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					The Origins of Nationalism




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What is nationalism?
           Possible definitions:
• Patriotism, allegiance to a nation; varying degrees,
  from pride to hatred of all other nations
• a force that makes one willing to die for a nation
• the belief, conviction, or principle that each national
  culture should be conterminous with state borders
• Sometimes this is associated with the struggle for
  independence, more accurately called a “national
  movement”
• Underlying all: the belief that nations are
  the main organizing group of humanity
Long-term causes of the rise of
        nationalism
1. Printing press
    1451: Johannes
     Gutenberg (1397-1468)
     and Johannes Fust
    Movable metal type
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• Led to:
    More, cheaper books
     (1500->)
    Newspapers (1800->)
     Long-term causes (cont.)
2. Reformation
  1517: Martin Luther nailed
    his 95 theses against
    indulgences
  1522: translated New
    Testament                             QuickTime™ and a
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  Led to:
     Secularization of culture
     Vernacularization of
       language
       Long-term causes (cont.)

3. Mass education:
    Baron von
     Humboldt,1767-
     1835
    Prussian
     reforms begin
    led to growing
     literacy
   Shorter-term political causes
1. American Revolution:
       Political causes (cont.)
1. American Revolution
• If the people are
   sovereign (not the
   king), then who are
   the people?
• Declaration of
   Independence
• U.S. Constitution
          Political causes (cont.)
2. French Revolution
      National Assembly
      Cut off Louis’s head
      Nation became sovereign
      Levee en masse: Why fight?
          Political causes (cont.)
3. Partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795):
           Political causes (cont.)
3. Partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795):
      Russia, Austria and Prussia gobbled Poland up
      Constitution of 3 May 1791
      Poland became THE NATION WITHOUT A STATE
     Thinkers on nationalism
• Jean-Jacques
  Rousseau (1712-
  1778)
   Regenerated nation
   More just (equality)
   More powerful
     Thinkers on nationalism
• Edmund Burke
  (1729-1797)
   Classical conservative
   Against French
    Revolution
   Proclaimed rights of
    historically developed
    nations
     Thinkers on nationalism
• Johann Gottfried
  Herder (1744-1803)
   language is at the
    core of human beings
   we speak different
    ones
   affirmed the primacy
    of culture over
    politics

				
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posted:5/24/2013
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