Wireless Sensor Networks for Surveillance
Center for the Study of
Mobile Devices and Communications
International Maritime Protection Symp. 2005
WSNs – Extreme Computing
• WSNs consist of a large number of
• low-powered and
• multi-function sensors nodes that are
– able to
• process and
• communicate through collaborative efforts.
• Low cost
• Ease of installation
• Time awareness for co-ordination with other
• Signal processing and
• Standard control protocol and network interfaces
WSN for Surveillance
Resource Aggregation Sensor Network
Adhoc 802.11b 802.15.4/Zigbee
• And, the whole deal…
Deployment Challenges - Wireless
• Transmission Medium
– Vegetation vs desert
– High vs low humidity etc
– What is the range of the mote?
– Break vs Re-associate distance
– How stable is the connection?
– How is it affected by the change in battery voltage?
• Power consumption
– How much power does the radio use?
– What happens when the voltage drops?
Battery Voltage vs. Break & Re-
associate Distance – Near Free Space
Break and Reassociate Distance vs Battery Voltage
3 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4
Detailed Study of Mote Behavior
• RF Characteristics of Mica-Z Wireless
Sensor Network Motes
– Swee Jin Koh, MS Thesis/EE, Dec 2005
Deployment Challenges - Sensor
• What kind of sensor modality should be
used? – PIR, acoustic, magnetic,
• What is the range of the sensor?
• How reliable is the sensor?
• What is the resolution of the sensor?
• How much power does the sensor use?
• What is the cost of the sensor?
Detailed Study of Sensor Behavior
• PIR and Magnetometer Sensor Behavior
– Mike Chesnut / C4I, Jun 2006 (expected)
Deployment Challenges - Network
• How scalable is the network?
• How fault tolerant is the network?
• How is the network affected by node
• What is the network latency?
• What is the packet loss behavior?
Detailed Study of Sensor Network
• Evaluation of the XMesh Routing Protocol
– Amos Teo, MS/EE, Dec 2005
Deployment Challenges –
The Whole Deal…
• How do we deploy the network?
• How do we manage the network?
• What are the data aggregation/fusion and
• What do you do when you detect an
• Configuration and Management of WSNs,
– Min Young Kim/CS, Dec 2005
• Started late-2004
• Implemented and integrated in TNT SA
• Field tested in TNT 2005
• Supported by MARCORSYSCOM and
• Continue testing in TNT/NPS Field Experiments
(Netzer and Bordetsky IS/NPS)
• Tests in the Straits of Malaca, Thailand and/or
Singapore (Ehlert, Steckler, IS/NPS)
• Integration with UAVs (Ravi V., SEA/NPS)
– Steve Schall, MS / CS, Jun 2006 (expected)
• Integration with detection of anomalous behavior
(Rowe CS/NPS and Faculty at UArizona)
• Irvine (WSN Security)
• Sankar (WSN & Medical stuff)