New Perspectives on Microsoft Project 2007 Creating a Project

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					New Perspectives on Microsoft Project 2007:
       Creating a Project Schedule
             In this tutorial you will:

    Start a new project
    Examine scheduling defaults
    Change a project and task calendar
    Enter and edit tasks, durations, and
     task dependencies
    Enter and edit recurring tasks and
     milestones

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             In this tutorial you will:

    Enter lag and lead times
    View project statistics
    Create and manipulate summary tasks
    Develop a work breakdown structure




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                  JLB Partners

        Project Goal: Network company
        computers to easily share resources
        within a time frame of three months
        and within a budget of $50,000.




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              New Project & Examining
                Scheduling Defaults
       By default, the new project file is scheduled
        from a project Start date
       All tasks are scheduled to begin as soon as
        possible
       Project 2007 calculates the project’s Finish
        date based on the
            Tasks
            Durations
            Dependencies

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       Project Information Dialog Box




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              New Project & Examining
                Scheduling Defaults
       When a project is scheduled from a Finish date,
        such as conference, all tasks are scheduled to
        begin as late as possible.
            In order for the overall project to be started as late as
             possible and yet still meet the required Finish date.
       It is often more efficient to wait to start a
        project until you really need to do work on the
        project instead of starting too early and wasting
        resources.


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      Project Scheduled from Finish Date




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    The Task Information Dialog Box

       The Task Information dialog box is a comprehensive
        collection of all of the information about each task
        organized into five categories represented by these
        tabs:
          General
          Predecessors
          Resources
          Advanced
          Notes
       The Task Information dialog box is another view by
        which you can examine and enter data about a task.
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             Task Information Dialog Box




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       Constraints using Task Information

       Constraint types “as soon as possible or as
        late as possible” determine the initial
        Constraint type for each task.
       The initial Constraint type has a
        tremendous impact on the calculated start
        and finish dates for each task entered into
        the project.
       Always take the time to examine the Project
        Information dialog box before starting a
        new project.
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       Examining Project Calendars
       By default, the entire project, each task, and each
        resource is scheduled according to the Standard
        calendar.
       The Standard calendar specifies that Monday through
        Friday are working days with 8 hours of work completed
        each day.
       Saturday and Sunday are designated as nonworking days.
       Calendar can be modified to identify holidays or other
        nonworking days or times in which work should not be
        scheduled.
       You can also create unique calendars for tasks and
        resources that do not follow the working and nonworking
        times specified by the Standard calendar.
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             Creating a New Calendar




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    Changing the Project Calendar
   The project calendar (also called the Standard
    calendar) is the base calendar used by Project 2007
    to schedule new tasks within the project.
   It specifies working time, the hours during which
    work can occur, by default 8am-12pm and 1pm-5pm
    Monday through Friday.
   It also specifies nonworking time, the hours of a
    24-hour day that are not specified as working time,
    and other global working time issues (such as a
    scheduled holiday).
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       Change Time for a Work Week




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    Change Working Time Dialog Box

   The Legend provides the key to the shading on the calendar.
      Working days appear as white
      Nonworking days as light gray
      Edited working hours with gray diagonal lines
   If a day of the week such as Monday or Tuesday is edited,
    the day’s abbreviation is underlined.
   If an individual day is edited, the day’s number is underlined.
   Changes to the project calendar can be made at any time
    during the development of the project.


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   Change Working Time Dialog Box




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             Creating a Task Calendar
       An individual task calendar can be created for any
        task that does not follow the working and nonworking
        times specified by the project calendar.
       An individual resource calendar can be created for a
        resource that does not follow the working and
        nonworking times specified by the project calendar.
          By assigning a resource to a resource calendar, you
           allow the resource to be worked on the days and
           times specified by the resource calendar rather then
           the project calendar.
       By default, all tasks and resource assignments inherit
        the project calendar unless you specify something else.

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     Creating a Task Calendar Cont’d

       Emily King has requested that the installation and
        training not disrupt the daily activities of JLB
        Partners. To meet this need,
          You met with the staff and determined that
           mornings are generally used for meetings and
           training could also be scheduled during that
           time.
          You create a calendar for the training tasks
           called Training that allows training tasks to be
           scheduled only between the hours of 8am-
           12pm.
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     Creating a Task Calendar Cont’d

       By default, all new tasks follow the
        Standard (Project Calendar), but you can
        easily apply a different calendar by using
        the Task Information dialog box.
       It is important that you test the new
        calendar with a sample task to see the
        effects of your changes.



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   Changing the Calendar for a Task




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         Entering Tasks and Durations
               in the Entry Table
   Entering tasks and durations is probably the
    single most important effort in developing a
    useful project file.
   If tasks are omitted or durations underestimated,
    the value of the project’s scheduling and cost
    information is compromised and the success of
    the project might be jeopardized.
   The active cell is the cell that you are editing; a
    dark border surrounds it.


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         Entering Tasks and Durations
           in the Entry Table Cont’d
   When you are building a new project, your goal is
    to enter all of the task names and durations
    correctly.
   If you are creating a file based on chronological
    tasks, you also want to enter tasks in the order in
    which they are to be completed.
   Often you will need to change an existing task or
    insert, delete, or move a task.



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             Editing Tasks and Durations
                   in the Entry Table
       Project 2007 makes it very easy to edit an existing
        project.
       Many of the editing skills that you gained when
        editing a spreadsheet will apply to a project table.
       To change an existing entry, you first navigate to
        the cell. Once there, you have several options:
          Retype the entry
          Edit the entry directly in the cell
          Edit an entry in the Entry bar




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             Editing Tasks and Durations
              in the Entry Table Cont’d
       Inserting and deleting tasks are common editing
        activities.
       As you continue to plan the project by conducting
        research and meeting with management, you
        might find that new tasks are required.
       Sometimes during project planning, you will
        determine that all or part of a task is no longer
        required and want to delete it.
       Project 2007 makes deleting and editing task cells
        similar to performing those operations in
        spreadsheet software.

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             Entering and Editing Tasks
                 in the Entry Table




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                Smart Tag

    If you want to delete an entire task row
     in Project 2007, you must select the
     entire row, then press the Delete key.
    Project 2007 includes a Smart Tag to
     allow you to specify what you want to
     delete.
    A list arrow appears when you place
     the pointer over the Smart Tag.
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             Smart Tag Selection




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             Undo and Redo

    In Project 2007, you can undo only
     your last action.
    When you click the Undo button, it
     changes into a Redo button so that
     you can redo the action that was
     previously done.



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               Copy, Paste and Move
       Copying, pasting, and moving tasks are
        important task editing skills.
       Project 2007 offers a variety of tools that you
        can use to accomplish these common tasks,
        including:
            Menu bar options
            Toolbar buttons
            Quick keystrokes
            Right-click shortcut menus

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                       Fill Handle
       If several task durations are the same, you can
        use either the copy and paste features to quickly
        enter the durations or the fill handle to populate
        cells.
       If you have used the fill handle in Excel or
        another spreadsheet program, you will find it a
        very similar process in Project 2007.
       The fill handle is a small square that appears in
        the lower corner of the selected cell.
       When you drag a fill handle, the contents of the
        active cell are copied.
       You can also use the fill handle to fill task
        names.
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             Fill Handle




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       Working with Duration Units of
                 Measure
       Entering and editing durations involves
        understanding the units of measure available
        for them.
       The default unit of measure is day, and
        therefore “day” does not need to be entered.
       To use any other unit, you must type the
        abbreviation.



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             Units of Measure
              Abbreviations




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                           Elapsed
       Elapsed refers to clock time rather than working
        time.
       Some tasks are completed over an elapsed period
        of time regardless of whether the time is working
        or nonworking.
       An example is the task “Allow paint to dry.” The
        paint will dry in exactly the same amount of time
        regardless of whether it dries on a workday, a
        weekend or holiday. If it takes one day to dry, the
        duration should be entered a 1 ed (for 1 elapsed
        day).

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             Editing Tasks and Durations
                    in Other Views
       Anything changed in one view is
        automatically changed in all the other
        views.
       You can use the View Bar to quickly switch
        between views.
       The way data is displayed differs by view
        and often satisfies different communication
        and reporting needs as the project
        develops.
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             Editing Tasks and Durations
                in Other Views Cont’d
       Regardless of the view used, you can edit
        any task by double-clicking it to open its
        Task Information dialog box.
       As you work with Project 2007, you will
        become more familiar with each view and
        learn which is the best representation of
        the data for different purposes.



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             Entering Recurring Tasks
    A recurring task is a task that repeats at a regular
     interval.
    A Monday morning status meeting is a good example of
     a recurring task that needs to be scheduled for each
     week of the project.
    In Project 2007, you can define a recurring task one
     time using the Recurring Task Information dialog box.
    Project 2007 then handles the details of scheduling the
     task on each Monday for the entire project or for the
     time period you specify.


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     Entering Recurring Tasks Cont’d

    By default, Project 2007 schedules the recurring task
     based on the duration of the entire project.
    If you want a recurring task to occur only a certain
     number of times or end before the project ends, you can
     enter that information in the Range of occurrence section.
    You can also change the calendar used or the recurring
     task in the Calendar section.
    Recurring tasks can be expanded to show all of the
     individual tasks within them or collapsed to one line,
     depending on how the user wants to view the Task Entry
     table and Gantt Chart.
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             Recurring Task Information
                     Dialog Box




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             Entering Milestones
   A milestone is a task that marks a significant point in
    time or a progress checkpoint.
   It has a zero duration and is therefore a symbolic task
    that is used mainly to communicate progress or to mark
    the end of a significant phase of the project.
   Examples include the signing of a contract or the
    announcement of a new product.
   Milestones can also be used to motivate project
    participants by recognizing accomplishments.


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         Entering Milestones Cont’d
   Completing an important deliverable, such as
    completing an office installation, completing
    training, and so on can be entered as milestones.
   Many project managers identify milestones early
    in a project to help build momentum toward the
    project’s completion.
   Since milestones have no duration, they are
    scheduled without regard to working and
    nonworking time.

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             Milestones




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       Understanding Task Dependencies

       Four task dependencies define the
        relationships between tasks in a
        project.
          Finish-to-Start (FS)
          Start-to-Start (SS)
          Finish-to-Finish (FF)
          Start-to-Finish (SF)



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             Task Dependencies




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                 Understanding Task
                 Dependencies Cont’d
       By linking tasks in finish-to-start relationships,
        you establish the required sequence of tasks.
       Project 2007 uses these relationships to set
        start and finish dates for each task.
       The first task described in the dependency is
        called the predecessor task.
       The second task described in the dependency
        type is called the successor task.


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              Understanding Task
              Dependencies Cont’d
       Most dependencies are Finish-to-Start (FS),
        meaning a certain task (the predecessor)
        must finish before another task (the
        successor) can start.
       In order to use important project management
        techniques such as critical path analysis, you
        must determine task dependencies.




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       Creating Task Dependencies
       Project 2007 makes it easy to create, and
        remove, FS relationships between tasks
        by providing the Link Tasks and Unlink
        Tasks buttons on the Standard toolbar.
       Task dependencies also can be
        established in the graphical views.
       As you would expect, creating task
        dependencies affects the start and finish
        dates of the linked tasks.

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                    Critical Path
       Changing and linking tasks also affects the
        critical path.
       The critical path consists of the tasks that
        must be completed with the given schedule
        dates in order for the overall project to be
        completed in the shortest amount of time.
       Project 2007 defines the critical path as
        consisting of those tasks that have zero
        slack.
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             Critical Path




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                  Slack Times

       Total slack is the amount of time by
     which an activity may be delayed from
     its scheduled Start date without the
     delay setting back the entire project.
    Free slack is the amount of time by
     which an activity may be delayed
     without delaying the early start of any
     immediately following tasks.
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    Critical and Non-Critical Tasks
       In the Network Diagram view, the critical
        tasks—tasks that are on the critical path—
        are displayed within a red border.
       A task that is not on the critical path is a
        non-critical task, that is, it doesn’t
        necessarily have to start on its currently
        scheduled Start date in order for the overall
        project to be completed on time.
       The Network Diagram is used mainly to view
        and analyze the critical path.
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                Using Form View to
             Create Task Dependencies
    Sometimes a task is a predecessor to
     more than one other task, and
     therefore the process of dragging link
     lines in a graphical view becomes
     confusing and difficult.
    Using a Form view of the project can
     make entering many details for a single
     task easier.
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         Editing Task Dependencies
       Task dependencies start as FS
        dependencies because that type of
        dependency is by far the most common
        relationship between tasks.
       To change the dependency type, you must
        open the Task Dependency dialog box.
            There, you can change the relationship type from
             FS (finish-to-start) to SS (start-to-start), FF
             (finish-to-finish), or SF (start-to-finish).

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     Entering Lag and Lead Times
       When a project is scheduled from a Start date,
        lag and lead times refer to an amount of
        time that the second task of a relationship is
        moved backward (lead) or forward (lag) in
        time.
       Lead time moves the second task backward
        in time so that the two tasks overlap.
       Lag time is the opposite of lead time. It
        moves the second task forward in time so
        that the tasks are further separated.

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        Lag and Lead Time from Start
                   Date




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       Lag Time from a Finish Date




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                     Entering Lag and
                    Lead Times Cont’d
       Project 2007 combines the concepts of lag and
        lead times into one term, lag time.
       When a project is scheduled from a Start date,
        positive lag time moves the second task
        forward in time.
            Positive lag time is the traditional definition of lag
             time in general project management discussions.
       Negative lag time moves the second task
        backward in time so that the tasks overlap.
            Negative lag time is called lead time in general
             project management discussions.
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             Negative and Positive Lag
                       Time




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                     Entering Lag and
                    Lead Times Cont’d
       Lag durations use the same duration units (d
        for days, h for hours, and so forth) used for
        task durations.
       You also can enter a positive or negative
        percentage that will calculate the lag as a
        percentage of the duration of the first task.
            In a finish-to-start relationship, +25% lag time
             pushes the second task forward in time.



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               Entering Lag and
              Lead Times Cont’d
   The second task will not start until after the first
    task is completed plus an additional 25% of the
    duration of the first task.
   A -25% lag time pulls the second task backward
    in time. In this case, the second task will start
    when the first task is 75% completed.




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         Check for Lag Time Effects
       Once the tasks, durations, and relationships
        are entered, you should check the Project
        Information dialog box to verify the
        project’s calculated Finish date if the
        project is scheduled from a Start date, or
        calculated Start date if the project is
        scheduled from a Finish date.
       When a project is scheduled from a Start
        date, applying negative lag time to task
        dependencies that are on the critical path is
        a common way to shorten the critical path
        because it allows tasks to overlap.
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       Check for Lag Time Effects Cont’d

       When you apply negative lag time, the
        second task is allowed to start before the
        first task is completely finished.
       When a project is scheduled from a Finish
        date, all tasks have as late as possible
        schedules and lag time affects the first task
        rather than the second.



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       Check for Lag Time Effects Cont’d

       Confusing negative and positive lag times is easy,
        especially when examining them for both a project
        that is scheduled from a Start date and one
        scheduled from a Finish date.
       Remember:
          Positive lag time always increases the amount
           of time between tasks.
          Negative lag time always causes the tasks to
           overlap.
          This rule holds true regardless of whether the
           project is scheduled from the Start date or the
           Finish date.
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        Creating a Work Breakdown
       Structure with Summary Tasks
       A very important strategy for managing projects well is to
        organize the work that needs to be done in a logical
        manner.
       A work breakdown structure (WBS) is an outcome-
        oriented analysis of the work involved in a project that
        defines the total scope of the project.
          A WBS is a foundation document in project
            management because it provides the basis for
            planning and managing project schedules, costs, and
            changes.
          The WBS provides a hierarchy, similar to an
            organizational chart, to group project work logically.


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         Work Breakdown Structure




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        Creating a Work Breakdown Structure
             with Summary Tasks Cont’d
       In order to use a WBS in Project 2007, you must
        organize tasks into summary tasks: groups of tasks that
        logically belong together.
       When developing a new, large project, some project
        managers prefer to start with broad groupings of
        summary tasks and then break them down into smaller
        tasks.
       Planning a project by starting with broad categories of
        tasks is called the top-down method of creating a
        WBS.
       Other project managers prefer to list all of the individual
        tasks, and then collect them into logical groupings using
        the bottom-up method.

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         Work Breakdown Structure




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     Outdenting and Indenting Tasks

       Use the Outdent button and the Indent
        button on the Formatting toolbar to create
        your WBS.
       Outdenting moves a task to the left (a higher
        level in the WBS), and indenting moves a
        task to the right (a lower level in the WBS).
       Projects can have several levels in the WBS.
       Many projects have at least three levels, and
        some large projects have more.

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                   Summary Task
       You do not specify a duration for a summary
        task because it is calculated based on the
        durations and relationships of the individual tasks
        within that summary task.
       Summary tasks are listed in bold text in the
        Task Entry table and display a Collapse/Expand
        button to the left of the task so that you can easily
        show or hide the individual tasks within that
        summary task.
       In the Gantt Chart, a summary task bar displays
        as a solid black line with arrow-like markers that
        indicate where the summary task starts and
        stops.
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             Summary Task Cont’d
       The duration cell of a summary task cannot be
        directly edited; it is calculated from the durations
        and relationships of the individual summary
        tasks it contains.
       Summary tasks not only improve the clarity of
        the project and calculate the total duration for
        that phase or major grouping of tasks, but they
        also help identify areas that are not yet fully
        developed.
       For larger projects, summary tasks can be
        nested to create more levels in the WBS to help
        define and manage all the work required to
        successfully complete your project.
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       Creating a Project Summary
                 Task Bar
       Many project managers like to clearly see the
        start and finish dates for their projects on the
        Gantt Chart and how those dates change as
        they enter and edit tasks, durations, and
        dependencies.
          You can create a summary task bar for
           the entire project (it appears at the top of
           the Gantt Chart) by clicking Tools on the
           menu bar and using the Options dialog box.


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             Expanding and Collapsing
                      Tasks
       Once your project has been organized
        into summary tasks, you can easily
        expand (show) and collapse (hide)
        the individual tasks within each phase.




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       Using Outline Numbers or Work
        Breakdown Structure Codes
       Many people like to number tasks in their WBS
        to show the logical groupings of work.
       Using outline numbers or special work
        breakdown structure (WBS) code is a way
        to use an alphanumeric code to represent each
        task’s position within the hierarchical structure of
        the project.
       A WBS code helps identify and group project
        tasks for project communication, documentation,
        or accounting purposes.
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        Using Outline Numbers or Work
       Breakdown Structure Codes Cont’d
       Project 2007 lets you create and modify a WBS
        code with outline numbers.
       The default WBS code is the task’s outline
        number, but you can create your own custom
        WBS code.
       This numbering system works well when you
        want to numerically code each task and do not
        need a different coding scheme for
        representing the WBS.

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                        Summary
       A project does not need to be outlined in order
        to use the WBS column.
       The outline helps visually clarify the organization
        of the project.
       The ability to expand and collapse different WBS
        levels enables you to quickly display or print only
        the information needed.
       Creating summary tasks, displaying different
        levels of detail, and adding a column with WBS
        codes helps you to clarify and enhance the
        project.

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