; Chapter 21 – Sections 1 and 3 Changing Ways of Life and
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Chapter 21 – Sections 1 and 3 Changing Ways of Life and


  • pg 1
									   Main Idea – Americans
    experienced cultural
    conflicts as customs and
    values changed in the
    1920s. The popular
    culture reflected the
    prosperity of the era, as
    mass media, movies,
    and spectator sports
    played important roles
    in the 1920s.
   Wartime economy  Peacetime economy
   Technology growth made life easier
       Washing machine
       Electric stove
       Electric lighting
   Buying on Credit  Spending money you
    don’t have.
   People became more carefree and
   Women held jobs outside the home and
    went to college
   Flapper: carefree young women with
    short hair, heavy makeup, and short
   Flagpole sitter…people actually sat on top
    of flagpoles for fun.
   Charles Lindbergh…first solo flight across
    Atlantic (Spirit of Saint Louis)
   Greater Mobility (easier to move around)
       People moved from the suburbs and commuted to
        work in the cities
       Created jobs in transportation industry
           Road construction
           Oil
           Steel
           Cars
           Gas stations
   Airplane-transports mail and eventually people
       Charles Lindbergh
   Background: 18th
    established an era of
    Prohibition – def. –
    manufacture, sale,
    and transportation of
    alcoholic beverages
   U.S. government failed to
    budget enough money to
    enforce the law
   Speakeasies – def. –
    underground saloons and
    nightclubs that sold alcohol
   Bootleggers – def. – people
    who manufactured or
    smuggled illegal liquor
   SIG – Prohibition experiment
       Rise in organized crime – ex:
        gangster Al Capone in
       In 1933 – 21st Amendment
        repealed prohibition
   Fundamentalism –
    def. – belief in the
    literal interpretation
    of the bible
       Led to conflict with
        some scientific ideas
       Rejected the idea that
        man had evolved
        from apes = Darwin’s
        theory of evolution
   The Scopes Trial (1925) –
    Teacher John T. Scopes
    violated TN law that
    banned teaching of
    evolution in school
     Featured fight between
      defense lawyer Clarence
      Darrow and prosecution
      witness William Jennings
     SIG - Highlighted the
      conflict between science
      and fundamentalism
   Sacco and Vanzetti
     Italian immigrants (and
      anarchists) who were
      charged and found
      guilty in the armed
      robbery and murder of
      two pay-clerks
     Eyewitnesses had only
      been able to say that the
      guilty parties looked
      Italian, Sacco and
      Vanzetti were arrested
     Executed via
   Newspapers
   Magazines
   Radio
   Movies
   more literate
    Americans =
    increased newspaper
       SIG – shaped cultural
        norms and sparked
   mass-circulation to
    reach wide audiences
       Focused on weekly
        news and culture –
        ex: Reader’s Digest,
   most powerful
    medium of the 1920s
       Broadcast news, sports,
        music (Jazz), children’s
       SIG – created a more
        national culture –
        different audiences
        around the country
        hearing the same
   offered viewers a way
    to escape their lives
    through romance and
       SIG – helped promote a
        national culture
   Development of
    movies—Silent movies!
     Felix the Cat
     The Big Parade
     Mickey Mouse
   Babe Ruth - a professional ball player that hit 60
    homeruns in one season.
   Jack Dempsey - a boxer defeated by Gene Tunney.
   Gene Tunney - the boxer that defeated former
    champion Jack Dempsey.
   Johnny Weissmuller - an American Olympic swimmer
    that won 5 gold medals and was an actor.
   Bobby Jones - was the greatest amateur golfer of
    modern times.
   Big Bill Tilden - first American to win men's singles at
    Wimbledon, England.
   Red Grange - was a halfback at the University of
    Illinois from 1923 to 1925.
   Background: 19th
    Amendment increased
    women’s rights by giving
    women the right to vote
   Flappers – def. - young
    urban women who
    embraced new fashions
    and attitudes
       Featured short bobbed
        haircuts, shorter dresses,
        make-up, smoking,
        drinking, talked openly
        about sex, dancing
   20 Slang
   Anti-immigrant
    attitudes (nativism) had
    been growing since the
    1880s due to increased
    immigration, especially
    from Southern and
    Eastern Europe
       Increased immigration led
        to more competition for
        industrial jobs in cities
   Return of the Ku Klux
    Klan (KKK)
       1920s KKK devoted to
        hatred of immigrants,
        blacks, Catholics, Jews,
       4.5 million male members
        by mid-1920s
       Declined by the end of the
        decade due to criminal
   The Quota System –
    established the
    maximum number of
    people who could
    enter the U.S. from
    each foreign country
       Designed to limit
        number of Southern
        and Eastern
        European immigrants
   Jobs for African
    Americans in the South
    were Scarce and low
   African Americans faced
    discrimination and
    violence in the South
   African Americans moved
    to northern cities in search
    of jobs
   African Americans also
    faced discrimination and
    violence in the North

   African American                Art: Jacob Lawrence-
    artists, writers, and            painter who chronicled
    musicians based in               the Great Migration
    Harlem revealing the             North through art.
    freshness and variety of        Literature: Langston
    African American                 Hughes-poet who
    culture.                         combined the
   The popularity of these          experiences of African
    artists spread to the rest       and American cultural
    of society.                      roots.
                                    Music: Duke Ellington
                                     and Lewis Armstrong-
                                     Jazz composers; Bessie
                                     Smith-Blues singer
                                  Art:
                                      Georgia O’Keefe-
                                       artist known for
   Literature:                        urban scenes and
       F. Scott Fitzgerald-           later paintings of the
        novelist who wrote             southwest and
        about the jazz age             flowers
        (The Great Gatsby)        Music:
       John Steinbeck-               Aaron Copland and
        novelist who                   George Gershwin-
        portrayed the                  wrote uniquely
        strength of poor               American music.
        migrant workers in
        the 30s (The Grapes
        of Wrath
Chapter 22 – Section 1
Chapter 23 – Section 1
   Main Idea – As the
    prosperity of the 1920s
    ended, severe economic
    problems gripped the
    nation and led to the
    Great Depression. After
    becoming president,
    Franklin Delano
    Roosevelt used
    government programs
    as part of his New Deal
    to combat the
   The economy naturally goes through times of
    recession, recovery, and prosperity.
   Background: The
    prosperity of the 1920s
    was largely based on
    the use of credit – def. –
    consumers agreed to
    buy now and pay later
    for purchases
     Installment buying
     Buying on margin
     Over speculation
   def. - form of credit
    with monthly
    payments with
   def. – buying too
    many stocks hoping
    to sell at a higher
    price in a short period
    of time, regardless of
    risk involved
•   paying only a small
    percentage of a stock’s
    price as a down payment
    and borrowing the rest to
    make a stock purchase
   Black Tuesday
   Hawley-Smoot Act
   (October 29, 1929) – the
    stock market crashed
    with 16.4 million shares
    of stock sold in one day,
    causing prices to
       Prices of stocks fell 
        speculators left with huge
        debts that couldn’t be
        repaid to banks banks
        failed people lost their
   Federal Reserve failed
    to prevent
    widespread collapse
    of the nation’s
    banking system as
    banks continued to
    fail through the early
   (1930) - High
    protective tariff
    resulted in retaliatory
    tariffs in other
    countries, which
    international trade
   Great Depression
   “Hoovervilles”
   Farm foreclosures
When was
unemployment the
   – def. – period from 1929 to
    1940 in which the economy
    plummeted and
    unemployment skyrocketed,
    causing widespread
     Business failures – 90,000
      businesses went bankrupt
     Collapse of the financial
      system - over 11,000 bank
     Unemployment – 25% of
      American workers were
      unemployed by 1932
•       – def. - shacks and
        shantytowns of homeless
        people, named for President
        President Hoover
         thought that private
         companies and
         volunteers should take
         care of the economy
            Did not act in the
             beginning to try to
             counter act the
   – farmers lost their
    homes and lands and
    were forced to
    migrate across the
    country looking for
       Dust Bowl
       “Okies”
   parts of Kansas,
    Oklahoma, Texas,
    New Mexico, and
    Colorado that were
    hardest hit by draught
    and dust storms
   Lasted 8 years
   Caused by poor agricultural practices and
    years of sustained drought
   The winds of the Great Plains stirred up the
    dust from the fields and blew it across the
     In 1932, 14 dust storms were recorded on the Plains.
     In 1933, there were 38 storms.
     By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of
      farmland had lost all or most of the topsoil to the
   The Dust Bowl got its name after Black Sunday, April
    14, 1935.
       The cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the
        worst. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Then it hit.
   The simplest acts of life — breathing, eating a meal,
    taking a walk — were no longer simple.
   Children wore dust masks to and from school, women
    hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to
    stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops
    blew away.
       http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/depression/dustbowl.htm

   Life during the Dust Bowl
   Okies: those who moved west to California
    from Oklahoma
   Arkies: those who moved west to California
    from Arkansas
   These migrant workers/families lived in tents
    or out of their automobiles
   What feelings does
    this image give you?
   What do you think
    to woman is feeling?
    How about the kids?
   Describe the way
    they are dressed?
   Migrant Stories
   As John Steinbeck wrote in his 1939 novel The
    Grapes of Wrath:
       "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from
        Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from
        Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out,
        tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and
        hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a
        hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They
        streamed over the mountains, hungry and restless -
        restless as ants, scurrying to find work to do - to lift,
        to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any
        burden to bear, for food. The kids are hungry. We
        got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for
        food, and most of all for land."
   Franklin Delano
    Roosevelt (FDR) won
    the presidential election
    of 1932
       Inaugural address –
        rallied a frightened nation
         “The only thing we have
          to fear is fear itself.”
       Fireside Chats – FDR’s
        radio addresses aimed at
        restoring American
   Relief
   Recovery
   Reform
   measures that provided
    direct payment to people for
    immediate help
     CCC (Civilian Conservation
     TVA (Tennessee Valley
     WPA (Works Progress
   (Civilian Conservation Corps)
    – provided jobs for young
    single males on conservation
    (Tennessee Valley Authority)
    – provided jobs building dams
    to bring running water and
    electricity to poor region in the
   (Works Progress
    Administration) – created as
    many jobs as quickly as
    possible in construction of
    airports, highways, and public
    buildings as well as
    professions such as art, music,
    and theater
   – programs designed
    to bring the nation
    out of the Depression
    over time
     AAA
     NRA
 AAA (Agricultural
  Adjustment Act) –
  aided farmers by
  regulating crop
  production so prices
  would rise
 NRA (National
  Administration) –
  reformed banking
  practices and
  established fair codes of
  competition for
   FDIC
   Wagner Act
   SSA
   (Federal Deposit
    Corporation) –
    protected bank
    deposits up to $5,000
   What does it protect
    up to today?
   – defined unfair labor practices
    and established the National
    Labor Relations Board to settle
    disputes between employers
    and employees
   (Social Security Act) –
    provided a pension for retired
    workers and their spouses and
    helped people with disabilities
   Who are they main
    figures in the cartoon?
   What are they
    pouring down the
   What is occurring as it
    is being pumped into
    the economy?
   the New Deal changed the
    role of government to a
    more active participant in
    solving problems
     Public believed in the
      responsibility of the
      federal government to:
       deliver public services
       intervene in the
       act in ways to promote
        the general welfare

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