Used in Advertising
• Advertisers use a variety of strategies to do a variety of
• Consumers to buy products.
• Choose a business or service that they need.
• Hungry people to eat at a particular restaurant.
• Children to want a specific toy.
• People to donate to a certain cause or organization.
• Drivers to want a reliable, sporty, or fuel efficient car.
• …and more!
Advertising Techniques: ETHOS
Who is doing the persuading?
Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character
of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the
central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader
that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as
author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who
is likable and worthy of respect.
• Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of
the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the
message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views.
It can also be affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently
from the message--his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous
record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called the
argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.
Examples of advertisements with
• In advertising, celebrities, experts, and intelligent confident people are
usually the ones who appeal to consumers the most.
Advertising Techniques: LOGOS
• Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning.
This will be the most important technique we will study, and
Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive
reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive
reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of
argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study
the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and
look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid
them in your writing.
• Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the
message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the
effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on
an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.
• This means saying things that make sense and that sound logical
to the reader, that are backed up by facts and figures, and
making one statement follow another in a logical way.
Examples of advertisements that
appeal to LOGIC:
ABOVE THE INFLUENCE
Advertising Techniques: PATHOS
• This technique of advertising is done with help of two factors -
needs of consumers and fear factor. Most common appeals
under need are:
▫ need for something new
▫ need for getting acceptance
▫ need for not being ignored
▫ need for change of old things
▫ need for security
▫ need to become attractive, etc.
• Most common appeals under fear are:
▫ fear of accident
▫ fear of death
▫ fear of being avoided
▫ fear of getting sick
▫ fear of getting old, etc.
Example of commercials with EMOTIONAL
Dear Sophie – Google Chrome
Anti-Dog Fighting Campaign
The Few, the Proud, the Marines
Budweiser – Remember 9/11
NIKE – Women in Sports
Anti-Drug – When I Grow Up
Persuasive Techniques in Advertising
See the back of the handout from yesterday
Transfer for definitions of these terms and be
Plain Folks sure to add the last two!
Bribery Quiz next week over this material!
ADD THESE TWO:
More Persuasive TV Commercials
Which APPEAL & TECHNIQUES are used???
• VW - Dog Strikes Back
• Apple – Get a Mac
• Scope Dual-Blast
• Pepsi Max
• Dr. Pepper
• Proctor & Gamble http://www.pg.com/en_US/brands/index.shtml
• Domestic Violence
• Pro Activ
• RJ Reynolds Ad (late 1940s/early ‘50s!)
• Bud Light
Companies Famous for their
Commericals & Ads
Print Ads - LOGOS
Autism Awareness PSA
• Ads that Make You Think
Print Ads - LOGOS
Print Ads - LOGOS
Panasonic 3-D TV
Popular Advertising Techniques
Ten Timeless Persuasive Writing
Techniques (also used in advertising!)
• Repetition - To stay on the good side, make your point in several different ways,
such as directly, using an example, in a story, via a quote from a famous person, and
once more in your summary.
• Reasons Why - When you need people to be receptive to your line of thinking,
always give reasons why.
• Consistency - Consistency is associated with integrity and rational behavior.
Use this in your writing by getting the reader to agree with something up front that
most people would have a hard time disagreeing with. Then rigorously make your
case, with plenty of supporting evidence, all while relating your ultimate point back
to the opening scenario that’s already been accepted.
• Social Proof - Obvious examples of social proof can be found in testimonials and
outside referrals, and it’s the driving force behind social media. But you can also
casually integrate elements of social proof in your writing, ranging from skillful
alignment with outside authorities to blatant name dropping.
• Comparisons - Metaphors, similes and analogies are the persuasive writer’s best
friends. When you can relate your scenario to something that the reader already
accepts as true, you’re well on your way to convincing someone to see things your
• Agitate and Solve - First, you identify the problem and qualify your audience. Then you agitate the
reader’s pain before offering your solution as the answer that will make it all better.
• Prognosticate - Providing your readers with a glimpse into the future. This entire strategy is built on
credibility. Only attempt if you can back up your claims with your credentials or your obvious grasp of the
• Go Tribal - Give someone a chance to be a part of a group that they want to be in—whether that be
wealthy, or hip, or green, or even contrarian—and they’ll hop on board whatever train you’re driving.
• Address Objections - Addressing all the potential objections of at least the majority of your readers
can be tough, but if you really know your subject the arguments against you should be fairly obvious
• Storytelling - The reason why storytelling works so well lies at the heart of what persuasion really is.
Stories allow people to persuade themselves, and that’s what it’s really all about. You might say that we
never convince anyone of anything—we simply help others independently decide that we’re right
• Sex Appeal
Megan Fox MOTOROLA
• Humorous Commercials from Super Bowl 2012
USE OF LOADED LANGUAGE
Ad Campaigns the Hurt Sales
• Best Super Bowl Commercials of All Time
• Media Literacy Search
• Comprehensive List of Techniques
• 2013 Super Bowl Ads