Context and Culture

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					CONTEXT AND CULTURE
Part 2
CULTURE
   What is culture?

   It is the conventions and procedures, including
    those related to paralanguage, pragmatics, and
    genre, together with values, beliefs which lie
    behind them, are elements of cultural knowledge.
CULTURE

   What is cross-cultural communication?

   It is communication between members of
    different national or ethnic communities.

   How is it related to Applied linguistics??

   It is related in many ways, for example, language
    planning, foreign language education, and
    translation (In a monolingual setting).
CULTURE
 What if the society is multilingual? How is it
  related to applied linguistics?
 Clinical Linguistics:

   deals with individuals whose communication
  needs involve more than one language and more
  than one set of cultural procedures.

   Language use in workplace and law courts:
    communication involves members of different
    communities.
WHAT IS CONSIDERED TO BE CROSS-
CULTURAL?


   Communication across different groups with
    different knowledge and values can be conceived
    of as being cross-cultural.

   Examples:
     Generations
     Social classes
     The two sexes
     Sexual orientation
WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT?
   The differences between cultures vs. the
    similarities between cultures when it comes to
    applied linguistics.

   With no cultural background, a shared language
    can cause instances of miscommunication.

   The role of applied linguistics is to raise
    awareness of the degree to which meaning of
    behavior is culturally relative, thus combating
    prejudice, and contributing to the improvement
    of community relations and conflict resolution in
    general.
DO YOU THINK THE STUDY OF CULTURE IS
CLEAR CUT?

   Of course not!

   There are cultures within a culture.
       Example: The African American culture in an
        American Culture.


   Culture is constantly changing.
       Example: The loss of titles in addressing people in
        England
TRANSLATION, CULTURE, AND CONTEXT
   Look at this example:

            Uvazhayemy Gospodin Smith
                         Russian


             Respected Gentleman Smith
                         English


                   Or would you prefer


                   Dear Mr. Smith
TRANSLATION AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS
   It is impossible to translate a text from one
    language to another using the same phrase
    structure, voice, and meaning at the same time.

   A translator has to choose which effect to achieve
    through translation (literal translation, or a
    smooth, flowing text that communicate the same
    meaning).

   Culture has to be understood to be able to
    translate from one culture to another.
TRANSLATION, CULTURE, AND CONTEXT

   Example:
     In English the word “you” can be translated to
      French but the translator has to decide between the
      following:
     Vous formal second-person pronoun
     Tu     informal second-person pronoun
    Example
       Translation of news headlines between Arabic and
        English.

        Which one do they use? Why?
        The word “martyrdom” or “Shahada”
TRANSLATION, CULTURE, AND CONTEXT
   For translators, decisions had to be made all the
    time on what structure to use, what meaning to
    convey and effect to be added to get well
    understood text. A knowledge of context and
    culture is necessary.

   Why don’t we rely on Machines to translate for
    us?

    The human factor that understands culture and
    context is missing.
TEACHING CULTURE
   It has long been that the teaching of culture is
    related to language teaching. However, there are
    differences.

   Example:
       If you want to learn Chinese. Then, you already have
        some interest in the Chinese culture and you will be
        willing to learn it.
   How about English?
       Because of its Lingua franca status, English is
        viewed differently.
TEACHING CULTURE

   Different ideologies may reject a culture while in
    need of learning the language (teaching English
    in Saudi Arabia).

   Applied linguistics doesn’t interfere in such
    issues. But, it would try to give informed insights
    to help those who will have the obligation to
    make such decisions.

				
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posted:5/22/2013
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