Chapter 19 Agricultural Revolution Population Explosion Proto by hcj


									     Chapter 19
Agricultural Revolution
Population Explosion
• 1700s Expansion of Europe – growth of
  world Atlantic trade, agricultural
  improvement, population pressure,
  growing cottage industry
• Connections?
• Agricultural improvement  Population up
• Atlantic trade  Cottage industry (market
  and demand had to be there for the
  economy to grow)
   Problems with the Economy
• Harvests fail every 8-9 years – famine
  foods like chestnuts and bark,
  abandonment of children, even
  cannibalism in some cases
• This led to susceptibility of diseases like
  smallpox and influenza
            Open-Field System
• Open-field system:
   – Community farming with three large fields – farmers had a
     mix of good and bad plots in these fields, and a mix of
     usable and fallow land
   – 3-year fallow system to preserve nitrogen in soil
   – Winter animals would graze in field to “fertilize” it
   – Common lands for pasture and grazing animals – also
     sometimes a forest that could be used to hunt, pick
     berries, collect firewood, and for extremely poor folks, to
     be squatters
   – Poor would glean off the field
   – High taxes and high rents still common
   – Created a sense of community as everyone farmed
   – Very traditional – new room for experimenting with new
     techniques because everyone would have to agree
       Agricultural Revolution
• 1650 and on
  – Crop Rotation: Alternating nitrogen-depleting grain
    crops with nitrogen-restoring crops like turnips, peas,
    beans, clover, and potatoes
  – Cyclical process between growth of agriculture and
    growth of animal population
  – Enclosure Movement: all small plots consolidated,
    common land disappears, and everything is fenced in
    – reorganization necessary for technical progress
England and Netherlands Lead the
 Way – E. Europe Still Behind!!!
• 1707 – Act of Union: England and Scotland unite to form
  Great Britain
• 1688-89 Glorious Revolution – Parliament ascends to
  power – government in the hands of wealthy land-
  owners from 1688-1832
• This led to a transformation of farming since these land-
  owners had money to experiment
• Netherlands had a high population and sought new ways
  to feed its people and drain its marshes
   – Cornelius Vermuyden: drained 40,000 acres in England
   – Jethro Tull : seed drill and horses for plowing, selective breeding
   – Turnip Townsend: crop rotation – obsession with turnips
  Negative Effects of Enclosure
• Many small farmers were bought out since they had to
  pay fees for “fair” land surveying and often could not do
• Large mass of landless cottagers who grazed animals on
  the commons – Rural proletariat – Rural proletariat did
  not starve, but lost a lot of self-respect and often moved
  to the cities to make a living- became factory workers of
  the Industrial Revolution
• Small number of peasant farmers who owned their own
• Small number of tenant farmers who rented land from
  the wealthy land-owners and hired their own wage
  laborers – this is the experimentation group
        Population Explosion
• Previous cyclical pattern of population – would
  surge fast, and then be ravaged by a disease
  (i.e. Black Death)
• Standard of living decreased in 1500s as the
  influx of bullion led to inflation but no real
  increase in actual wages
• In 1600s population did not increase much - 1%
  or slower growth per year
• This was due to the 3-punch of famine, war, and
  disease – 30 Years War killed 33-66% of
  population in some areas
             Population Explosion
• Change came in 18th century, specifically after 1750 in all regions of
    – 1700 France had highest population
    – 1750 Russia surpassed France; Italy was third
• What caused more births and fewer deaths?
    – Actually due more to fewer deaths than more births, complements of
      reducing key plagues
    – Black plague disappeared from the scene as the brown rat overtook the
      black rat in China
    – Inoculation against small pox – Edward Jenner
    – Improvements in water sanitation reduced typhoid and typhus
    – Drainage of swamps reduced insect carriers
    – Potatoes brought in from the New World and developments in AgRev
      which caused people to eat a better diet
    – Famine, disease, and war still existed, but to a less severe extent
• Agriculture could not provide
  enough work for a growing
  labor force…poor farmers
  sought more opportunities to
  make a living…leads to the
  cottage industry!
Growth of Cottage (Rural) Industry
or Proto-industrialization or Putting-
            out industry
• Two parts: merchant capitalist and rural worker
• Merchant loaned materials to rural worker, who
  processed the materials and returned the
  finished product to the merchant
• Paid workers by the piece, and sold at a higher
  cost to generate profit
• No guilds to monitor quality, but more flexibility
  and freedom in the process
• Began in England with the weaving of wool
  cloth, predominant in Low countries and
   Family Role/Key Inventions
• Women and children prepared the raw material
  and spun the thread, man of house wove the
• 1733 - John Kay – flying shuttle – boat-shaped
  piece of wood on wheels – sped up weaving
• 1784 Samuel Crompton – “Crompton’s Mule” –
  sped up spinning
• Spinsters hired
• Conflict between merchants and weavers over
  prices, work habits, and unmet deadlines

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