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					                                                   Selection of tables and charts
                                   Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol. 5):
                                            A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries

                                          For further information on family friendly policy, see:
                                                      www.oecd.org/els/social/family




Table 1.1.   Key indicators on birth rates, female employment and child poverty
Table 2.2.   Selected family statistics, OECD countries
Table 3.2.   Maternal employment rates, women age 15-64, 2005
Chart 4.1.   Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003
Chart 5.1.   Compared to maternity leave, income support during parentalleave is limited
Chart 6.2.   For children aged three and over childcare participation rates are generally high
Table 7.1.   European workers often have seven weeks of paid holidays per annum



                                              Sélection de tableaux et graphiques
                           Bébés et Employeurs : Comment réconcilier travail et vie familiale (Vol. 5) :
                                        Synthèse des résultats dans les pays de l'OCDE

                        Pour plus d'informations sur les politiques en faveur de la famille, consultez le site
                                                 www.oecd.org/els/social/famille




                         OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                                  Table 1.1. Key indicators on birth rates, female employment and child poverty


                       Total fertility rate                                 Employment/population ratio by group                                             Child poverty
                               2005*                          Women, 2006 **                        Mothers, 2005 ***                                        around 2000 *****
                                                                                                               Youngest child         Sole parents, 2005
                        Children per woman              All               Part-time        Youngest child <2     aged 3-5              or latest year ****        per cent
Australia                       1.81                    65.5                 40.7                            48.3                             49.9                  11.6
Austria                         1.41                    63.5                 31.4                 60.5                  62.4                  75.0                  13.3
Belgium                         1.72                    53.6                 34.7                 63.8                  63.3                  62.0                  4.1
Canada                          1.53                    69.0                 26.2                 58.7                  68.1                  67.6                  13.6
Czech Republic                  1.28                    56.8                  5.6                 19.9                  50.9                  63.0                  7.2
Denmark                         1.80                    73.2                 25.6                 71.4                  77.8                  82.0                  2.4
Finland                         1.80                    67.3                 14.9                 52.1                  80.7                  70.0                  3.4
France                          1.94                    57.1                 22.9                 53.7                  63.8                  70.1                  7.3
Germany                         1.34                    61.5                 39.2                 36.1                  54.8                  62.0                  12.8
Greece                          1.28                    47.5                 12.9                 49.5                  53.6                  82.0                  12.5
Hungary                         1.32                    51.2                  4.2                 13.9                  49.9                   ..                   13.1
Iceland                         2.05                    81.6                 26.0                            83.6                             81.0                   ..
Ireland                         1.88                    58.8                 34.9                            56.3                             44.9                  15.7
Italy                           1.34                    46.3                 29.4                 47.3                  50.6                  78.0                  15.7
Japan                           1.26                    58.8                 40.9                 28.5                  47.5                  83.6                  14.3
Korea                           1.08                    53.1                 12.3                   ..                    ..                   ..                    ..
Luxembourg                      1.70                    53.7                 27.2                 58.3                  58.7                  94.0                   ..
Mexico                          2.20                    42.9                 27.6                   ..                    ..                   ..                   24.8
Netherlands                     1.73                    66.0                 59.7                 69.4                  68.3                  56.9                  9.0
New Zealand                     2.01                    68.4                 34.5                            46.6                             53.2                  14.6
Norway                          1.84                    72.3                 32.9                   ..                    ..                  69.0                  3.6
Poland                          1.24                    48.2                 16.3                   ..                    ..                   ..                   9.9
Portugal                        1.40                    62.0                 13.2                 69.1                  71.8                  77.9                  15.6
Slovak Republic                 1.25                    51.9                  4.1                 23.1                  46.6                   ..                    ..
Spain                           1.34                    54.0                 21.4                 45.1                  47.9                  84.0                  15.6
Sweden                          1.77                    72.1                 19.0                 71.9                  81.3                  81.9                  3.6
Switzerland                     1.42                    71.1                 45.7                 58.3                  61.7                  83.8                  6.8
Turkey                          2.19                    23.8                 17.8                   ..                    ..                   ..                   21.1
United Kingdom                  1.80                    66.8                 38.8                 52.6                  58.3                  56.2                  16.2
United States                   2.05                    66.1                 17.8                 54.2                  62.8                  73.8                  21.6
OECD                            1.63                    56.8                 26.4                   ..                    ..                  70.6                  12.0
*Year of reference for total fertility rates - Canada: 2004
** Data for Luxembourg concerns 2005.
*** Data for mothers in employment concern 1999 for Denmark; 2001 for Canada and New Zealand; 2002 for Finland and Iceland; and 2006 2nd quarter for
Switzerland.
**** Data are for 2005 except for Denmark, (1999), Belgium, Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Spain (2001), Finland and Portugal, (2002), Iceland and Norway
(2003), the Netherlands (2004), and 2006 2nd quarter for Switzerland.
*****The child poverty rate is defined as the share of children with equivalised incomes less than 50% of the median for the entire population.
Sources: see Chapters 2 and 3.




                             OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                                       Table 2.2. Selected family statistics, OECD countries

                          Total fertility rate     Mean age of women at Mean age of women at            Births out-of-wedlock      Teenage birth
                                                         first birth       first marriage                                             rate **
                          1970         2005 *         1970        2004         1980          2004          1980          2004            2004
Australia                 2.89          1.81          23.2          ..           ..            ..          12.4          32.2            14.9
Austria                   2.29          1.41             ..        27           23.2          27.9         17.8          35.9            12.7
Belgium                   2.25          1.72          24.3                      22.2          27.1          4.1           31             8.1
Canada                    2.33          1.53          23.1        26.3           ..            ..            ..          27.6            13.8
Czech Republic            1.90          1.28          22.5        26.3          21.5          26.0          5.6          30.6            11.5
Denmark                   1.95          1.80          23.8        28.4          24.6          30.4         33.2          45.4            6.8
Finland                   1.83          1.80          24.4        27.8          24.3          29.0         13.1          40.8            10.0
France                    2.47          1.94          24.4        28.4          23.0          28.5         11.4          46.4            9.3
Germany                   2.03          1.34            24         29           22.9          28.4         11.9          27.9            10.1
Greece                    2.40          1.28             ..        28           23.3          27.5          1.5           4.9            9.1
Hungary                   1.98          1.32          22.8        26.3          21.2          26.2          7.1           34             21.2
Iceland                   2.83          2.05          21.3        26.2          23.7          30.9         39.7          63.7            17.6
Ireland                   3.87          1.88             ..       28.5          24.6          28.2           5           32.3            14.0
Italy                     2.43          1.34            25          ..          23.8          28.0          4.3          14.9            7.0
Japan                     2.13          1.26          25.6        28.9          25.2          27.8          0.8            2             5.7
Korea                       ..          1.08          28.2        28.9          23.2          27.5           ..           1.3            3.5
Luxembourg                1.97          1.70          .24.7       28.6          23.0          28.1           6           25.8            8.9
Mexico                    6.82          2.20             ..         ..           ..            ..            ..            ..            67.3
Netherlands               2.57          1.73          24.8        28.9          23.2          28.7          4.1          32.5            4.8
New Zealand               3.28          2.00          23.4         28            ...          28.8         21.5          44.8            24.4
Norway                    2.50          1.84             ..       27.6          23.5          29.1         14.5          51.4            9.6
Poland                    2.26          1.24          22.8        25.6          22.7          24.9          4.8          17.1            14.7
Portugal                  3.01          1.40             ..       27.1          23.2          26.3          9.2          29.1            18.9
Slovak Republic           2.41          1.25          22.6        25.3          21.9          25.0          5.7          24.8            20.5
Spain                     2.88          1.34             ..       29.2          23.4          28.6          3.9          23.4            9.3
Sweden                    1.92          1.77          25.9        28.6          26.0          30.7         39.7          55.4            6.9
Switzerland               2.10          1.42          25.3        29.3          25.0          28.6          4.7          13.3            4.6
Turkey                    5.68          2.19             ..         ..          20.7          22.6          2.9            ..            41.4
United Kingdom            2.43          1.80             ..       29.5          23.0          28.1         11.5          42.3            25.8
United States             2.48          2.05          24.1        25.1          23.3          25.1         18.4          35.7            50.3
OECD                      2.70          1.63          24.2        27.5          23.3          27.7         11.2          30.9            15.8
* Year of reference for total fertility rates – Canada: 2004
** Adolescent fertility rate; births per 1,000 women age 15-19.
Source: D'Addio and Mira d'Ercole (2005), "Trends and Determinants of Fertility Rates in OECD Countries: The Role of Policies"; and OECD
(2007), Society at a Glance (www.oecd.org/els/social/indicators).




 OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
Table 3.2. Most mothers are in paid work, especially when children go to school, 2005
                            Maternal employment rates, women age 15-64

                                          by age of youngest child                             by number of children under 15
                             0-16             <2          3-5                  6-16           1 child   2 children     3 children
Australia                    63.1                   48.3                       70.5            63.3                58.1
Austria                      64.7            60.5         62.4                 67.5            67.7         60.1          46.5
Belgium                      59.9            63.8         63.3                 56.9            58.3         58.5          39.4
Canada                       70.5            58.7         68.1                 71.1            70.1         73.2          66.3
Czech Republic               52.8            19.9         50.9                 67.6            57.4         52.5          34.4
Denmark                      76.5            71.4         77.8                 77.5              ..          ..            ..
Finland                      76.0            52.1         80.7                 84.2            71.2         70.9          60.1
France                       59.9            53.7         63.8                 61.7            62.2         57.6          38.1
Germany                      54.9            36.1         54.8                 62.7            58.4         51.8          36.0
Greece                       50.9            49.5         53.6                 50.4            48.4         44.4          37.4
Hungary                      45.7            13.9         49.9                 58.3            53.7         48.3          24.6
Iceland                      84.8                   83.6                       86.5            88.5                82.3
Ireland                      57.5                   55.0                       59.9            55.4         52.5          42.3
Italy                        48.1            47.3         50.6                 47.5            48.3         41.0          27.4
Japan                        52.4            28.5         47.8                 68.1              ..          ..            ..
Luxembourg                   55.4            58.3         58.7                 52.7            56.0         49.8          33.8
Netherlands                  69.2            69.4         68.3                 69.4            70.1         70.6          59.9
New Zealand                  64.6            45.1         60.6                 75.3            64.1         64.5          56.7
Poland                       46.4              ..           ..                  ..             42.7         35.6          28.5
Portugal                     67.8            69.1         71.8                 65.4            63.5         59.2          46.1
Slovak Republic              48.4            23.1         46.6                 60.4            56.4         49.4          31.5
Spain                        52.0            52.6         54.2                 50.9            51.1         44.7          38.5
Sweden                       82.5            71.9         81.3                 76.1            80.6         84.7          75.6
Switzerland                  69.7            58.3         61.7                 77.0            69.5         65.4          58.0
United Kingdom               61.7            52.6         58.3                 67.7            67.1         62.4          42.3
United States                66.7            54.2         62.8                 73.2              ..          ..            ..
EU-19                        59.5            51.1         58.2                 63.2            59.4         55.2          41.2
OECD average                 61.5            51.9         61.3                 66.3            60.6         57.0          44.0

Sources: Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics (2005); 6224.0.55.001 FA2 Labour Force Status and Other
Characteristics of Families; Statistics Canada (2001 data), Statistics Denmark (1999 data), Statistics Finland (2002
data), Statistics Iceland (2002 data for women age 25-54), Japanese authorities (2001 data), Swiss LFS (2006 2nd
quarter data), UK office of National Statistics (2005 data), and the US Current population survey (2005 data); all other
EU-countries, European labour Force Survey (2005 data), except for Italy which concerns 2003.




    OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
           Chart 4.1. Family spending has the greatest focus on childcare services in France and the Nordic countries
                                      Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003

                                Tax breaks towards family                     Services                  Cash                   OECD-24 (2.4%)

          4.5                                                                                                                                                            4.5
          4.0                                                                                                                                                            4.0
          3.5                                                                                                                                                            3.5
          3.0                                                                                                                                                            3.0
          2.5                                                                                                                                                            2.5
          2.0                                                                                                                                                            2.0
          1.5                                                                                                                                                            1.5
          1.0                                                                                                                                                            1.0
          0.5                                                                                                                                                            0.5
          0.0                                                                                                                                                            0.0




Notes:
- Public spending included here only concerns public support that is exclusively for families (e.g. child payments and allowances, parental leave benefits and
childcare support). Spending recorded in other social policy areas as health and housing support also assists families, but not exclusively, and is not included
here.
- OECD-24 excludes Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland, Switzerland and Turkey where tax spending data are not available.
Source: OECD (2007), Social Expenditure Database (www.oecd.org/els/social/expenditure).


                       Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003

                                                Cash        Services         Tax breaks towards family           Total                       OECD-24 (2.4%)

                       Luxembourg                3.5           0.6                                                   4.1                         2.4
                       Denmark                   1.6           2.3                        0.0                        3.9                         2.4
                       France                    1.4           1.6                        0.8                        3.8                         2.4
                       Norway                    1.9           1.5                        0.1                        3.6                         2.4
                       Sweden                    1.6           1.9                        0.0                        3.5                         2.4
                       Hungary                   2.1           1.5                                                   3.5                         2.4
                       Australia                 2.6           0.7                        0.0                        3.4                         2.4
                       United Kingdom            2.2           0.8                        0.4                        3.3                         2.4
                       Belgium                   1.7           0.9                        0.5                        3.2                         2.4
                       Iceland                   1.5           1.7                        0.0                        3.2                         2.4
                       Austria                   2.5           0.6                        0.0                        3.1                         2.4
                       Finland                   1.6           1.4                        0.0                        3.0                         2.4
                       Germany                   1.2           0.77                       1.0                        3.0                         2.4
                       Ireland                   2.3           0.3                        0.1                        2.6                         2.4
                       Slovak Republic           1.3           0.6                        0.5                        2.4                         2.4
                       Czech Republic            1.3           0.6                        0.4                        2.3                         2.4
                       New Zealand               1.9           0.4                        0.0                        2.3                         2.4
                       Netherlands               0.8           0.9                        0.5                        2.1                         2.4
                       Portugal                  0.7           0.9                        0.2                        1.8                         2.4
                       Poland                    1.0           0.5                                                   1.5                         2.4
                       Switzerland               1.1           0.4                                                   1.5                         2.4
                       United States             0.1           0.6                        0.7                        1.4                         2.4
                       Greece                    0.9           0.4                                                   1.3                         2.4
                       Italy                     0.6           0.7                        0.0                        1.2                         2.4
                       Japan                     0.30          0.44                       0.47                       1.2                         2.4
                       Canada                    0.9           0.2                        0.1                        1.2                         2.4
                       Spain                     0.4           0.7                        0.1                        1.1                         2.4
                       Mexico                    0.3           0.7                        0.0                        1.0                         2.4
                       Korea                    0.008         0.167                      0.000                      0.175                        2.4
                       Turkey

                       OECD-24                   1.3           0.9                        0.2                        2.41




                                      OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                    Chart 5.1. Compared to maternity leave, income support during parentalleave is limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Weeks entitlement                  FTE paid maternity leave                  % rate of allowance                  Length of FTE              OECD29
                        Panel A: Maternity leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                 UK                52                                     12                                      100                               12                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Czech Rep         28                                   19.32                                      69                              19.32                    18
        weeks                                                                Weeks entitlement                            FTE paid maternity leave                                                                                               Slovak Rep        28                                    15.4                                      55                              15.4                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway            26                                    20.8                                      80                              20.8                     18
60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland           26                                    14.4                                      80                              14.4                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary           24                                    16.8                                      70                              16.8                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy             21                                    16.8                                      80                              16.8                     18
50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark           18                                     18                                      100                               18                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finland           18                                    11.7                                      65                              11.7                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece            17                                     17                                      100                               17                      18
40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal          17                                     17                                      100                               17                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Austria           16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France            16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Luxembourg        16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                  OECD 29                                        Netherlands       16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Poland            16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Spain             16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Switzerland       16                                     16                                      100                               16                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden            15                                     12                                       80                               12                      18
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Canada            15                                    9.35                                      55                              8.25                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Belgium           15                                   11.53                                                                      11.53                    18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Germany           14                                     14                                         100                            14                      18
 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Iceland           13                                    10.4                                         80                           10.4                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Japan             12                                    8.4                                          60                            7.2                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Korea             12                                     12                                         100                            12                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mexico            12                                     12                                         100                            12                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turkey            12                                    7.92                                         66                           7.92                     18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 New Zealand       12                                      6                                          50                             6                      18
                         Panel B: Paternity leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                US                12                                      0                                          0                              0                      18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Australia
                                                                                   FTE paid paternity leave                              Weeks entitlement                                                                                       Average           18
      Weeks

 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paternity leave               % rate of allowance*                FTE paid paternity leave              Weeks entitlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Iceland                  13                                80                                  10.4                               2.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden                   11                               100                                   9.2                               1.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway                    6                                80                                   3.2                               2.8
  8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Finland                   3                               100                                    3                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Belgium                   2                               100                                    2                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark                   2                               100                                    2                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France                    2                               100                                    2                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Poland                    2                               100                                    2                                 0
  4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              UK                        2                                25                                   0.5                               1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary                   1                               100                                    1                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal                  1                               100                                    1                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland                  0.6                              100                                   0.6                                0
  0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Austria                  0.4                              100                                   0.4                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece                   0.4                              100                                   0.4                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Luxembourg               0.4                              100                                   0.4                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Netherlands              0.4                              100                                   0.4                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spain                    0.4                              100                                   0.4                                0

                         Panel C: Parental leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                                    Parental leave                 % rate of allowance*                 FTE paid parental leave              Weeks entitlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Czech Rep               156                                                                                                       156
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spain                   156                                                                                                       156
                    Weeks                                                                        FTE paid parental leave                         Weeks entitlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Germany                 156                                   11                                  11.4                           144.6
              156                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Poland                  156                                  14.6                                 22.7                           133.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Slovak Republic         156                                   24                                  37.44                         118.56
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France                  156                                  25.8                                 40.2                           115.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary                 156                                   51                                   53                             103
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Austria                 104                                   21                                  21.84                          82.16
              104                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Australia                52                                                                                                        52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden                   51                                  80                                   40.8                           10.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway                   42                                  100                                   42                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy                    36                                  30                                    3.6                           32.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Korea                    36                                  17                                   6.12                           29.88
               52                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Canada                   35                                  55                                   19.25                          15.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark                  32                                  90                                   28.8                            3.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece                   28                                                                                                        28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland                  28                                                                                                        28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finland                  26                                   60                                  15.6                           10.4
                                                          Slovak…




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Luxemb…




                0
                      Czech…




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Netherl…




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Luxembourg               26                                   62                                  16.12                          9.88
                                                                                                                                 Italy
                               Spain




                                                                                                   Australia




                                                                                                                                                                                                            Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                        Finland
                                                 Poland




                                                                                                                                                  Canada
                                                                                       Austria



                                                                                                               Sweden

                                                                                                                        Norway




                                                                                                                                                                     Greece




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  UK
                                       Germany




                                                                    France

                                                                             Hungary




                                                                                                                                         Korea




                                                                                                                                                                              Ireland
                                                                                                                                                           Denmark




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal                 26                                                                                                        26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Netherlands              24                                                                                                        24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 UK                       13                                                                                                        13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Iceland                  13                                   80                                   10.4                           2.6
Note: The entitlement to paid leave is presented as the full-time equivalent (FTE) of the proportion of the duration of leave if it
were paid at 100% of last earnings: FTE = Duration of leave in weeks * payment (as a percentage of average earnings)
received by the claimant. Information in the chart and annex to
this chapter refers to entitlements, benefits and payment rates applicable as of 1 January 2006.

Source: OECD Family database, www.oecd.org/els/social/family.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                              Chart 6.2. For children aged three and over childcare participation rates are generally high

                           Panel A: Average enrolment rate of children aged under three years of age in formal childcare (2004)
          %
                                                                                      0 - 3 years
   80.0

   60.0

   40.0

   20.0

    0.0




Data for Canada, Germany and Poland concern 2001; data for France reflects 2002; data for Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Mexico, Norway and the Slovak Republic concerns
2003; and data for Australia, Denmark, Korea and the United States concerns 2005.


                     Panel B: Average enrolment rate of children aged three to five years of age in pre-school educational programmes (2004)
    %                                                                                         3 - 5 years

 100.0


   80.0


   60.0


   40.0


   20.0


    0.0




Countries are ranked in descending order of 3 to 5 year old enrolment rates


Source: OECD Family database and OECD Education database.


                                               3 - 5 years    0 - 3 years
                          France                  101.9           28.0
                          Italy                   100.3            6.3
                          Belgium                  99.6           33.6
                          Spain                    98.6           20.7
                          Iceland                  94.7           58.7
                          New Zealand              92.7           32.1
                          Denmark                  89.7           61.7
                          Hungary                  86.9            6.9
                          Sweden                   86.6           39.5
                          Japan                    86.4           15.2
                          Czech Republic           85.3            3.0
                          Norway                   85.1           43.7
                          United Kingdom           80.5           25.8
                          Germany                  80.3            9.0
                          Portugal                 77.9           23.5
                          Austria                  74.0            6.6
                          Slovak Republic          72.4           17.7
                          Luxembourg               72.3           14.0
                          Australia                71.5           29.0
                          Netherlands              70.2           29.5
                          Ireland                  68.2           15.0
                          Mexico                   64.9            3.0
                          United States            62.0           35.5
                          Korea                    60.9           19.5
                          Greece                   46.8            7.0
                          Finland                  46.1          22.4     revised figure (February 2008)
                          Switzerland              44.8
                          Poland                   36.2           2.0
                          Turkey                   10.5
                          Canada                    m             19.0




                                                                OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                               Table 7.1. European workers often have seven weeks of paid holidays per annum

                                   Statutory and collectively agreed weekly working hours and annual leave, 2005
                                                 Weekly working hours                                  Days of paid annual leave
                                     Statutory                          Collectively        Statutory       Collectively                      3
                                               1         normal                                      2                        Public holidays
                                    maximum                            agreed (Avg.)       minimum         agreed (Avg.)
Australia                                48 4                     38                      ..                      20                      ..                    8 to 10
Austria                                   40                       ..                   38.8                      25                     25                        10
Belgium                                   38                      38                     38                       20                      ..                        8
                                              5                       5
Canada                                   48                      40                       ..                  10 to 20                    ..                       10
Czech Republic                            40                       ..                    38                       20                     25                         8
Denmark                                   48                       ..                    37                       25                     30                         9
Finland                                   40                       ..                   37.5                      20                     25                        10
France                                    48                      35                     35                       25                     25                        11
Germany                                   48                       ..                   37.7                      20                     30                         9
Greece                                    48                       ..                    40                       20                     23                        10
Hungary                                   48                       ..                    40                       20                      ..                        6
Ireland                                   48                       ..                    39                       20                      ..                        9
Japan                                      ..                     40                    39.4                  10 to 20                    ..                       15
Italy                                     48                      40                     38                       20                     28                        10
Korea                                     44                       ..                     ..                   8 to 20                    ..                       14
Luxembourg                                48                       ..                    39                       25                     28                        10
Netherlands                               48                       ..                    37                       20                    25.6                        8
New Zealand                                                        ..                                         (15) 20 6                   ..                       11
Norway                                     40                      ..                   37.5                      21                     25                         8
Poland                                     40                      ..                    40                       20                      ..                       11
Portugal                                   40                      ..                   38.3                      22                    24.5                       12
Slovak Republic                            40                      ..                   38.6                      20                    21.3                       12
Spain                                      40                      ..                   38.5                      22                      ..                       11
Sweden                                     40                     40                    38.8                      25                     33                         9
Switzerland                           45 to 50 7                   ..                    ..                   20 to 25                   ..                         8
UK                                        48                       ..                   37.2                     20                     24.6                        8
US                                                                40                     ..                       0                      ..                        10
1 In the context of working time flexibility, workign hours can exceed the statutory maximum as long as they adhere to the statutory maximum on an average
basis for a given reference period. For example, in Austria, weekly hours may be varied up to a maximum of 50 over a reference period, if an average 40-hour
week is maintained (Carley (2006), Working Time Developments 2005, EIRO, for a detailed overview of practice in Europe), while in Canada weekly working
hours can be longer than 48 hours per week, as long as they average 48 hours over a two-week period (Federal Labour Standards Review (2006), Fairness
at Work, Federal Labour Standards for the 21st Century.
2 In Canada, Japan, Korea and Switzerland, the length of minimum holiday entitlement increases with tenure.
3 For federal countries, this is subject to varuiation across Cantons/Provinces and States. Typically, these jurisdictions recognize one or two additional public
holidays, but in the Canadian province of Newfoundland there are six additional public holidays.


4 Maximum workweek, subject to Australian Industrial relations Testcase decision which stipulates that an may refuse to work overtime because the working
of such overtime would result in the employee working hours which are unreasonable having regard to i) any risk to employee health and safety; ii) the
employee's personal circumstances including any family responsibilities; the needs of the workplace or enterprise; iv) the notice (if any) given by the employer
of the overtime and by the employee of his or her intention to refuse it; and v) any other relevant matter.
5 This is the Federal standard; normal and statutory maximum working hours vary across provinces.
6 20 days from 1 April 2007 onwards (beforehand 15 days).
7 45 hours for industrial enterprises and employees, 50 weekly working hours for all others.
Sources Australian Government (www.workchoices.gov.au); European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) online (www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro);
Gornick and Heron (2006) The regulation of Working Time as Work-Family Reconciliation Policy, Comparing Europe, Japan and the United States; Human
Resource and Skills Development Canada
(http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/asp/gateway.asp?hr=en/lp/spila/clli/eslc/01Employment_Standards_Legislation_in_Canada.shtml) and Canadian Heritage
(http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/jfa-ha/index_e.cfm); International Labour Organization, National Labour Law Profiles, Republic of Korea and the Swiss
Confederation (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/ifpdial/info/national/index.htm); and, New Zealand Department of Labor, Employment Relatuions
(http://www.ers.govt.nz/)




                               OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)

				
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