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CHAPTER 26 THE OTTOMANS AND QING CHINA From Empire to Nation • Ottomans weakened by internal strife -Weak rulers (sultans) -Power struggles -Corrupt provincial officials -Position of artisans declines (Western goods flood market) -Wide scale urban riots -Armies lack important resources -Foreign empires make grabs at outlying territory Reform and Survival • The “Sick Man of Europe -Stave off total decline through reforms -Move into 20th century under own regime • European nations concerned -Potential collapse of Ottomans could impact the balance of power in Europe. -Great Britain props up Ottomans to keep Russia from controlling Istanbul Reform And Survival • Stage 1: Modest Reform (18 th century) -Sultan Selim III: Introduces printing press & seeks greater bureaucratic efficiency -Result: Angers Janissaries & factions within the bureaucracy • Stage 2: Reforms Continue (1826) -Sultan Mahmud II: Creates rival army to break Janissary and ayan power -Farther-reaching reforms are based on western precedents • Stage 3: The Tanzimat Reforms (1839-1876) -Reorganizes large sections of society on along western lines Repression and Revolt • New reforms don’t appease westerners and also upset conservative ulamas and ayans. • Sultan Abdul Hamid (1878-1908) Create order through absolute rule • Rule ends in bloodless coup -Supported by Ottoman Society for Union & Progress (Young Turks) who wanted to restore the 1876 constitution The “Sick Man” Dies • 1908 coup: Supported by military, who introduce many reforms (Restore constitution, education, status of women) • Immediate problems: -Factional fighting -Outbreak of WWI -Continued subjugation of Arab portions of the empire • Ottoman Empire ends in 1914 • Crisis in Arab portions of empire same: Reject or adopt western ways? • Arabs resented Ottoman Turkish rule, but prefer rule by Muslims to control by Western powers. Do Now: In Your Notebooks… Please answer the following questions and be prepared to share with the class. 1). What might the results (Social, Political, and/or Economic) be for a country that attempts industrialization but fails? 2). If a country is less industrialized than another, are they always subject to imperialism? Why or why not? Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands • Arabs resented Ottoman control -Accepted because of common faith • As Ottomans declined, Arabs decreasingly able to be protected from Europeans • Failed Westernization in Egypt -Napoleon invaded Egypt (1798) -Mamluks tried to defend Egypt with antiquated weaponry -Mamluks: Slaves that had risen to military commanders and rulers in their own name Continued • Napoleon was defeated by British instead of Egypt’s military • Arabs concerned with how far they had fallen behind Europe Muhammad Ali-Failure to Westernize • Muhammad Ali: 1801-Ruler of Egypt who introduced Western-style reforms • Political: Developed effective fighting force in the Middle East -Challenged authority of Ottomans by invading Syria • Economic: Peasantry increase production of cotton, hemp, and indigo (Plantation and cash crop economy) -Improve harbors and extend irrigation works -Attempts at industrialization thwarted by competition from Europe Continued • Possessions beyond Egypt were crumbling; Muhammad Ali died in 1848 • Successors lack ambition and ability -Intermarried with Turkish families -Given title of khedives after 1867 • Ruled Egypt until overthrown by a military coup in 1952 which brought Gamel Abdul Nasser to power Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Resistance • Egypt dependent on export of cotton -Muhammad Ali developed dependence on cotton economy -Susceptible to fluctuations in the world price of cotton • Khedives wasted revenue on the elite and fruitless military campaigns in Sudan Continued • Europeans lent money to ensure access to Egypt’s supply of cotton -Build Suez Canal (1869) -Europeans wanted control over canal -Britain and France fought for control until the British gained control in 1888. • Push to return to traditional times of Muhammad Continued • Khedive disbanded Egyptian military units -Ahmad Orabi began a revolt • Khedive sought British assistance -British sent its navy and troops - crushed Orabi’s rebellion -Resulted in British domination of Egypt -Not formally colonized; used consuls and officials to control political and economic affairs -Due to instability, Sudan tries to revolt against Egypt and British Mahdist Revolt • Muhammad Achmad began the revolt -People believed he was the promised deliverer, or Mahdi -Wanted to purge Islam -Violent rebellion against Egyptians and Europeans using guerrilla tactics • Khalifa Abdallahi built a strong, expansive state -Religious practices were enforced, and immoral activities punished. -Foreigners imprisoned or expelled – slavery allowed -1898: Mahdist state defeated at hands of British Do Now: Multiple Choice 1). Why did the British attempt to prop up the Ottoman Empire in the face of other European nations' desire to destroy it? A). Britain had interests in seizing land in the Crimea. B). Britain held a successful monopoly of the supply of opium to the Ottoman Empire. C). Britain wished to support the independence of Egypt under Muhammad Ali. D). Britain feared that the Russians would successfully establish a port on the Mediterranean. 2). Which of the following reforms undertaken by Muhammad Ali failed? A). Production of raw materials in demand in Europe (cotton, hemp, indigo) B). Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector C). Improvements of Egyptian harbors and irrigation works D). Modernization of the army The Last Dynasty: Qing • Qing Dynasty: Manchu-nomadic group who seized control after Ming declined -Adopted Chinese ways -Maintained same system once in power -Differed from previous foreign rulers by including native Chinese in bureaucracy Economy & Society • Conservative approach to both economy and society -Social: -Stressed hierarchy -Extended family remained central social unit -Women confined to the household • Economy: -Lowered taxes, labor demands and improved public works -Attempted to control the landlord class to alleviate peasant burdens -Rise of merchant class (compradors) who specialized in import-export trade Rot From Within • False assumption that the following problems were part of another dynastic cycle • Political -Cheating and bribery on state exams -Sons of high officials ensured bureaucratic jobs • Economic -Diversion of revenue from state projects -Food shortages, famine & disease -Widespread banditry Continued • Tea-Opium Connection -China traded little with West (Favorable trade balance) -Influx of silver into China for centuries -Late 18th century: British merchants smuggle opium into China for nonmedical use -Takes decades for smoking opium to catch on -By 1835: 12 million addicted -Used to escape breakdown of Chinese society The Opium War & After • To Chinese, Europeans were barbarians, animals, nomads -Failed to recognize equally advanced society • British reverse favorable trade balance -Continued supply of opium -Opium dens spread -Qing emperors issued decrees forbidding opium trade Continued • Lin Zexu-Sent to stamp out trade -Blockaded warehouses and destroyed opium • Opium War (1839-1842) -Mostly sea battles over British failure to stop trading opium -China suffered defeat • Treaty of Nanjing -Britain received Hong Kong -Foreign citizens gain extraterritorial rights-Foreigners not subject to Chinese law at port cities Rebellion & Failed Reforms • 1850s & 1860s—wave of rebellions • Taiping rebellion (Hong Xiuquan) -Create kingdom where wealth was shared and no poverty -Organize peasant army -1853: Captures Nanjing and declares capital -Internal feuding and attacked by British and French -Taiping government brought down in 1864 Continued • Self-Strengthening Movement -Dynamic provincial leaders -Encouraged Western investment in railways and factories -Update educational system and military -Help suppress Taiping Rebellion • Manchu rulers resisted reforms -Determined to preserve old order -Willing to make only minor changes Continued • Empress Cixi -Empress dowager -Committed to traditional values -Crush serious move towards reform • External Influence -Foreign nations sign treaties -Sphere of influence: Foreign nation controls trade and investment • Open-Door Policy-China’s doors opened to merchants of all nations Chinese Nationalism • Emperor Guangxu -Wants to modernize country (Hundred Days Reform) -Qing officials view as threat to power; call back Cixi; Guangxu imprisoned -Peasants and workers formed secret society (Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists or “Boxers”) -Campaign against Cixi known as Boxer Rebellion -1900: Multinational force puts down rebellion Failed Reform & Fall of the Qing • 1905-Cixi sends Chinese officials on tour to study world government systems -Eliminate exam system -Restructure government • Resistance continues until 1911 -Secret societies, sons of scholar-gentry or compradors -Fiercely anti-Western • 1912—last Manchu emperor (Puyi) abdicates Global Connection • Islam survives; China does not—WHY? • Challenge to China was more sudden • Muslims share cultural aspects while Chinese regarded western culture as ‘barbaric’ • Muslims has many centers to defend whereas fall of China meant the whole empire • Muslims could fall back on Islam, Chinese did not have a religious tradition to stabilize them.
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