CN1 Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms” - Reagan .._1_

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CN1 Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms” - Reagan .._1_ Powered By Docstoc
					By: Selena & Sofia& Shannon
Culture
Culture: a complex concept that is
  used in many different ways ( to
  describe food and eating habits,
  ritual, clothing, communication
   patterns, religion, and status
              behavior).
 Matsumoto (2004) mentions a
  book from 1998 that analyzed
    128 different definitions of
               culture.
Two levels of culture may be distinguished:

 1) the surface culture, which changes at a
  relatively rapid rate, including popular music
  and entertainment, clothing and hair styles
  and can be externally influenced and
 2) the deep culture, which is relatively slow
  to change, including attitudes toward life,
  religious and philosophical beliefs, and
  values in human relationships.
Culture Examples
Objective and Subjective
Aspects
 People notice that food is different
  when they travel to another country,
  and they say that is due to cultural
  differences.
 In some countries women are
  covered and in others they are not.
Kuschel(2004)
Variation and
Generalization
 Culture cannot be seen but we can see the
  manifestation
 SHOULD NOT be used as an
  explanation of behavior.
 SHOULD be used to understand how
  people have survived in their environment,
  how they have organized in social groups,
  and what attitudes, beliefs and norms
  influence behavior in the social and cultural
  groups.
Kuschel(2004)Cont.
   SHOULD ask questions related to how
    specific factors in the culture result in
    behaviors.
    Ex: Infanticide, rain dance, or initiation rites.

   If culture is simply an explanation of
    behavior, it will lead to circular arguments.

   It should never be used as an explanation in
    itself, since the concept of culture is so
    vague and includes so many variables.
POP QUIZ!
   In your own words what are the levels of
    culture??
Looner
(1995)
    Culture: common
   rules that regulate
     interaction and
  behavior in a group
  as well as a number
  of shared values and
     attitudes in the
Hofstede
(2002)
 His definition of culture is, “
  mental software”, that is, cultural
  schemas that have been
  internalized so that they influence
  thinking, emotions, and behavior.
 The mental software is shared by
  members of a sociocultural group.
Theorists of Psychology
   Took a solely western view
   Looking for “rules” of human behavior
    that could be applied to all cultures
    around the world.
   Etic approaches are typically taken
    within cross-cultural psychology
    where behavior is compared across
    specific cultures.
   Emic approach looks at behavior that
    are culturally specific. Challenges
    psychologists to re- examine their
    ideas of “truth” with regard to
    culture.
Mead (1935)
   Anthropologist
   Documented many instances of cultural
    variations in gender in her study of three
    different cultures living close to each
    other in New Guinea.
   The Arapesh people were characterized by
    women and men having the same sensitive and
    non- aggressive behavior, and “feminine”
    personalities; among the Mundugamor, both men
    and women were ruthless, unpleasant, and
    “masculine”; in the Tchambuli community,
    women were dominant and men were more
    emotional and concerned about personal
    appearance- an apparent reversal of western
    norms.
   Showed that a valid indication of how
    society can powerfully influence gender-
    role development.
Cultural norms

 Are behavior patterns that are typical of
  specific groups.
 Passed down from generation to
  generation by observational learning by the
  group’s gatekeepers- parents, peers,
  teachers, and religious leaders.
 Includes
  - how marriage patterns are chosen
  -attitude towards alcohol consumption
  - acceptance (or rejection) of spanking
  children
            Pop Quizz!!
   In Looner (1995) definition of culture
    is???

   Hofstede (2002) definition of culture
    is???

   Some examples of Cultural Norms??
            Work Cited
   http://ibpsychologynotes.files.wordpress.
    com/2011/02/13-define-the-terms-
    culture-and-cultural-norms3.pdf
   http://iseibpsychology2012.wikispaces.c
    om/Define+the+term+culture+and+cultur
    al+norms.

				
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posted:5/21/2013
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