Changing Demographics in a Global Economy
United States dominance in world trade
United States dominance in Foreign Direct
Dominance of United States multinational firms
Centrally planned economies off-limits
Changing Demographics -cont’d
Spread of democracy
What are Laws ?
Laws are society’s values and
standards that are enforceable in the
What are Ethics?
Ethics are the moral principles
and values that govern the
actions and decisions of an
individual or group. They serve
as guidelines on how to act rightly
and justly when faced with moral
• Ethical principles vary from religion to
religion. True or false?
FALSE - The five fundamental ethical
Do no harm
Make things better
• What is right in one part of the world might
not be right in another part. True or false?
FALSE - What people believe to be right may
differ from one country to another, but this
does not mean that what actually IS right
Ethics attempts to discover what IS right
and wrong, regardless of accepted practice.
• Ethical principles change over time. True
FALSE - The aforementioned five ethical
principles have existed since the beginning of
civilization and will remain so until its end.
• Being honest is the most important ethical
rule of all. True or false?
FALSE - In some situations, rare as they
may be, other ethical considerations may
For example, during WWII, courageous
men and women in Europe who hid Jews
from the Nazis had to lie to the Gestapo.
• Sometimes, one not only has a right to keep
private things private, but has a duty not to
do so. True or false?
TRUE - As with the example of lying above,
the duty to maintain confidentiality is not an
absolute moral obligation. When a patient
tells his psychiatrist that he intends to
commit murder, the psychiatrist has the
right to not keep this information to herself,
but has a duty not to do so.
• Avoiding harm is a moral imperative, but
being loving is not ethically required. True
TRUE - Whatever a person’s relationship is
to you, you have a duty to not harm him or
her. Being loving, kind or compassionate
might be better viewed as ideals to which we
should aspire, rather than as principles of
duty. If you fail to act charitably toward the
driver who chops you off, you are not acting
unethically (although you may be expressing
the deepest aspects of your humanity).
• People often disagree about what is
important in life. True or false?
• TRUE - This is a sociological fact and says
nothing about what should constitute the good
life. Even if most people that you encounter
believe acquiring wealth is their main objective,
it does not follow that becoming rich and
famous is a worthwhile goal. What they
might be saying is that “being famous will
make me happy.”
A framework for understanding ethical behavior
Ethical issues in international business
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
Ethical perceptions across cultures
ETHICS – IS IT GOOD BUSINESS?
INCREASING $TOCKHOLDER EQUITY
Rockefeller Rebellion Turns Up Heat on Exxon
John D.'s Heirs Seek Change -- and Respect
WSJ - May 24, 2008; Page A1
Two decades ago, Neva Goodwin Rockefeller grew so tired of all the
baggage that came with her fabled family name that she changed it and
became plain Neva Goodwin. But now, Ms. Goodwin, 63 years old, is
embracing the powerful Rockefeller name as she publicly challenges the
management of Exxon Mobil Corp., successor to the oil company founded
by her great-grandfather, John D. Rockefeller. As Neva Rockefeller
Goodwin, she has marshaled four generations of Rockefellers to join her
in a campaign to force major changes at one of the most profitable
companies in the world. The battle will come to a head at Exxon's annual
meeting Wednesday in Dallas. (Scheduled for 28 May.)
Some members of the family joined the fight out of a passionate belief in the
threat of global warming; others were concerned that Exxon is
overlooking business opportunities or risks. Many seem offended that the
company appears impervious to the wishes of its shareholders, including
those named Rockefeller.
Exxon Withstands Activist Proposals
Chairman, CEO Jobs To Remain Joined;
Environment Still Issue
WSJ - May 29, 2008; Page B3
DALLAS -- Exxon Mobil Corp. shareholders rejected a proposal to create an
independent chairman in a heated proxy fight over the future of the giant oil
company . . . The proposal to create an independent chairman, which would have
stripped Chairman and Chief Executive Rex Tillerson of one of his titles, drew
39.5% of the votes cast at Wednesday's annual shareholder meeting. Support for
the measure edged down from last year, when it received 40% of the votes cast.
The shareholder unrest also reflected some concerns that Exxon isn't doing enough
to prepare for climate change or develop a more robust renewable-fuels strategy.
(The chairman) acknowledged activists' environmental concerns without offering
any concrete promises. He said Exxon must continue to generate needed energy
while taking steps to "lower our environmental footprint." But he also said he didn't
think non-fossil fuels would make a significant dent in global energy demand until
2050 or so.
Ethics – is it good business?
Companies spend billions of dollars doing good works -- such
as developing eco-friendly technology -- and then trumpeting
them to the public. But does it pay off?
Ethics – is it good business?
In a series of experiments, consumers were shown the same
products -- coffee and T-shirts -- but one group was told the
items had been made using high ethical standards and
another group that low standards had been used.
REWARD AND PUNISHMENT
What consumers were willing to pay for a pound of
coffee based on what they were told about the
company's production standards:
Ethical standards . . . . . . . . . $9.71
Unethical standards . . . . . . . . 5.89
Control (no information) . . . . 8.31
Source: Remi Trudel and June Cotte
A MATTER OF DEGREE
How much consumers were willing to pay for all-
cotton T-shirts based on what they were told about
the proportion of ethical production:
100% organic cotton . . . . . . $21.21
50% organic cotton . . . . . . . . 20.44
25% organic cotton . . . . . . . . 20.72
Unethical behavior* . . . . . . . .17.33
Control (no information) . . . . 20.04
*Production harms environment
Consumers with high ethical expectations of companies
doled out bigger rewards and punishments than
consumers with low expectations. What each group was
willing to pay for a pound of coffee based on production
Consumers with high expectations:
Ethical standards . . . . . . . $11.59
Unethical standards . . . . . . . 6.92
Consumers with low expectations:
Ethical standards . . . . . . . $9.90
Unethical standards . . . . . . 8.44
Consumers are willing to pay a small premium for ethically
produced goods. But they'll punish an unethically made
product even more harshly, by buying it only at a steep
Six Products, Six Carbon Footprints
Everybody's talking about it. But what exactly is a carbon footprint? And how
is it calculated?
By JEFFREY BALL WSJ – 06 Oct 2008
A new concept is entering the consumer lexicon: the carbon footprint.
First came organic. Then came fair trade. Now makers of everything from milk to
jackets to cars are starting to tally up the carbon footprints of their products.
That's the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that get
coughed into the air when the goods are made, shipped and stored, and then
used by consumers.
So far, these efforts raise as many questions as they answer. Different companies
are counting their products' carbon footprints differently, making it all but
impossible for shoppers to compare goods. And even if consumers come to
understand the numbers, they might not like what they find out.
For instance, many products' global-warming impact depends less on how they're
made than on how they're used. That means the easiest way to cut carbon
emissions may be to buy less of a product or use it in a way that's less
CARS -The simplest statistic in the carbon-footprinting game may be
this: For every mile it travels, the average car in the U.S. emits about
one pound of carbon dioxide. Given typical driving distances and fuel-
economy numbers, that translates into about five tons of carbon dioxide
per car per year.
The vast majority of those emissions -- 86% -- came from the car's fuel use, the study
found. Just 4% of emissions came from making and assembling the car. That means
consumers can lower their footprint by buying a car with better fuel economy.
The Prius, the hybrid gasoline-and-electric car that averages 42 miles per gallon, has
a lifetime carbon footprint of 44 metric The Corolla, a small sedan with 29 MPG, has a
footprint of 64 tons. The Camry (23 MPG) has a footprint of 95 tons. And the 4Runner,
an SUV rated at 16 MPG, has a footprint of 118 tons.
SHOES -You may think you're at one with nature going for a walk in the
woods in your sturdy hiking boots. But those boots pack a lot of carbon.
The big reason: the leather.
Timberland Co., a shoe company with an outdoorsy image, has assessed the carbon
footprint of about 40 of the shoe models it currently sells. The results range from
about 22 pounds to 220 pounds per pair. Each of the shoes that has been carbon-
footprinted comes with a label assessing its greenhouse-gas score on a scale of zero,
which is best, to 10, which is worst. 2-28
LAUNDRY DETERGENT - The recipe for a low-carbon load of laundry:
Use liquid detergent instead of powder, wash your clothes in cool water
and hang them out to dry.
But consumers who care about their carbon emissions should do more than switch
detergent forms, the labels advise. Doing the wash in cooler water -- 86 degrees
Fahrenheit instead of 104 degrees -- will shave the carbon footprint of each load by 0.3
pounds. That's as much of a reduction as you get from switching to liquid from powder.
The biggest way to cut the environmental impact of cleaning clothes, however, is to
stop using a clothes dryer. Drying laundry outside on a line, Tesco says, will cut the
carbon footprint of every load by a whopping 4.4 pounds.
JACKETS – Patagonia Inc.'s Talus jacket looks like a naturalist's dream.
In fact, its carbon footprint is 66 pounds. That is 48 times the weight of
the jacket itself.
Over the past year the outdoor-equipment maker has computed and posted on its Web
site the carbon footprints of 15 of its products. Because most of Patagonia's products
are made overseas and sold in the U.S., the company that a big chunk of the carbon
footprints came from –
The fabric for the Talus is made in China, the zippers come from Japan, and the jacket
is sewn in Vietnam. Yet all that transportation adds up to less than 1% of the product's
total carbon footprint, Patagonia says. The majority of the footprint -- 71%, or about 47
pounds -- comes in producing the polyester, which originates with oil. 2-29
MILK - Several studies of milk's carbon footprint are under way in the U.S.
Each has come up with a different number, largely because each is counting
A recent study by National Dairy Holdings, a Dallas-based dairy, found that the carbon
footprint of a gallon of its milk in a plastic jug is either 6.19 pounds or 7.59 pounds. The
difference rests in what kind of cases the jugs are placed in during transport from the milk-
processing plant to the distribution center. Plastic cases, because they take more energy to
produce, yield more carbon-dioxide emissions than do cardboard ones.
BEER - When New Belgium Brewing Co. set out last year to compute the
carbon footprint of a six-pack of its Fat Tire Amber Ale, it figured it would find
transportation was the biggest problem. That's the emission source New
Belgium thinks about most often. The microbrewer has been expanding into
more states, necessitating more trucking of its beer.
When the numbers came in this summer, they showed that a six-pack's carbon footprint
was about seven pounds. The real surprise was where the bulk of that number came from:
the refrigeration of the beer at stores. Transportation came in fourth, behind manufacturing
the glass bottles and producing the barley and malt. Refrigeration poses a tougher
problem. Stores selling Fat Tire aren't owned by New Belgium, so even if the brewer
wanted them to stop refrigerating the beer, they might not do so. Many stores could switch
from less-efficient, open-front beer chillers to more-efficient models enclosed by clear
doors. But that presents its own hurdle, Ms. Orgolini notes: "People don't want to have to
open the door."
FORD AND FIRESTONE:
WHO’S TO BLAME?
Now, let’s compare and contrast
this PR debacle with . . .
Johnson & Johnson
Implications for Managers
The most common ethical issues that one may
encounter in a business setting – and especially
global businesses - are:
the moral obligation of multinational
Ethics & Trust – do the hard right thing