining
3: the action or process of stating the meaning of a word or word group 4a : the action
or the power of describing, explaining, or making definite and clear b (1) : clarity of
visual presentation : distinctness of outline or detail (2) : clarity especially of musical
sound in reproduction c : sharp demarcation of outlines or limits

definition (n) late 14c., "decision, setting of boundaries," from Old French definicion, from
Latin definitionem (nom. definitio), noun of action from pp. stem of definire (see define).
In logic, meaning "act of stating what something means" is from 1640s; meaning "a
statement of the essential nature of something" is from late 14c.; the special focus on words
developed after c.1550. Meaning "degree of distinctness of the details in a picture" is from

Definitio – Lat. Definition, or more strictly, limiting or bounding (Blacks Law 6th Ed.)

Synonyms: description, delineation, depiction, picture, portrait, portraiture, portrayal,
rendering, sketch, vignette
Etymology: from Latin dictionarium "dictionary," from earlier diction-, dictio- "words, speaking," from
dicere "to say" --related to DICTATE

1 : a reference source in print or electronic form giving information about the meanings, forms,
pronunciations, uses, and origins of words listed in alphabetical order
2 : a reference book that lists in alphabetical order terms or names important to a particular subject along
with explanations of their meanings and uses 3 : a reference book giving words of one language and their
meanings in another
dictionary (n. 1520s, from Medieval Latin dictionarium "collection of words and phrases," from Latin
dictionarius "of words," from dictio "word" (see diction). Probably first English use in title of a book was
in Sir Thomas Elyot's "Latin Dictionary" (1538) though Latin Dictionarius was so used from early 13c.
Synonyms: lexicon, wordbook


1 : verbal description 2 : choice of words especially with regard to correctness,
clearness, or effectiveness 3 a : vocal expression : enunciation (to make a definite
or systematic statement of; announce, proclaim) 2 : articulate, pronounce b :
pronunciation and enunciation of words in singing
diction (n.) 1540s, "a word;" 1580s, "expression of ideas in words," from Late Latin dictionem (nom.
dictio) "a saying, expression, word," noun of action from dic-, pp. stem of Latin dicere "speak, tell, say,"
related to dicare "proclaim, dedicate," from PIE root *deik- "to point out" (cf. Sanskrit dic- "point out,
show," Greek deiknynai "to prove," Latin digitus "finger," Old High German zeigon, German zeigen "to
show," Old English teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").
1. Treasury, Storehouse 2. a book of words or of information about a
particular field or set of concepts; especially : a book of words and their
synonyms 3. a list of subject headings or descriptors usually with a cross-
reference system for use in the organization of a collection of documents
for reference and retrieval
Synonyms: description, delineation, depiction, picture, portrait, portraiture,
portrayal, rendering, sketch, vignette

Thesaurus, thesaurium – The treasury; a treasure (Black’s Law 6th Edition)

thesaurus (n.) 1823, "treasury, storehouse," from Latin thesaurus "treasury,
treasure," from Greek thesauros "a treasure, treasury, storehouse, chest," from
root of tithenai "to put, to place." The meaning "encyclopedia filled with
information" is from 1840, but existed earlier as thesaurarie (1590s), used as a
title by early dictionary compilers. Meaning "collection of words arranged
according to sense" is first attested 1852 in Roget's title. Thesaur is attested in
Middle English with the meaning "treasure" (15c.-16c.).
1 a : the way in which linguistic elements (as words) are put together to form
constituents (as phrases or clauses) b : the part of grammar dealing with this

2: a connected or orderly system : harmonious arrangement of parts or

3: syntactics especially as dealing with the formal properties of languages or
calculi (calculi - a system or arrangement of intricate or interrelated parts)

c.1600, from French syntaxe, from Late Latin syntaxis, from Greek syntaxis "a
putting together or in order, arrangement, syntax," from stem of syntassein "put
in order," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + tassein "arrange" (see tactics).
Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the
formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts. In English,
the main device for showing this relationship is word order; for example, “The boy
loves his dog” follows standard subject-verb-object word order, and switching the
order of such a sentence would change the meaning or make the sentence
meaningless. Word order is much more flexible in languages such as Latin, in
which word endings indicate the case of a noun or adjective; such inflections make
it unnecessary to rely on word order to indicate a word's function in the sentence.

1 a : to fix conclusively or authoritatively b : to decide by judicial sentence c : to
settle or decide by choice of alternatives or possibilities d : resolve

2 a : to fix the form, position, or character of beforehand : ordain b : to bring
about as a result : regulate

3 a : to fix the boundaries of b : to limit in extent or scope c : to put or set an end
to : terminate

4: to find out or come to a decision about by investigation, reasoning, or
calculation 5: to bring about the determination of

*intransitive verb 1: to come to a decision 2: to come to an end or become void
Middle English, from Anglo-French determiner, from Latin determinare, from de- + terminare to limit,
from terminus boundary, limit. determine (v.) mid-14c., "to come to an end," also "to settle, decide" (late
14c.), from Old French determiner (12c.) or directly from Latin determinare "to enclose, bound, set limits
to," from de- "off" (see de-) + terminare "to mark the end or boundary," from terminus "end, limit" (see
terminus). Sense of "coming to a firm decision" (to do something) is from mid-15c. Related: Determined;
determining; determiner.
Synonyms: adjudge, adjudicate, arbitrate, decide, judge, referee, rule (on), settle, umpire
1a : a place in which stores of wealth are kept b : the place of deposit and disbursement of
collected funds; especially : one where public revenues are deposited, kept, and disbursed
c : funds kept in such a depository
2a capitalized : a governmental department in charge of finances and especially the
collection, management, and expenditure of public revenues b : the building in which the
business of such a governmental department is transacted 3: a government security (as a
note or bill) issued by the Treasury 4: a repository for treasures
treasury (n.) late 13c., "room for treasure," from Old French tresorie (11c.), from tresor (see treasure). Meaning
"department of state that controls public revenue" is recorded from late 14c. An Old English word for "room for treasure"
was maðm-hus.

1: wealth (as money, jewels, or precious metals) stored up or hoarded : wealth of any kind or in
any form : riches : a store of money in reserve 2: something of great worth or value; also : a person
esteemed as rare or precious 3: a collection of precious things
Treasure: Transitive verb
1 : to collect and store up (something of value) for future use : hoard
2: to hold or keep as precious : cherish, prize
treasure (n.) mid-12c., from Old French tresor "treasury, treasure" (11c.), from Gallo-Romance *tresaurus, from Latin
thesaurus "treasury, treasure" (cf. Spanish, Italian tesoro), from Greek thesauros "store, treasure, treasure house" (see
thesaurus). Replaced Old English goldhord. General sense of "anything valued" is recorded from c.1200. Treasure hunt is
first recorded 1913. For treasure trove, see trove. treasure (v.) late 14c., "to amass treasure; to store up for the future," also
figurative, from treasure (n.). Related: Treasured; treasuring.
Synonyms: boast, credit, crown jewel, honor, jewel, pride, glory, trophy, appreciate, cherish, prize, love,
That which is laid down, ordained, or established. A rule of method according to which
phenomena or actions co-exist or follow each other. Law, in its generic sense, is a body of rules of
action or conduct prescribed by controlling authority, and having legal force. That which must be
obeyed and followed by citizens subject to sanctions or legal consequences is a law. Law is a
solemn (formal, traditional, ceremonial) expression of the will of the supreme power of the state.
(Black’s Law 6th Edition)
1a (1) : a binding custom or practice of a community : a rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally
recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority (2) : the whole body of such customs,
practices, or rules (3) : common law b (1) : the control brought about by the existence or enforcement of
such law (2) : the action of laws considered as a means of redressing wrongs; also : litigation (3) : the
agency of or an agent of established law c : a rule or order that it is advisable or obligatory to observe
d : something compatible with or enforceable by established law e : control, authority

2a) often capitalized : the revelation of the will of God set forth in the Old Testament b) capitalized :
the first part of the Jewish scriptures : pentateuch, torah

law (n.) Old English lagu (plural laga, comb. form lah-) "law, ordinance, rule, regulation; district
governed by the same laws," from Old Norse *lagu "law," collective plural of lag "layer,
measure, stroke," lit. "something laid down or fixed," from P.Gmc. *lagan "put, lay" (see lay (v.)).
Replaced Old English æ and gesetnes, which had the same sense development as law. Cf. also
statute, from Latin statuere; German Gesetz "law," from Old High German gisatzida; Lithuanian
istatymas, from istatyti "set up, establish." In physics, from 1660s. Law and order have been
coupled since 1796.
Synonyms: act, bill, constitution, enactment, ordinance, statute Related Words: command, commandment, decree,
dictate, directive, edict, fiat, ruling; bylaw, ground rule, regulation, rule; amendment, legislation; common law, martial
law; blue law; prohibition, proscription, restriction; canon, capitulary, encyclical
1a : the cogency of evidence that compels acceptance by the mind of a truth or a fact
b : the process or an instance of establishing the validity of a statement especially by derivation from
other statements in accordance with principles of reasoning 2 obsolete : experience 3: something that
induces certainty or establishes validity 4 archaic : the quality or state of having been tested or tried;
especially : unyielding hardness 5: evidence operating to determine the finding or judgment of a
The effect of evidence; the establishment of a fact by evidence. Any fact or circumstance which leads
the mind to the affirmative or negative of any proposition. The conviction or persuasion of the mind of
a judge or jury, by the exhibition of evidence, of the reality of a fact alleged. The establishment by
evidence of a requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the mind of the trier of fact or the court.
(Black’s Law 6th)

proof (n.) early 13c., preove "evidence to establish the fact of (something)," from Old French prueve
(early 13c.), from Late Latin proba "a proof," a back-formation from Latin probare "to prove" (see
prove). Meaning "act of testing or making trial of anything" is from late 14c. Sense of "tested
power" led to fireproof (early 17c.), waterproof (1736), foolproof (1902), etc. Meaning "standard of
strength of distilled liquor" is from 1705. Typographical sense of "trial impression to test type" is
from c.1600. Numismatic sense of "coin struck to test a die" is from 1762; now mostly in reference to
coins struck from highly polished dies, mainly for collectors.
‘something presented in support of the truth or accuracy of a claim’

Synonyms: attestation, confirmation, corroboration, documentation, evidence,
substantiation, testament, testimonial, testimony, validation, voucher, witness

1 a : an outward sign : indication b : something that furnishes proof : testimony;
specifically : something legally submitted to a tribunal to ascertain the truth of a
matter 2: one who bears witness; especially : one who voluntarily confesses a
crime and testifies for the prosecution against his accomplices
-in evidence 1: to be seen : conspicuous
evidence (n.) c.1300, "appearance from which inferences may be drawn," from Old French evidence,
from Late Latin evidentia "proof," originally "distinction, clearness," from Latin evidentem (see evident).
Meaning "ground for belief" is from late 14c., that of "obviousness" is 1660s. Legal senses are from
c.1500, when it began to oust witness. As a verb, from c.1600. Related: Evidenced; evidencing.

In law, something (e.g., testimony, documents, or physical objects) presented at a judicial or
administrative proceeding for the purpose of establishing the truth or falsity of an allegation of fact. To
preserve legal due process and to prevent the jury from being misled, an extensive body of rules has
sprung up regarding the handling of evidence. In the U.S., all federal and many state courts adhere to
the Federal Rules of Evidence, which covers such elements as types of evidence, admissibility,
relevance, competency of witnesses, confessions and admissions, expert testimony, and authentication.
Most evidence received at trial is in the form of verbal statements of witnesses, who are subject to
questioning by attorneys from both sides. Two important categories of evidence are direct evidence,
which is offered by a witness whose knowledge of a factual matter is firsthand (as through sight or
hearing), and circumstantial evidence. See also exclusionary rule.

Synonyms: attestation, confirmation, corroboration, documentation, proof,
substantiation, testament, testimonial, testimony, validation, voucher, witness
Evidence Continued : (Black’s Law 6th Edition)
Any species of proof, or probative matter, legally presented at the trial of an issue, by the act of
the parties and through the medium of witnesses, records, documents, exhibits, concrete
objects, etc. for the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the court or jury as to their
contention. Testimony, writings, or material objects offered in proof of an alleged fact or
proposition. That probative material, legally received, by which the tribunal may be lawfully
persuaded of the truth or falsity of a fact in issue. Testimony, writings, material objects, or
other things presented to the senses that are offered to prove the existence or nonexistence of a
fact. As a part of procedure “evidence” signifies those rules of law whereby it is determined
what testimony should be admitted and what should be rejected in each case, and what is the
weight to be given to the testimony admitted. See evidence rules

There are, generally speaking, two types of evidence from which a jury may properly find
the truth as to the facts of a case. One is direct evidence – such as the testimony of an
eyewitness. The other is indirect or circumstantial evidence – the proof of a chain of
circumstances pointing to the existence of non-existence of certain facts. As a general rule,
the law makes no distinction between direct and circumstantial evidence, but simply
requires that the jury find the facts in accordance with the preponderance of all the evidence
in the case, both direct and circumstantial.
Preponderance of the evidence. A standard of proof (used in many civil suits) which is met
when a party’s evidence on a fact indicates that it is “more likely than not” that the fact is
as the party alleges it to be.
Proper evidence – Such evidence as may be presented under the rules established by law and recognized by
the courts, i.e. admissible evidence, material, relevant evidence.

1: a character assumed by an author in a written work 2a plural personas [New Latin, from
Latin] : an individual's social facade or front that especially in the analytic psychology of C. G.
Jung reflects the role in life the individual is playing — compare anima b : the personality that a
person (as an actor or politician) projects in public : image 3 plural personae : a character in a
fictional presentation (as a novel or play) —usually used in plural <comic personae>

Lat. In the civil law, character in virtue of which certain right belong to a man and certain duties are
imposed upon him. Thus one man unite many characters (personae), as, for example, the characters of
father and son, of master and servant (Black’s Law 6th)

1917, "outward or social personality," a Jungian psychology term, from Latin persona
"person" (see person). Used earlier (1909) by Ezra Pound in the sense "literary character
representing voice of the author." Persona grata is Late Latin, lit. "an acceptable person,"
originally applied to diplomatic representatives acceptable to the governments to which they
were sent; hence also persona non grata (plural personæ non gratæ).

Persona conjuncta aequiparatur interesse proprio. A personal connection [literally, a united person,
union with a person] is equivalent to one’s own interest; nearness of blood is as good a consideration
as one’s own interest. (Black’s Law 6th)
definitions related to person – Black’s Law Sixth
Persona designata. A person pointed out or described as an individual, as opposed to a person ascertained as a member of
a class, or as filling a particular character.
Persona est homo cum statu quodam consideratus . A person is a man considered with reference to a certain status.
Person. In general usage, a human being (i.e. natural person), though by statute term may include labor
organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or

Scope and delineation of term is necessary for determining those to whom Fourteenth Amendment of Constitution
affords protection since this Amendment expressly applies to “person”.
Aliens. Aliens are “persons” within the meaning of Fourteenth Amendment and are thus protected by equal
protection clause against discriminatory state action.
Bankruptcy Code. “Person” includes individual, partnership, and corporation, but not governmental unit.

Commercial law. An individual or organization U.C.C 1-201 (30)
Corporation. A corporation is a “person” within meaning of Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process
provisions of United States Constitution. The term “persons” in statute relating to conspiracy to commit offense against
United States, or to defraud United States, or any agency, includes corporation.

In corporate law, “person” includes individual and entity.
Interested person. Includes heirs, devisees, children, spouses, creditors, beneficiaries, and any others having a property
right in or claim against a trust estate or the estate of a decedent, ward or protected person which may be affected by
the proceeding. It also includes persons having priority for appointment as personal representative, and other
fiduciaries representing interested persons. The meaning as it relates to particular persons may vary from time to
time and must be determined according to the particular purposes of, and matter involved in any proceeding.
Uniform Probate Code, 1-201(20)
Labor unions. Labor unions are “persons” under the Sherman Act and the Clayton Act
Municipalities. Municipalities and other government units are “persons” within meaning of 42 U.S.C.A. sec 1983
 meaning : mean·ing
1a : the thing one intends to convey especially by language : purport b : the thing that is
conveyed especially by language : import 2: something meant or intended : aim 3:
significant quality; especially : implication of a hidden or special significance 4a : the logical
connotation of a word or phrase b : the logical denotation or extension of a word or phrase
That which is, or is intended to be, signified or denoted by act or language; signification; sense; import.
See also Construction (Black’s Law Sixth)
Construction. Interpretation of a statute, regulation, court decision or other legal authority. The process, or the art, of
determining the sense, real meaning, or proper explanation of obscure, complex or ambiguous terms or provisions in a statute,
written instrument, or oral agreement, or the application of such subject to the case in question, by reasoning in the light
derived from extraneous connected circumstances or laws or writings bearing upon the same or a connected matter, or by
seeking and applying the probable aim and purpose of the provision. Drawing conclusions respecting subjects that lie beyond
the direct expression of the term. (Black’s Law Sixth)

Constructive. That which is established by the mind of the law in its act of construing facts, conduct, circumstances or
instruments. That which has not the character assigned to it in its own essential nature, but acquires such character in
consequence of the way in which it is regarded by a rule or policy of law; hence, inferred, implied, or made out by legal
interpretation; the word “legal” being sometimes used here in lieu of “constructive”. Constructive contracts are also
referred to as quasi contracts. (Black’s Law Sixth)
meaning (n.)"sense, import, intent," c.1300, from mean (v.).
mean (v.1) "intend, have in mind," Old English mænan "to mean, intend, signify; tell, say; complain,
lament," from West Germanic *mainijan (cf. Old Frisian mena "to signify," Old Saxon menian "to intend,
signify, make known," Dutch menen, German meinen "think, suppose, be of the opinion"), from PIE
*meino- "opinion, intent" (cf. Old Church Slavonic meniti "to think, have an opinion," Old Irish mian
"wish, desire," Welsh mwyn "enjoyment"), perhaps from root *men- "think" (see mind (n.)).

Synonyms: content, denotation, drift, import, intent, intention, purport, sense, significance, signification
                                                     Synonyms: administration, authority, governance,
                                                     government, rule, regime (also régime), regimen
Juris. Lat. Of right; of law

(diction - choice of words especially with regard to correctness, clearness, or
effectiveness [see slide number 5 for more extensive meaning of diction] )

1: the power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law 2a : the authority
of a sovereign power to govern or legislate b : the power or right to exercise
authority : control 3 : the limits or territory within which authority may be

A term of comprehensive import embracing every kind of judicial action. It is the power of the court to decide a
matter in controversy and presupposes the existence of a duly constituted court with the control over the subject
matter and the parties. Jurisdiction defines the powers of courts to inquire into facts, apply the law, make
decisions, and declare judgment. The legal right by which judges exercise their authority. It exists when court
has cognizance of class of cases involved, proper parties are present, and point to be decided is within powers of
court. Power and authority of a court to hear and determine a judicial proceeding; and power to render
particular judgment in question. The right and power of a court to adjudicate concerning the subject matter in a
given case. Areas of authority; the geographic area in which a court has power or types of cases it has power to
hear. Scope and extent of jurisdiction of federal courts is governed by 28 U.S.C.A. sec. 1251. The term may have
different meaning in different contexts. (Black’s Law Sixth)
jurisdiction (n.) early 14c. "administration of justice" (attested from mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Old
French juridiccion (13c.) and directly from Latin iurisdictionem (nom. iurisdictio) "administration of
justice, jurisdiction," from ius (genitive iuris; see jurist) "right, law" + dictio "a saying" (see diction).
Meaning "extent or range of administrative power" is from late 14c. Related: Jurisdictional.
1 - the residence of a ruler <Hampton Court was the imposing residence of King Henry VIII>
Synonyms: palace Related Words : castle, château, estate, mansion, villa; alcazar, seraglio
2 - an open space wholly or partly enclosed (as by buildings or walls) Synonyms close, courtyard,
enclosure (also inclosure), patio, quad, quadrangle, yard Related Words : atrium, galleria, parvis (also
parvise), peristyle; forecourt, place, plaza, square; deck, terrace; curtilage
3 - an assembly of persons for the administration of justice <this court is now called to order>
Synonyms : bar, bench, forum, tribunal Related Words : criminal court, judicatory, judicature, judiciary;
high court, supreme court; court-martial, drumhead court-martial; inquisition, kangaroo court Phrases :
court of law
4 - a public official having authority to decide questions of law <if it please the court, I'd like to
approach the bench> Synonyms : adjudicator, beak [chiefly British], bench, court, jurist, justice,
magistrate Related Words : chief justice, circuit judge, justice of the peace, squire; auditor, master;
jurisconsult, jurisprudent

An organ of the government, belonging to the judicial department, whose function is the
application of the laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice.
An organized body with defined powers, meeting at certain times and places for the hearing and
decision of causes and other matters brought before it, and aided in this, its proper business, by its
proper officers, viz., attorneys and counsel to present and manage the business, clerks to record
and attest its acts and decisions, and ministerial officers to execute its commands, and secure due
order in its proceedings. (Black’s Law Sixth – see for more extensive definition)

court (n.) late 12c., from Old French cort (11c., Modern French cour) "king's court, princely residence," from Latin cortem,
accusative of cors (earlier cohors) "enclosed yard," and by extension (and perhaps by association with curia "sovereign's
assembly"), "those assembled in the yard; company, cohort," from com- "together" (see com-) + stem hort- related to
hortus "garden, plot of ground" (see yard (n.1)). Sporting sense is from 1510s, originally of tennis. Legal meaning is from
late 13c. (early assemblies for justice were overseen by the sovereign personally).
1 a : to ask for especially as a right <claimed the inheritance> b : to call for : require <this matter claims
our attention> c : take <the accident claimed her life>
2: to take as the rightful owner
3a : to assert in the face of possible contradiction : maintain <claimed that he'd been cheated>
b : to claim to have c : to assert to be rightfully one's own <claimed responsibility for the attack>
To demand as one’s own or a one’s right; to assert; to urge; to insist. A cause of action. Means by or
through which claimant obtains possession or enjoyment of privilege or thing. Demand for money or
property as of right. With respect to claims to a negotiable instrument of which a holder in due course
takes free, the term “claim” means any interest or remedy recognized in law or equity that creates in the
claimant a right to the interest or its proceeds. (Black’s Law Sixth – see for more on “claim”)
Claim of ownership, right and title. As regards adverse possession, claim of land as one’s own to hold it for oneself. Claim
of right, claim of title, and claim of ownership are synonymous (Black’s Law Sixth)

claim (n.) early 14c., from Old French claime, from clamer (see claim (v.)). Meaning "piece of land
allotted and taken" (chiefly U.S. and Australia, in reference to mining) is from 1851. Insurance sense
is from 1878.
claim (v.) c.1300, from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, claim, name, describe," from Latin
clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE *kele- (2) "to shout," onomatopoeic (cf. Sanskrit
usakala "cock," lit. "dawn-calling;" Latin calare "to announce solemnly, call out;" Middle Irish cailech
"cock;" Greek kalein "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" Old High German halan "to
call;" Old English hlowan "to low, make a noise like a cow;" Lithuanian kalba "language"). Related:
Claimed; claiming. Claim properly should not stray too far from its true meaning of "to demand
recognition of a right.“
claimant (n.) 1747, from claim (v.), on model of appellant, defendant, etc.
A mark, style or designation; a distinctive appelatio,n the name by which anything is known. Thus in
the law of persons, a title is an appelation of dignity or distinction, a name denoting the social rank of
the person bearing it.

Real Property Law – The formal right of ownership of property. Title is the means
whereby the owner of lands has the just possession of his property. The union of all the
elements which constitute ownership. Full independent and fee ownership. The right to
or ownership in land; also the evidence of such ownership. Such ownership may be
held individually, jointly, in common, or in cooperate or partnership form. One who
holds vested rights in property is said to have title whether he holds them for his own
benefit or for the benefit of another. (Black’s Law Sixth)

title (v.) "to furnish with a title," late 14c., from title (n.). Related: Titled; titling. title (n.)
c.1300, "inscription, heading," from Old French title (12c.), and in part from Old English
titul, both from Latin titulus "inscription, heading," of unknown origin. Meaning "name of
a book, play, etc." first recorded mid-14c. The sense of "name showing a person's rank" is
first attested 1580s.
a (1) : right, title, or legal share in something (2) : participation in advantage and responsibility b : business,
company 2 a : a charge for borrowed money generally a percentage of the amount borrowed
b : the profit in goods or money that is made on invested capital c : an excess above what is due or expected
<returned the insults with interest> 3 : advantage, benefit; also : self-interest 4 : special interest 5 a : a feeling that
accompanies or causes special attention to an object or class of objects : concern b : something that arouses such
attention c : a quality in a thing arousing interest

The most general term that can be employed to denote a right, claim, title, or legal share in something. In
its application to real estate or things real, it is frequently used in connection with the terms “estate”,
“right” and “title”. More particularly it means a right to have the advantage accruing from anything; any
right in the nature of property, but less than title. (Black’s Law Sixth)

interest (n.) mid-15c., "legal claim or right; concern; benefit, advantage;" earlier interesse
(late 14c.), from Anglo-French interesse "what one has a legal concern in," from Medieval
Latin interesse "compensation for loss," noun use of Latin interresse "to concern, make a
difference, be of importance," lit. "to be between," from inter- "between" (see inter-) + esse
"to be" (see essence). Cf. German Interesse, from the same Medieval Latin source. Form in
English influenced 15c. by French interest "damage," from Latin interest "it is of importance,
it makes a difference," third person singular present of interresse. Financial sense of "money
paid for the use of money lent" (1520s) earlier was distinguished from usury (illegal under
Church law) by being in reference to "compensation due from a defaulting debtor."
Meaning "curiosity" is first attested 1771. Interest group is attested from 1907; interest rate
by 1868.

right (n.) Old English riht (West Saxon, Kentish), reht (Anglian), "that which is
morally right," also "rule of conduct; law of a land;" also "what someone
deserves; a just claim; a legal entitlement." Also "the right" (as opposed to the
left), from the root of right (adj.1). From early 14c. as "a right action, a good
deed." The phrase to rights "at once, straightway" is 1660s, from sense "in a
proper manner" (Middle English).

being in agreement with the truth or a fact or a standard.
1 : something to which one has a just claim <everyone has the right to life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness> Synonyms: appanage (also apanage),
birthright, prerogative. Related Words : call, dibs, due, entitlement, perquisite,
pretense (or pretence), pretension, privilege 2 : an entitlement to something
<what right do you have to tell us what to do. Related Words : birthright,
prerogative, title; favor, privilege; refusal. 3 : the practice of giving to others
what is their due <activists who have fought all their lives for right> Synonyms
equity, fair shake.
The utility of an object in satisfying, directly or indirectly, the needs or desires of human
beings, called by economists “value in use”, or its worth consisting in the power of
purchasing other objects, called “value in exchange.” To estimate the worth of, to rate at
a certain price; to appraise. Any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract. The
term is often used as an abbreviation for “valuable consideration” especially in the
phrases “purchaser for value”, “holder for value”, etc. (Black’s Law Sixth)
value (n.) c.1300, from Old French value "worth, value" (13c.), noun use of fem. pp. of
valoir "be worth," from Latin valere "be strong, be well, be of value" (see valiant). The
meaning "social principle" is attested from 1918, supposedly borrowed from the language
of painting. Value judgment (1892) is a loan-translation of German Werturteil.

Under U.C.C. 1-201 (44), a person gives “value” for rights if he acquires them:
(a) in return for a binding commitment to extend credit or for the extension of
immediately available credit whether or not drawn upon and whether or not
a chargeback is provided for in the event of difficulties in collection; or (b) as
security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a pre-existing claim; or (c) by
accepting delivery pursuant to a pre-existing contract for purchase; or (d)
generally, in return for any consideration sufficient to support a simple
security (n.) mid-15c., "condition of being secure," from Latin securitas, from
securus (see secure). Meaning "freedom from care" is from 1550s; that of
"something which secures" is from 1580s; "safety of a state, person, etc." is from
1941. Legal sense of "property in bonds" is from mid-15c.; that of "document
held by a creditor" is from 1680s.
Synonyms : ammunition, armor, buckler, cover, guard, protection, safeguard, screen, security,
shield, wall, ward, gage, guarantee, guaranty, pawn, security, protection, safeness

Related Words : bail, bond; deposit, down payment, earnest, handsel; surety, warranty;
assurance, oath, promise, troth, word; commitment, compact, contract, covenant; recognizance

1: the quality or state of being secure: as a : freedom from danger : safety
b : freedom from fear or anxiety c : freedom from the prospect of being laid off 2 a :
something given, deposited, or pledged to make certain the fulfillment of an obligation b :
surety 3 : an instrument of investment in the form of a document (as a stock certificate or
bond) providing evidence of its ownership 4 a : something that secures : protection b (1) :
measures taken to guard against espionage or sabotage, crime, attack, or escape (2) : an
organization or department whose task is security.
Securities : Stocks, bonds, notes, convertible debentures, warrants, or other documents that represent a share in
a company or a debt owed by a company or government entity. Evidences of obligations to pay money or of
rights to participate in earnings and distribution of corporate assets. Instruments giving to their legal holders
rights to money or other property ; they are therefore instruments which have intrinsic value and are
recognized and used as such in the regular channels of commerce. (Black’s Law Sixth)
Security Continued – this definition from Black’s Law Sixth
Protection, assurance, indemnification. The term is usually applied to an obligation,
pledge, mortgage, deposit, lien, etc. given by a debtor in order to assure the payment or
performance of his debt, by furnishing the creditor with a resource to be used in case of
failure in the principal obligation. Collateral given by debtor to secure the loan. Document
that indicates evidence of indebtedness. The name is also sometimes given to one who
becomes surety or guarantor for another. (see Black’s Law for more on ‘security’)
Secure. To give security, to assure of payment, performance or indemnity; to guaranty or make certain
the payment of a debt or discharge of an obligation. One “secures” his creditor by giving him a lien,
mortgage, pledge, or other security, to be used in case the debtor fails to make payment. Also, not
exposed to danger; safe; so strong; stable or firm as to insure safety and financial security. (Black’s Sixth)

 Security Agreement
 An agreement which creates or provides for a security interest between the
 debtor and a secured party. U.C.C. 9-105(h); Bankruptcy Code 101. An
 agreement granting a creditor a security interest in personal property, which
 security interest is normally perfected either by the creditor taking possession
 of the collateral or by filing financing statements in proper public records. See
 Perfection of security interest; Purchase money security interest; Secured
 transaction; Security interest. (Black’s Law Sixth)
 Security interest
 Interest in property obtained pursuant to security agreement. A form of interest in
 property which provides that the property may be sold on default in order to satisfy the
 obligation for which the security interest is given. A mortgage is used to grant a security
 interest in real property. An interest in personal property or fixtures which secures
 payment or performance of an obligation, U.C.C. 1-201(37), 9-102, including the interest of
 an assignee of the proceeds of a letter of credit, 5-116(2). Lien created by an agreement
 Bankruptcy Code 101. Often, the term “lien” is used as a synonym, although lien most
 commonly refers only to interests providing security that are created by operation of law,
 not through agreement of the debtor and creditor.

The term “security interest” means any interest in property acquired by contract for the purpose of securing payment or
performance of an obligation or indemnifying against loss or liability. A security interest exists at any time, (A) if, at such
time, the property is in existence and the interest has become protected under local law against a subsequent judgment
lien arising out of an unsecured obligation, and (B) to the extent that, at such time, the holder has parted with money or
money’s worth. I.R.C. 6323(h).

 Purchase money security interest. A secured interest which is created when a buyer uses the money of the
 lender to make the purchase and immediately gives to the lender a security interest. U.C.C. 9-107. See
 Mortgage (Purchase money mortgage) (Black’s Law Sixth)

 The rights that a creditor has in the personal property of a debtor that secures an
 obligation : lien
Negotiable instruments
A written and signed unconditional promise or order to pay a specified
sum of money on demand or at a definite time payable to order or
bearer. U.C.C. 3-104(1). To be negotiable within the meaning of U.C.C.
Article 3, an instrument must meet the requirements set out in Section 3-
104: (1) it must be a writing signed by the maker or drawer; it must
contain an (2) unconditional (3) promise (example: note) or order
(example: check) (4) to pay a sum certain in money; (5) it must be payable
to the bearer or to order (examples of instruments payable to order are

(a) “Pay to the order of Jane Doe”; and (b) “Pay Jane Doe or order” and (7) it
must not contain any other promise, order, obligation, or power given by the
maker or drawer except as authorized by Article 3. (See also commercial
paper; negotiation). (Black’s Law Sixth)

Commercial paper. Bills of exhange (i.e., drafts), promissory notes, bank-checks, and other negotiable instruments
for the payment of money, which, by their form and on their face, purport to be such instruments. Short-term,
unsecured promissory notes, generally issued by large well known corporations and finance companies. U.C.C.
Article 3 is the general law governing commercial paper. (Black’s Law Sixth)

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