Active Teaching by yurtgc548

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									Active Teaching
Chapters 9 and 10


                    Dr. Sherell M. Fuller
                         ELED 4122
    Guiding Questions:

• What   is   instruction?
• What   is   effective instruction?
• What   is   teaching?
• What   is   active teaching?
Teaching Worthwhile
      Content
   Content
Representation
• Breadth
  – Covering a large amount of curriculum
    content without exploring it beyond surface
    knowledge or the minimum requirements

• Depth
  – Covering a small amount of curricula in a
    way that allows for exploration, investigation,
    and application of the material in ways that
    are memorable and relatable
  Teaching for
 Understanding

Table 9.1 (page 281 text)
   Knowledge
   Networks

• Combination of facts, concepts,
  generalizations, procedural knowledge,
  and conditional knowledge that surround
  a learning concept. Developing a
  knowledge network curriculum implies
  that one can enter and begin to learn
  about a network from any point
Powerful ideas

• Embedded within networks of knowledge
  and connected to other powerful ideas.
  Most powerful ideas are concepts,
  generalizations, principles, or causal
  explanations.
Authentic tasks

• Tasks that require using what is being
  learned for accomplishing the very sorts
  of life applications that justify the inclusion
  of this learning in the curriculum in the
  first place
Authentic Activities
    should be:

• Appropriate
• Feasible
• Cost effective
Teaching Approaches
    • Information
      Processing
    • Social Approaches
    • Personal
      Approaches
    • Behavioral
      Approaches
Characteristics of Teachers who
Elicit High Achievement Gains
• Teacher expectation/role definition; sense
  of efficacy
• Student opportunity to learn
• Classroom management/organization
• Curriculum pacing
• Active teaching
• Teaching to mastery
• Supportive learning environment
    Criticisms of Lectures
• Deny students the opportunity to
  practice social skills
• Imply that all students need the
  same information
• Often exceed students’ attention
  spans; they may “tune out”
• Only convey information; do not
  develop skills or dispositions
• Students can read facts on their
  own; use class for other activities
     Appropriateness of Lecture
• the objective is to present information
• the information is not readily available in other
  forms
• the material needs to be organized in a certain
  way
• it is necessary to arouse interest in the subject
• it is necessary to provide background
• the information is original or must be integrated
  from other sources
• the information needs to be summarized or
  synthesized
• curriculum materials need updating
• additional perspectives need to be presented
  to students
• the teacher wants to provide supplementary
  explanations
•   Clarity
•   Encouraging Student Questions
•   Effective Demonstrations
•   Enthusiasm
                Lecture:
Critical Features of a Good Presentation

                Clarity
        •   Understanding
        •   Structuring
        •   Sequencing
        •   Explaining
        •   Presenting
Good Questions
   Clear
   Natural
   Purposeful
   Sequenced
   Brief
 Cognitive Levels of Questions
• Bloom’s Taxonomy
Questions to Avoid
   Yes-No
   Tugging
   Guessing
   Leading
      Conducting Recitations and
             Discussions
 Opposite of drill and practice
 Designed to stimulate students to respond
  diversely and at a higher cognitive level
 Should not be teacher dominated
 Blended with lecture-very effective
Effective Demonstrations

• Focuses student attention

• Provides an orientation or overview

• Provides definitions to new terms
  or labels for new objects/concepts

• Provides summaries and
  reinforcement on key aspects
Effective Demonstrations

• Uses step-by-step process,
  describing each step clearly

• Provides thinking out loud to clue
  students to essential steps or
  aspects

• Engages students in performance
  for purpose of teacher observation
  or corrective feedback
Structuring Activities and Assignments
    Activities and assignments           Teachers should:
             should be:

   Varied and interesting          Explain the work and go
                                     over practice examples
   New or challenging               before assigning
    enough to be meaningful          independent work


   Easy enough to allow            Circulate to monitor
    students to achieve high         progress and provide help
    rates of success if they
    invest reasonable effort        Monitor performance for
                                     completion and accuracy

                                    Provide students with timely
                                     and specific feedback

								
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