Culture by malj

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									                                   Have you been outside
Culture                            the U.S.?
                                   As you enter, write the
•Values                            names of any countries
•Norms                             you have visited or
                                   lived in on the board.
•Assignment 3 details
                                   Use a tally mark if
                                   someone has already
                                   written it.

“From my own experience, there is no question that the speed
with which you are able to achieve your goals is directly related
to how clearly and how often you visualize them.”

–Charles Givens (best-selling author of financial literacy books)
Culture
Total way of life shared by members of a community
   5 Characteristics of Culture
• Is learned
• Is taken for granted (“the last thing a
  fish would notice is water”)
• Is symbolic
• Is constantly changing
• Effects how we perceive and
  evaluate the world around us
   Culture exists on 3 levels
    Symbolic           Behavioral         Concrete

Our beliefs and    What we do (how   Artifacts, music,
values             we behave)        food, and artistic
                                     works




         Non-material culture         Material culture
 What culture is NOT
 Think of a typical “multicultural day”

• Just artifacts or material used by a people
• Biological traits such as race
Values: shared beliefs about what is important
• General guidelines for
  behavior
• Ex: respect for elders
• Ideas of what people should
  give importance to

What do you we value in the
 United States?
Values in the U.S.
 Sociologist Robin Williams identified the following as core values in
 the U.S. in 1965

 •   Achievement and success                  Do we have the
 •   Individualism                            same values now?
 •   Activity/Work
 •   Efficiency and practicality
 •   Science and technology
 •   Material comfort
 •   Love
 •   Education
 •   Freedom
Value contradictions: two different values that can
contradict each other

Example: material comfort can contradict concern for the
environment
    Value Contradictions. Do some of these
    values contradict each other? How so?
•   Achievement and success        •   Healthy Lifestyles
•   Individualism                  •   Concern for the
•   Activity/Work                      Environment
•   Efficiency and practicality    •   Freedom
•   Science and technology         •   Self-fulfillment
•   Material comfort               •   Progress
•   Love                           •   Humanitarianism
•   Education                      •   Equality
•   Religion                       •   Safety

Example: Material comfort and concern for the environment
Ideal Culture vs Real Culture: one value that a
society feels is important but may not really value

Example: education (free public education for K-12, but also lots
of budget cuts)
Ideal Culture vs Real Culture: one value that a
society feels is important but may not really value

Example: safety for children
            Ideal culture vs. Real culture
Do we really value what we like to say we value?
Discuss in groups of 1-4
1. Pick one value.                                 4 mins

2. What are 2 ways we do value this?
3. What are 2 ways we do not?
Love                            Healthy lifestyles
Freedom                         Environmental concern
Equality                        Religion
Work/productivity               Humanitarianism
                                (helping others)
Value contradictions: two different values that can
contradict each other




Ideal Culture vs Real Culture: one value that a
society feels is important but may not really value
Culture shock
Disorientation that occurs when entering an unfamiliar culture

                 Enter with openness or        Enter with suspicion or fear
                 desire to learn
                 Feeling confusion, tension,   Feeling confusion, tension,
                 embarrassment, frustration    embarrassment, frustration



                 Observe, listen, ask          Criticize, judge, withdraw,
                 questions                     focus on why your way is
                                               better

                 Understanding                 Alienation, isolation
                      Culture Shock
                                      Disorientation that
                                      occurs when
                                      entering an
                                      unfamiliar culture




Have you had experiences
with culture shock?
Ethnocentrism
• Using your own group’s ways of doing things as a measure of
  what is normal

National Geographic-Roper
Survey of Geographic
Literacy
Asked Americans ages
18-24 which is the
world’s most spoken
language?
Mandarin
Russian
English
Arabic
Ethnocentrism
    • Has positive and negative aspects

           + Positive                      - Negative

• Creates in group loyalties      • Judging
• Unites                          •Discrimination

                                  • Offensive remarks/actions,
                                  particularly when traveling
Norms: shared rules of conduct
• Outline what is acceptable,
  appropriate
• Guide behavior
• Based on values

Value: respect for elders
Norm: give up your seat on the
  bus if there is someone elderly
  standing
How do we learn norms?
• reinforced by positive and negative sanctions
• Sanctions: reactions people get for breaking or following
  norms
 Positive Sanctions                 Negative Sanctions

 Express approval for following a   Reflect disapproval for breaking a
 norm                               norm

 Ex: holding an elevator-smile or   Ex: stand too closely to someone-
 thank you                          step back or weird look
          3 Types of Norms:
     Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo
Folkways         Mores             Taboo

Norms that are   Norms that we     Norms that are
not strictly     take seriously    very strongly
enforced         and are part of   ingrained in us
                 core values       and almost
                                   unimaginable to
                                   violate
               3 Types of Norms:
          Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo
Folkways             Mores                     Taboo
Norms that are not   Norms that we take        Norms that are very
strictly enforced    seriously and are part of strongly ingrained in us
                     core values               and almost
                                               unimaginable to violate
 Husband and           Being faithful
                                                -Open marriages
 wife live in the      to husband/
 same home             wife                     -Multiple
                                                wives/husbands
                              3 types of norms
Mark didn’t bring a gift to his friend’s birthday party. Mark violated a
       folkway
___________________________

Mark exchanged his daughter’s hand in marriage for money. In the United
                       taboo
States this is _______________________________.

                                                                   mos
Mark was hitting his dog badly at the park . Mark has violated a _______

Folkways                   Mores                        Taboo
Norms that are not         Norms that we take           Norms that are very
strictly enforced          seriously and are part of    strongly ingrained in us
                           core values (often reflect   and almost unimaginable
Bringing a gift to a       laws)                        to violate (often reflect
birthday party                                          laws)
                                                        Exchanging your
                           Caring for your              daughter’s hand in
                           pets                         marriage for monetary
                                                        compensation
                     Subcultures
• Culture within larger culture
• Have own values, customs etc,
• Shares many values of the larger
  culture
  Ex: Youth culture, DJ’s, surfers, doctors
                  Counter cultures
                                             Culture of
Holds values that stand in opposition to     society as a
those of the dominant culture                whole


Ex: Swingers, gangs, mafia                        subculture




                                           Counter culture
Freeganism and dumpster diving
View Info




More details
                     Quick Write:
           1. Do you think Freeganism is a
        subculture or counter culture? 2. Why?
                       3. What are their values?
              4. What types of norms might they follow?

Subculture:
• Culture within larger culture
• Has some own values, customs etc,
• Shares many values of the parent culture

Counter culture:
• Holds values that stand in opposition to those of the dominant culture
                      Cultural Assignment #3
Due next class:
Read Ch 2: p 33-44.
A#3: Bring in a cultural artifact (any item that has meaning to
you, not just ethnic culture) prepare to share what it means
*Cannot be a picture
*Cannot be car keys or cell phone
*Must be in class for points
                                  Sports
    Race/ethnicity/nationality    Religion
    Language                      Political ideology
    Gender                        Interests/hobbies
    Socio-economic status         Experiences
    Age
             3 Types of Norms:
        Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo
Folkways           Mores                Taboo
Norms that are not Norms that we        Norms that are
strictly enforced  take seriously and   very strongly
                   are part of core     ingrained in us and
                   values               almost
Mom and Dad                             unimaginable to
                    Parents provide
                                        violate
sleep in one        children with a
room, children      safe place to       Dad and teenage
in another          sleep               daughter
                                        sleeping in the
                                        same bed
Cultural relativism
Examining cultures without judging its elements as superior or
  inferior to ones own way of life


                                    Is cultural relativism
                                    a good thing?

                                    Can it be a bad
                                    thing?

								
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