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					       QUIZ 3
PRONOUNS AND MODIFIERS
           50 points


   PRONOUN CASE, AGREEMENT
    AND REFERENCE ERRORS

       MODIFIER ERRORS
I. Pronouns               (Select the best answer for each of the following questions.)

  1.   Pronouns are declined by case, number, and
       a.   gender
       b.   person
       c.   antecedent

  2.   Which of the following is a possessive personal pronoun?
       a.   mine
       b.   my
       c.   myself

  3.   Which of the following contains only indefinite pronouns?
       a.   anyone; several; some; nobody
       b.   any book; a few ideas; both; no one person
       c.   some luck; someone; none; all men

  4.   Which of the following is not a proper reflexive pronoun?
       a.   yourself
       b.   itself
       c.   themself

  5.   Which of the following is not an interrogative pronoun?
       a.   whenever            “Whenever” is like “however”: in some cases, it’s an adverb: “Whenever possible, he
       b.   whichever           gives to charitable causes”; in other cases, it’s a subordinating conjunction that creates
       c.   whatever            adverb clauses: “Whenever he can afford it, he gives to charitable causes.” It can be
                                      used in questions, but never as an interrogative pronoun, and it’s usually expressed as
                                      two words, not one: “When ever do you have the time for charitable work?”
II. Pronoun Case & Type Select the best answer for each of the following questions.
   Although you have the same make, model and color as me, mine has
   mudguards and your car has a small dent in its front right fender.
     6.    The word "you" in this sentence is
           a.   a 2nd person object pronoun
           b.   a 2nd person subject pronoun
           c.   a 1st person abject pronoun
                                                                    Case Error
     7.    The word "me" is                                         The object pronoun “me” isn’t parallel in
           a.   correctly used as a 1st person object pronoun       case to the subject pronoun “you”; the full
           b.   correctly used as a 1st person subject pronoun      phrasing of the clause should read,
                                                                    “Although you have the same make, model
           c.   incorrectly used; should be 1st person subject case and color as I [have]…,” and not “as me
     8.    The word "mine” is                                       have.”
           a.    a 1st person personal possessive pronoun
           b.    a plural possessive pronoun
           c.    a singular possessive adjective
     9.    The word "your” is
           a.   a 2nd person personal possessive pronoun
           b.   a 2nd person subject pronoun
           c.   a 2nd person possessive adjective
     10.   The word "its"
           a.   should have an apostrophe (it's)
           b.   should not have an apostrophe                           “It’s” (with an apostrophe) is always a
           c.                                                           contraction for “it is.”
                isn't a person and therefore not identified by its person as other pronouns are
II. Pronoun Case & Type Select the best answer for each of the following questions.
   To each his own, but we should give to all that which is fair.

     11.   In the sentence above, “own” is a possessive reflexive pronoun. The other six pronouns used
           (including possessive adjectives) are
           a.     each; is; all; but; we; which
           b.     each; his; we; all; that; which
           c.     we; should; to; all; which; is
     12.   The two indefinite pronouns in this sentence are
           a.    his; all
           b.    each; his
           c.    each; all
     13.   The one possessive adjective in this sentence is
           a.    his
           b.    all
           c.    which
     14.   The word ”which" in this sentence is
           a.   a demonstrative pronoun
           b.   a relative pronoun
           c.   an interrogative pronoun
                                                              “Which” is relative to the demonstrative pronoun “that.”
     15.   The word ”that" in this sentence is                “That” begins a noun clause acting as the direct object of
           a.   a demonstrative pronoun                       the verb “should give”:
           b.   a relative pronoun                            Q.                What should we give?            A.
           c.   a subordinating conjunction                   That.
                                                              Q.                What sort of “that”?            A.
                                                              “That” which is fair.
II. Pronoun Case & Type                            (Select the best answer for each of the following questions.)

  Who said, "He who, himself, gives his alms feeds three: himself, his
  hungering neighbor, and me"?
                                                                                19th c. American Romantic poet James Russell
   16.   The word "Who" that begins this sentence is                            Lowell is the author of this quote. The original
         a.   an interrogative pronoun                                          wording is,
         b.   an interrogative adjective                                        “Who gives himself with his alms feeds three,
                                                                                Himself, his hungering neighbor, and me.”
         c.   a relative pronoun
   17.   The word "himself," used twice in the quotation, is                    To paraphrase:
                                                                                “In giving alms to others, he, himself, feeds
         a.   both times a reflexive pronoun
                                                                                himself, feeds me, and feeds his hungering
         b.   both times an intensive pronoun                                   neighbor.”
         c.   first an intensive pronoun, and then a reflexive pronoun
   18.   The possessive adjective in this sentence is
         a.    "himself"
         b.    "his"
         c.    "himself" and "his”
   19. The second occurrence of the word "who," used in the
   quotation (“He who, himself, . . .”), is
         a.    an interrogative pronoun
         b.    an interrogative adjective
         c.    a relative pronoun
   20.   The most complete set of pronouns in this sentence is           “His” is actually a possessive adjective. However, all
         a.    he, himself, his, me, who                                 possessive adjectives decline like possessive personal
         b.   .and, himself, his, gives, who
               and,                                                      pronouns. Regardless, answer “A” is still the most
         c.    he, me, said, three, who                                  complete set of pronouns because other answers have
                                                                         even more words that are not pronouns or pronoun-like.
III. Pronoun Case Errors                        (Select the best response to each.)

    21.   This sentence, "To who much is given, much is expected,"
          a.    is grammatical as is, with no changes needed.
          b.    has a pronoun case error: "who" should be "whom."
          c.    has a pronoun case error: "who" should be "whoever."
    22.   This sentence "Between she and I, there is a friendship that cannot be weakened" has a pronoun
          case error. To fix it "she and I" should be
          a.    "she and me."
          b.    "her and I."
          c.    "her and me."
    23.   The sentence "Myself, Randy, and Trevor are taking a weekend fishing trip" has a pronoun case
          error. To fix it "Myself, Randy, and Trevor" should be
          a.     "Randy, Trevor, and I."
          b.     "Randy, Trevor, and myself."
          c.     "Randy, Trevor, and me."
    24.   The sentence "The refreshments were for them, me, and whoever stayed for the reception” is
          a.    grammatical as is, with no changes needed.
          b.    flawed; "them, me, and whoever" should be "they, me, and whoever."
          c.    flawed; "them, me, and whoever" should be "them, me, and whomever."
    25.   The sentence "Every third Thursday of the month, these five lifelong friends always meet at each
          other's house to play cards and chitchat” is
          a.     fine as is, who no changes needed.
          b.     flawed; “each other’s house” should be changed to "one another's house"
          c.     flawed; “each other’s house” should be changed to "each others' houses."
IV. Pronoun Reference
  (Circle the pronoun in each sentence and at left write "V" if the pronoun reference is Vague, "A" if it is Ambiguous, or "C" if it is
  correct. To score a point, each task must be correctly completed; there are no half-points.)



  26.     In the ad for Carl's Jr., they have a famous model ecstatically eating a jalapeno burger.
            PRONOUN: “they”                        FIX 1: remove the unnecessary pronoun and the passive construction.
            REFERENCE ERROR: V (vague)             FIX 2: replace the pronoun with its proper antecedent, “advertisers.”
  27.     When a teacher gives a student a failing grade, he often wonders how those bad test scores could
          have been prevented.
           PRONOUN: “he”
           REFERENCE ERROR: A (ambiguous) FIX: switch the pronoun with its antecedent.
  28.     Regardless of type of pet involved, the first consideration any pet owner makes when training
          companion animals is to make them feel safe.
           PRONOUN: “them”
           REFERENCE: C (correct).               EXPLANATION: “animals” is the only possible plural antecedent for “them.”
  29.     With the noisy construction just outside the door, it took even more concentration and focus to
          finish the test.
            PRONOUN: “it”
            REFERENCE ERROR: V (vague)           FIX 1: remove the unnecessary pronoun and the preposition “With.”
                                                              FIX 2: replace “it” with an antecedent (“finishing the test took even more…”)
  30.     A parent seal stays close to the pup when it goes to sleep.
           PRONOUN: “it”                         FIX 1: move the subordinate clause with “it” before the antecedent “parent.”
            REFERENCE ERROR: A (ambiguous)                    FIX 2: switch the pronoun with the antecedent “pup.”
VI. Pronoun Agreement                                           (Circle the pronoun in each sentence and at left write "N" if the
 pronoun reference is Number Agreement error, "P" if it is a Person Agreement error, or "C" if it is correct. To score a point, each task
 must be completed; no half-points.)



 31.     During one's stay at the hotel, you can enjoy luxuries like spa treatments and gourmet dining.
          PRONOUN: “you” or “one” (either is correct to circle)
          AGREEMENT ERROR: P (person): 2nd person “you” doesn’t agree with 3rd person “one”.

 32.     Any worker on the job site should carry their employee ID with them at all times.
          PRONOUN: “them”or “their” (either is correct to circle)
          AGREEMENT ERROR: N (number): “worker” is singular and “them” (“their”) is plural.

 33.     In our youth, we might all make mistakes you chalk up to immaturity.
           PRONOUN: “you”
           AGREEMENT ERROR: P (person): 1st person “we” (“our”) sets precedent; 2nd person “you” doesn’t agree.

 34.     Often, when a firefighter trains for the job, she may encounter just as many real dangers.
          PRONOUN: “she”
          AGREEMENT: C (correct): when antecedents aren’t gender-specific, a feminine pronoun may be used.

 35.     Even after they retire, a lifelong teacher often will still be active in community education projects.
          PRONOUN: “they”
          AGREEMENT ERROR: N (number): “they” is plural and “teacher” is singular
VII. Modifiers                  (Select the best answer for each of the following questions.)

  36.   Which of the following is not a modifier?
        a.    the participial phrase                                         A verb of any variety is not a modifier, unless it has
        b.    a compound predicate verb                                      been made into a verbal (participles and modifying
        c.    a prepositional phrase                                         infinitives only).
        d.    a possessive adjective
        e.    a definite article
  37.   Which of the following is always true of a dangling modifier?
        a.    It causes a fragment.
        b.    It can't be an infinitive phrase.
        c.    It can be fixed by moving the modifier elsewhere in the sentence.
        d.    It modifies a word or words in a previous sentence.
        e.    It can be fixed by adding the word or words it should modify.
  38.   Which of the following is always true of a misplaced modifier?
        a.    Diagramming it will always solve the problem.
        b.    It doesn't happen in compound sentence parts.
        c.    It can be fixed by moving the modifier's position in the sentence.
        d.    It results from a forgotten or omitted modifier.
        e.    It can be fixed by adding the word or words it should modify.
  39.   Which of the following distinguishes a squinting modifier from a misplaced modifier?
        a.    It can be fixed by moving the modifier's position in the sentence.
        b.    Its placement gives the sentence two possible meanings.
        c.    It's typically adverbial
        d.    Its meaning is determined by the sentence's context.
        e.    It can be fixed by adding more modifying words
  40.   Which of the following is an example of a squinting modifier?
        a.    The missing puppy was found sleeping under the car by the neighbor's eight-year-old.
        b.    Without first discussing its safety, the fraternity prank went ahead as planned.
        c.    All shampoos are not alike.
        d.    Having to swim deeply disturbs some people.                    Which is the intended meaning: “swim deeply” or
        e.    Unfortunately, no one knows what happened.                     “deeply disturbs”?
VII. Modifiers
  (Circle the modifying word or group of words in each sentence that is the source of confusion, and at left write "D" if this is a Dangling modifier, "M" if it is a
  generally Misplaced modifier, or "S" if it is a Squinting modifier. To score a point, each task must be correctly completed; there are no half-points.)

  41.       At the awards ceremony, nervously awaiting word of his award, Arthur's food remained
            untouched on his plate.
             MODIFIER: “nervously awaiting word of his award”
             ERROR: D (dangling)                       Arthur, himself—not his food—is nervously awaiting word of his award.

  42.       At this restaurant wait staff only make earnings from customer tips.
             MODIFIER: “only”
             ERROR: S (squinting)                       Which is the intended meaning: “wait staff only” or “only make earnings””?

  43.       She spotted her best friend driving to the movie theater.
             MODIFIER: “driving to the movie theater”
             ERROR: M (misplaced)                       Does the modifying phrase refer to “She” or to “her best friend”?

  44.       The grandkids pitched in and bought a white Labrador for their grandmother at a rescue
            shelter.
             MODIFIER: “at a rescue shelter”
             ERROR: M (misplaced)                    Does the modifying phrase refer to “Labrador” or to “grandmother”?

  45.       Being a fan of the novels, The Hunger Games movies could be a disappointment.
             MODIFIER: “Being a fan of the novels”
             ERROR: D (dangling)                    Moviegoers, not the movies, themselves, are “being fans of the novels.”
VII. Modifiers
  (Circle the modifying word or group of words in each sentence that is the source of confusion, and at left write "D" if this is a Dangling modifier, "M" if it is a
  generally Misplaced modifier, or "S" if it is a Squinting modifier. To score a point, each task must be correctly completed; there are no half-points.)

  46.       Although parenthood is praised in every culture, it's clear that all children are not wanted.
             MODIFIER: “not”
             ERROR: M (misplaced)                       “not all children are wanted”


  47.       We almost drove the car on an empty gas tank.
             MODIFIER: “almost”
             ERROR: M (misplaced)                      “almost empty gas tank”

  48.       Quickly turning the key in the ignition, the engine at first started then died.
             MODIFIER: “Quickly turning the key in the ignition”
             ERROR: D (dangling)                            A driver, not “the engine,” quickly turns the key.

  49.       He took the job at first without demanding a benefit package.
             MODIFIER: “at first”
                                                         Which is the intended meaning, “took the job at
             ERROR: S (squinting)                        first” or “at first without demanding [benefits]”?

  50.       Just like many people's jobs, there's a concern at work about downsizing and layoffs.
             MODIFIER: “Just like many people’s jobs”
             ERROR: D (dangling)                          What is just like many people’s jobs?
 FOR ADDITIONAL STUDY AND PRACTICE

      John Langan, English Skills With Readings
 "Grammar: Pronoun Agreement and Reference" (482)
          "Grammar: Pronoun Types" (489)
  "Grammar: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers" (500)

         Diana Hacker, A Writer's Reference
"Grammatical Sentences: Problems with Pronouns" (G3)
      Take the Quiz Again / Review the Answers
      Course Website > Assignments and Tests

               The English Writer Center
Learning and Technology Resource Center
Room 70-119

				
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