Grammar and usage
Verb-ed and verb-ing
Read the following passage and
identify of function of verb-ing.
Cars are the leading ( 定语 adj. )
causes of air pollution in the world
Realizing( 状语 adv. ) how serious the
problem has become, the government
has been encouraging people to walk,
cycle or make better use of the
v-ing like an adjective
1. She sat beside the window, watching
the falling leaves floating in the air.
2. It is an exciting match.
Conclusion: it usually expresses an
action that is going on, or what
something is like.
Part one a v-ed or a v-ing like an adjective
1.The police found the stolen car.
express passive meaning
2. There was a thick layer of fallen leaves
on the ground. refer to a finished action
3. Many excited people wanted to travel
on the underground. tell how we feel about
Have you read the book
_________ to him? (relate)
It is a book ________
by J.K. Rowling. It’s
most teenagers like.
Will you feel ________ if
Harry Porter is your
Part two a v-ed or a v-ing like an adverb.
1. Realizing he would have to take
two different trains, he decided to
take a taxi instead.
2. Encouraged by the success of
the Metropolitan Railway Company,
Metropolitan District Railway opened
another line in 1868. express reason
refer to time
3. Traveling through the tunnel, the man
felt uncomfortable because of the noise.
4. When asked how old the underground
system was, she made no reply.
5. The train headed for London,
puffing and rattling.
6. He walked down the hill, singing
softly to himself.
7. Turning to the left at the
crossroads, you will see the railway
station on your right.
8. Given another chance, I’ll do it
Please rewrite the following sentences with
1. Being ill, he didn’t go to school.
_________ he was ill, he didn’t go to school.
2. Walking in the street, I met a friend.
_______ I walked in the street, I met a friend.
3. He watched TV , drinking beer.
He watched TV_______ drank beer.
4. If I were given more time, I would finish work on time.
4. Given more time, I would finish the the work on time.
________so many Seeing
______ the picture, I feel
things, the cat felt very funny. (see)
very tired. (carry)
The cat carried many things,
money, I would buy
more presents for
my wife. (give)
Part three passive and perfect forms of v-ing
1. The underground system being built in the
city will be open next year.
2. Having seen the situation, a wealthy
American businessman, Charles Yerkes
tried to improve the system.
3. Having been developed over many years,
the underground system is now able to
transport millions of people effectively.
被动进行式 being + done
主动完成式 haivng + done
被动完成式 having been + done
Please rewrite the following sentences.
It is said that the second line of Nanjing
is being built and it will Qun.
Underground being built will reach Mareach Ma
After the government has realized how serious
Having realized how serious the financial
the financial crisis is, it has been taking many
crisis is, the government has been taking
measures to help help people difficulty.
many measures topeople out ofout of difficulty.
Having been revised many times, the times,
After the plan had been revised many plan it
was carried out last month.
________ the differences between
London Underground and Nanjing
Underground, our government took
some measures to improve the
A. Having compared
C. Having been compared
D. being compared
Part four the subject of v-ing or v-ed clause
The understood subject of v-ing or v-ed clause
is the same as the subject of the main clause.
Having been trapped in traffic,
he was late for work.
Do you think we can rewrite the previous
sentence in this way?
Having compared the differences between
London Underground and Nanjing underground,
some measures were taken by our government
to improve the undergroud system.
珍惜资源，爱好地球 ________ this public
we think … (see)
________ on internet
or other media, the
advertisement can call
on more people to…
Sometimes commercial advertisements
can be useful. mislead, know, guide, read
Not knowing what to buy, consumers may
turn to ads for information. That is to say,
readingads, you will get a better
understanding of each product. However,
some consumers may also be cheated by
misleading advertisements. _________ by
these ads, they are likely to make wrong
So what attitude will you take to ads?
Please finish the exercise A,
B on page 57.