The Middle Ages Essay Lauren and Taylor by tangshuming

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									Lauren Feeley and Taylor Reilly                           October 20, 2011

Humanities                                                       6-Baskin

                              The Middle Ages
       The Middle Ages occurred between 500 through 1400 A.D. Charles Martel
was a man from one of the small western kingdoms in Europe. Charles Martel’s
grandson was known as Charlemagne. He was known as this because he was the
greatest leader of the Franks, and he was known as the name Charlemagne
because he conquered or defeated the kingdoms in the southwestern part of
Europe which we now know as parts of France, parts of Italy and Germany.
Charlemagne had a relation to Roman Christianity because he spread the word
about Roman Christianity religion throughout Europe. Charlemagne conquered
the kingdoms in southwestern parts of Europe, but only some countries. These
countries included France, Germany, and some parts of Italy. The pope crowned
Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor because Pope Leo III claimed that
Charlemagne was a rare individual who took the trouble to know his things.



      During The Middle Ages, there was something called Feudalism. Feudalism
was a system of government that developed around 800 to keep peace in Europe.
Feudalism worked by dividing lands into fiefs. Normally, the boundaries were
divided by the kings. Wealthier people had more loyalty and had larger lands.
Feudalism helped maintain peace because each landowner had to swear to an
oath they would king their loyalty, support in war, and promise to keep their
peace.

       People who took an oath of loyalty to their lords, they were called vassals.
A lord is a person who has authority, control, or power over others. An example
of a lord for this situation would most likely be kings or rich landowners. The
relationship between a lord and a vassal is that lords and vassals both made a
swear to an oath that they would king their loyalty, support in war, and promise
to keep peace. A fief is: In the Middle Ages, a property was given to a vassal in
exchange for loyalty. People would trade properties for loyalty. An oath of fealty
was swearing an oath, or keeping someone’s promise. The Code of Chivalry is the
code of conduct that knight believed they should follow. Knights were supposed
to know things such as manners, poetry, and music. A knight was a man who was
a member of the warrior class of the Middle Ages. The responsibility of a knight
was to guard the king or land-owners in return for land. Serfs had the role of
working on a noble’s manor. Their responsibilities were that they had to work on
the noble’s manor, and they had to respect what the lord said or did. They were
not allowed to leave the manor without the lord’s permission. They had to pay
taxes in crops and by working for their lord. A manor is a fortified house that
belongs to the fief’s owner or lord. In the manor, there was normally a church.

      Norse or Vikings were people who were explorers, warriors, merchants,
pirates and people who settled in Europe. They were best known for being
explorers and warriors. When you think of Norse or Viking, you normally think of
a man with a long beard and a hat, and that’s what they were, and they went
exploring. William Duke of Normandy, in 1066, accomplished crossing the English
Channel with about 5,000 knights and defeated Harold who was the Saxon king of
England. After defeating them, he became known as William the Conqueror.
There was a new language that he and his tribe introduced to England. It was
French culture.

       King John of England was forced by his vassals to sign an important
document in 1215. This document was Magna Carta, which is “Great Charter” in
Latin. He was forced to sign the paper by English and American people. They
forced him to sign the Magna Carta because they thought that he was correct that
the king could not violate the rights of free men and women by setting unfair
taxes or making unfair demands of goods or labor. The Magna Carta is an
important document because the king could not violate the rights of free men
and women. This means the king could not demand a high amount of money for
taxes. Like I said before, this document protected and had rights toward not
violating rights of the people.
       During the middle ages the religion that was celebrated was Roman
Catholic. In this religion there were people who believed in God the most and
basically spent their entire life praying, farming, studying and making craft goods,
these people were called monks. Monks were men who devoted their lives to a
group of other religious men and most of the time when they join the group they
lose all of their possessions and owned items. Monasteries were where monks
lived and celebrated god. Monasteries were a combination of farms, churches,
homes, and schools. The monks had a big part to do with learning and education.
They made books of prayer, books of poetry, and manuscripts of the old Roman
and Greek texts in the monasteries scriptorium room, which was the room in
which they had all the things needed to make books at the time because there
were no printing presses. People in the middle ages got their share of education
mostly through books, so as you can see the monks had a big part in education by
making them books. The monks were not the only people who had a big part in
the Roman Catholic Church. There were also nuns and covets. A nun was a
woman that joined a religious group just like the monks. Covets were special
communities were the nuns of the church, or in general all nuns, lived. After the
year 1100 Europeans started to build cathedrals, which were large catholic
churches.

       In the 1095, a war began for the ownership over the holy land which was
soon after renamed the Crusades. The war was between the Christians and The
Muslims. This was called for by Pope Urban II to capture Jerusalem, which was
where Jesus lived. The Christians also struggled to get the Muslims out of Spain
which had been captured by the Muslims in the early 700’s. This started a war
which is called the Reconquista. The war was fought for a long period of time and
during most of this time Spain was deeply influenced by the Islamic Culture. The
war was fought by the Christian Armies who tried to recapture Spain. Craftsmen
were people who were belonged to groups known as guilds. Craftsman such as
tailors, shoemakers, drapers, bakers, locksmiths, painters, joiners, stonemasons,
and master builders all belonged to the group of guilds. A merchant was a person
who traded goods for goods and then sold what he got from the trade. In order to
make money, they increase the price of what they traded for. When you were an
apprentice, you were typically expected to start off as an apprentice, and then
become a journeyman, who was someone who went around doing their job and
creating master pieces, and then you became a master-tailor. A journeyman
craftsman was a person who had to create a master piece and then had a
ceremony to show everyone that he was a master-tailor. The relation between a
journeyman and an apprentice was first, you would become an apprentice, and
then after you proved you would be a good master-tailor, you would become a
journeyman. You would become a master-craftsman after you traveled around
and made a master piece then you would become a master-craftsman. A
craftsman was a group or association of guilds. The goal of a guild was typically
people of the same trade or pursuits. The Black Death or Bubonic Plague was a
disease that spread through Europe that infected England in 1348 and lasted until
1350. It was caused by bacteria from Oriental Rat Fleas. This costed many lives.

								
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