Economic Security Scorecard 2013

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					Spring  2013                 The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     0  
                                       Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW)
                                       Wider   Opportunities   for   Women   (WOW)   has   promoted   empowerment,  
                                       equity   and   economic   security   across   the   lifespan   since   1964.   Through  
                                       advocacy,  research,  training  and  technical  assistance,  WOW  advances  equal  
                                       education   and   employment   opportunities,   non-­‐traditional   occupations   for  
                                       women,  economic  empowerment  and  secure  retirement.    
                                                 Family  Economic  Security  Project  (FES  Project)  and  Elder  Economic  
                                       Security  Initiative  (Elder  Initiative)  improve  policy  and  programs  by  defining  
                                       and  advocating  economic  security.  The  FES  Project  and  Elder  Initiative  work  

                                       improve  the  lives  of  workers,  families  and  seniors  across  the  country.    

©  Copyright  Wider  Opportunities  for  Women,  2013.  

The  Economic  Security  Scorecard  is  funded  by  the  Ford  Foundation.

                                                                                    The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     1  
Job   insecurity,   rising  costs   and   poor   prospects   for  retirement   to                                          y   concerns  
during  the  current  time  of  high  unemployment  and  slow  economic  growth.  As  family-­‐sustaining  wages  and  
benefits   grow   more   scarce   and   an   increasing   number   of   seniors   find   retirement   unattainable,   proactive  
government   investments   in   workers,   families   and   elders   support   economic   growth,   stabilize   families   and  
communities,   and   expand   the   middle   class.   State   governments   can   use   resources   and   target   investments  
more  effectively  when  they  are  guided  by  a  durable,  comprehensive  definition  of  economic  security.  When  
government s   explicit   goal   is   promotion   of   economic   security,   policies   are   more   likely   to   be   inclusive   and  
                                                                           populations;  3)  are  determined  at  the  state  level;  and  4)  
                                                               grades      are  gradable.  The  policies  are  grouped  into  5  Elements  
state-­‐level   policies   on   their   potential   to   improve   the     of  Economic  Security:  Income,  Job  Quality,  Education  &  
economic  security  of  workers,  families  and  retirees.  By             Training,  Savings  &  Assets,  and  Supports.    
comparing   policies   across   states,   the   Scorecard                    
improves   understanding   of   a   state s   public   policy              States   receive   numerical  
strengths   and   weaknesses.   It   is   a   first   step   in            scores,   ranging   from   1-­‐
reconsidering   public   investment   and   budget   priorities,           100,  based  on  a  standard           State  governments  can  use  
                                                                                                                  resources  and  target  
and  suggests   where   policy  makers   might   turn   for   new          10-­‐point   grading   scale  
                                                                                                                  investments  more  effectively  
ideas  on  helping  their  constituents.  The  wide  variety  of           for  each  policy  examined.  
                                                                                                                  when  they  are  guided  by  a  
policies   the   Scorecard   examines   can   help   advocates,            States   are   then   ranked  
                                                                                                                  durable,  comprehensive  
policy   makers,   service   providers,   researchers   and                based  on  their  scores  on  
                                                                                                                  definition  of  economic  
others                                               :                     each  policy.  Each  score  is  
      Absolute   and   relative   impact   on   economic                   in   turn   converted   to   a  
      security  levels;                                                    letter   grade   relative   to  
      Cross-­‐generational  impact;  
                                                                           Only   those   policies   that   are   exceptional   in   relation   to  
      Effect   on   state   and   local   program   design   and  
                                                                                              policies   receive   an   A   or   an   F.   For   more  
                                                                           information  on  the  grading  methodology,  see  Appendix  
      Short-­‐  and  long-­‐term  return  on  public  investment.          D.    
The   Scorecard   examines   the   20   different   policy   areas         The   Scorecard   also   examines   the   affordability   of   basic  
shown   in   Figure   1.   In   total,   the   Scorecard   grades   85     costs   of   living   such   as   housing,   health   care   and  
policy   choices   in   each   state   (Appendix   E).   Policies          transportation.   The   connection   between   affordability  
included  in  the  Scorecard:  1)  Have  an  identifiable  direct          and   economic   security   is   obvious,   but   because  
effect   on   worker,   family   and/or   elder   economic                 affordability  is  not  a  direct  outgrowth  of  policy,  and  the  
security;  2)  affect  large  segments  of  a  state s                     connection   between   policy   and   affordability   is   often  
                                                                           unclear,   affordability   grades   are   not   included   in   a  

Spring  2013                                                                                 The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     1  
     Figure 1: Economic Security Scorecard Policy Areas

                                                                    Education  &  
          Income                      Job  Quality                                                        Savings  &  Assets               Supports  

                                                                              Preschool                         College  Savings              Child  Care  
          Minimum  Wage                Sick  &  Safe  Leave  
                                                                             Attendance                          Plans  (529s)                Assistance  

                                          Medical    &                  Public  School                         Support  Program                Medical  
             State  EITC  
                                        Disability  Leave             Financing  Equity                          Asset  Limits                Assistance  

           State  Child  &  
                                         Family  Leave                      Public  School                        Consumer                     Housing  
          Dependent  Care  
                                           Benefits                         Performance                           Protection                 Preservation  

                                        Unemployment                         Workforce                        Public  Retirement             Property  Tax  
                                          Insurance                         Development                              Plans                      Relief  




Overall  Grades                                                                            

Few   states   have   dedicated   themselves   to   integrated,                          inclusive   economic   security   framework   for   policy  
consistently   family-­‐friendly   economic   security-­‐building                        planning.  Specific  findings  include:  
                                                                                                     No  state  in  the  nation  receives  an  overall  grade  of  
mediocre the   majority   of   states   receive   grades                                             A,  or  even  B.  
between   C-­‐   and   C+.   Few   states   have   distinguished                                     The   highest   grade   belongs   to   Washington,   which  
themselves   by   being   out   in   front   in   more   than   a   few                              receives  a  B-­‐.    
policy   areas,   and   every   state   has   a   wide   range   of  
                                                                                                     Several   states   receive   poor   grades,   with   four  
grades  on  individual  policies,  even  within  narrow  policy  
                                                                                                     states Alabama,   Mississippi,   Tennessee   and  
areas.   The   Scorecard   does   not   attempt   to   discern  
                                                                                                     Utah receiving  the  lowest  grade,  D+.    
whether  or  not  states  have  made  deliberate  decisions  
to   invest   in   one   policy   area   over   another,   or   whether  
                                                                                         See   Appendix   A   for   a   complete   listing   of   overall   state  
states  have  not  yet  employed  a  sufficiently  broad  and      
                                                                                         grades  and  rankings.                                                   

Spring  2013                                                                                                   The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     2  
               Figure  2                                     State  Economic  Security  Overall  Grades  

                                                                                              B-­‐        C+        C        C-­‐        D+  

In  conducting  its  research,  WOW  considered  potential                                 median  income,  budget  size  or  fiscal  health.  These  
connections  between  individual  and  overall  policy                                     factors  
grades  and  basic  economic  indicators.  The  Scorecard                                                       .  This  suggests  that  security-­‐
finds  that  the                          conomic  security-­‐                             enhancing  policies  can  be  made  widely  available  if  the  
related  policies  is  not  strongly  related  to                                          public  and  state  policy  makers  have  the  political  will  

           Table  1:  Top  10  State  Rankings  and  Overall                                         Table  2:  Bottom  10  State  Rankings  and  Overall  
           Grades                                                                                    Grades      

            Rank*                    State                  Grade                                      Rank*                 State                Grade  
            1                Washington                     B-­‐                                       42            Missouri                      C-­‐  
            2                Vermont                        C+                                         43            North  Dakota                 C-­‐  
            3                Oregon                         C+                                         44            Indiana                       C-­‐  
            4                District  of  Columbia         C+                                         45            South  Dakota                 C-­‐  
            5                Wisconsin                      C+                                         46            Arizona                       C-­‐  
            6                Connecticut                    C+                                         47            Idaho                         C-­‐  
            7                New  Jersey                    C                                          48            Tennessee                     D+  
            8                Maine                          C                                          49            Mississippi                   D+  
            9                New  York                      C                                          50            Alabama                       D+  
            10               Iowa                           C                                          51            Utah                          D+  
           *  States  are  ranked  according  to  numerical  grade,    
               not  letter  grade.  

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and  accept  the  challenge  of  comprehensive  policy                         Policy   grades   are   diverse,   and   reflect   a   wide   range   of  
planning  in  the  presence  of  immediate  need.  Additional                  effective  and  less  effective  approaches  to  building  and  
findings  include:                                                             preserving   the   middle   class.   Every   state   has   multiple  
                                                                               policies  that  promote  economic  security  and  receive  a  
            Overall  Scorecard  grades  are  related  to  education  
                                                                               grade   of   A   or   B.   Every   state   also   has   weak   or   absent  
            levels:  In  states  ranked  in  the  top  5,  an  average  of  
                                                                               policies  that  receive  grades  of  D  or  F.  A  variety  of  policy  
            35.1%   of   residents   have   at   least   a   bachelor s  
                                                                               grades   is   found  even  within  narrow   policy   areas,   such  
            degree,   versus   24.1%   in   states   ranked   in   the  
                                                                               as   unemployment   insurance,   workforce   training   or  
            bottom  5.  There  are,  however,  some  states Iowa,  
                                                                               workplace   flexibility,   which   means   that   security-­‐
            Louisiana,   Nevada,   Oklahoma,   Wisconsin with  
                                                                               increasing   policies   are   often   undermined   by   weak   or  
            higher   rankings   than   their   relatively   low  
                                                                               restrictive   policies.   For   example,   some   states   that  
            proportions   of   bachelor   degree   holders   would  
                                                                               provide   greater   access   to   unemployment   insurance  
            suggest.   Conversely,   some   states   with   high  
                                                                               provide   unemployment   benefits   which   replace   a   low  
            proportions   of   bachelor   degree   holders
                                                                                                                       -­‐unemployment   earnings.  
            Colorado,   New   Hampshire,   Virginia do   not   rank  
                                                                               The  Scorecard  finds  that:  
            Overall   grades   are   most   strongly   correlated   with                 Approximately   one-­‐quarter   of   individual   policy  
            state   minimum   wage   policies   and   policies   that                    grades   are   A s   or   F s.   13.6%               icy  
            increase  state  Earned  Income  Tax  Credits  or  make                      grades  were  F s,  and  11%  were  A s.    
            them   refundable.   In   other   words,   states   that   are               The   District   of   Columbia   has   the   most   A s;  
                                                                                         Mississippi   and   Alaska   are   tied   for   the   largest  
            security   have   tended   to   make   improving   these                     number  of  F s.  
            policies  a  priority.  
                                                                               Washington,   DC   is   a   good   example   of   inconsistency  
                                                                               among   policies   and   policy   grades.   The   District   has   the  
Policy  Grades                                                                 most  variability  among  states,  with  8  failing  grades  and  
                                                                               12   A s.   Many   of   its   failing   grades   are   related   to  
S          verall  grades  are  determined  by  grades  for  85  
                                                                               education  and  training  and  job  quality;  its  good  grades  
specific   policy   choices.   Individual   policy   grades   point  
                                                                               are   related   to   asset   policy   and   District-­‐administered  
out   specific   policy   strengths,   weaknesses   and   holes.  
                                                                               public  supports  programs.                                                      

          Table  3:  Number  of  Elements  of                                       Table  4:  Number  of  Elements  of  
          Economic  Security  Grades  Ranked  in                                    Economic  Security  Grades  Ranked  in  
          the  Top  10                                                              the  Bottom  10  
          District  of  Columbia                4                                   Alabama                                  4  
          Illinois                              3                                   Mississippi                              3  
          New  Jersey                           3                                   Virginia                                 3  
          Vermont                               3                                   Alaska                                   2  
          Wisconsin                             3                                   Hawaii                                   2  
          Connecticut                           2                                   Idaho                                    2  
          Maine                                 2                                   Massachusetts                            2  
          Massachusetts                         2                                   North  Dakota                            2  
          North  Dakota                         2                                   South  Dakota                            2  
          Oregon                                2                                   Utah                                     2  
          Washington                            2                                                                       

Spring  2013                                                                                       The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     4  
The   policies   examined   in   the   Scorecard   are   grouped              Findings  
into   5   Elements   of   Economic   Security:   Income,   Job  
                                                                                        Washington   State   is   ranked   1st   with   an   A,   and  
Quality,   Education   &   Training,   Savings   &   Assets,   and  
                                                                                        Alabama,   Mississippi   and   Tennessee   are   tied   for  
Supports.   Each   Element   score   indicates   how   well   the  
                                                                                        last  with  F's.  
                     in   that   area   are   or   are   not   supporting  
families  and  elders  in  their  pursuit  of  security.                                Washington  has  the  highest  minimum  wage  in  the  
                                                                                        country.   4   of   the   5   highest   ranked   states   have   a  
While  no  state  receives  good  grades  in  all  5  Elements  of                      state  minimum  wage  above  the  federal  minimum  
Economic   Security,   some   states   are   distinguishing                             wage,   and   several   have   laws   providing   for  
themselves   in   specific   policy   areas.   For   example,                           systematic  increases  in  the  state  minimum  wage.  
several   states   are   improving   low-­‐                                             3   of   the   5   states  without   a   state   minimum   wage  
incomes   through   minimum   wage   and   state   tax   credit                         are  ranked  in  the  bottom  5.  
policies,  while  other  states  lack  minimum  wage  policies                          4  of  the  5  top-­‐ranked  states  have  refundable  state  
and   tax   credits   altogether.   Many   states   receive   fair   or                 earned   income   tax   credits   and   state   child   and  
good  grades  for  their  attention  to  Savings  &  Assets  due                        dependent   care   credits   or   deductions.   None   of  
to  ongoing  campaigns  to  increase  savings  and  eliminate                           the   bottom   5   has   a   state   EITC   and   4   of   the   5   do  
asset  eligibility  tests  from  support  programs.                                     not   have   child   and   dependent   care   credits   or  
In  contrast,  most  states  are  doing  poorly  in  promoting  
                                                                                        States  with  strong  minimum  wage  policies  and  tax  
job  quality  policies  such  as  leave,  sick  days,  workplace  
                                                                                        credits   for   families   are   more   likely   than   other  
flexibility  and  access  to  unemployment  insurance.  Most  
                                                                                        states   to   have   better-­‐than-­‐average   security-­‐
states   still   rely   on   federal   laws   to   establish   minimal  
                                                                                        related  policies  in  several  other  policy  areas.    
requirements   on   sick   days,   pregnancy   leave   and  
family/medical  leave.  Most  states  earn  grades  between  
D-­‐  and  D+  in  the  Job  Quality  Element.                                  
The  below  discussion  defines  the  Elements  of  Economic  
Security  and  provides  selected  findings.  For  a  complete  
list  of  Elements  grades,  see  Appendix  B.  For  additional  
state-­‐specific   individual   policy   grades   visit   WOW's  
                                                                                        Figure  3:  The  Elements  of  Economic  Security  
Economic  Security  Institute.    
                                                                                                                 Education  &  
Income                                                                                                            Training             Savings    
                                                                                              Job  Quality                               &  
Economic   security   is   difficult   to   achieve   without   an  
                                                             No  policy  
can   transform   a   low   wage   into   an   economic   security  
wage,   and   policy   has   little   direct   impact   on   moderate  
                                                                                                                 Economic                     Supports  
or   middle   class   wages.   However,   the   state   plays   a                                                 Security  
critical  role  in  preserving  basic  incomes  for  low-­‐income  
families.   State   policies   can   increase   family   income   via  
tax   credits   and   decrease   poverty   through   minimum                                                                                                   
wage  and  minimum  wage  update  policies.  

Spring  2013                                                                                       The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     5  
Job  Quality                                                               affect  their  value  in  the  labor  market  and  their  access  
                                                                           to  continuing  professional  development,  employment-­‐
Income   alone   does   not   define   a   good   job.   The  
                                                                           based   benefits,   workplace   flexibility   and   healthy   work  
Scorecard   also   examines   policies   that   impact  
                                                                           environments.   The   Scorecard   therefore   examines   a  
employment-­‐based   benefits   and   family-­‐friendly  
                                                                           state s   early   education,   K-­‐12   and   job   training   policies.  
employment.  The  Scorecard  examines  policies  on  paid  
                                                                           Because   they   have   dramatic   effects   on   security  
sick  leave,  medical/disability  insurance  and  leave,  state  
                                                                           prospects,   the   Scorecard   also   considers   4   education  
expansions  of  the  federal  Family  Medical  Leave  Act  and  
                                                                           and   training   indicators math   and   reading   proficiency  
unemployment  insurance.  Workplace  flexibility  policies  
                                                                           scores,  high  school  graduation  rates  and  school  finance  
provide   job   security   for   workers   with   disabilities   or  
health   concerns,   and   workers   who   care   for   family  
members.  Unemployment  insurance  benefits  can  have  
a   dramatic   impact   on   local   economies,   family   stability  
and   poverty   rates,   particularly   during   economic                            On   average,   less   than   12%   of   3   year   olds   are  
downturns.                                                                           enrolled  in  state-­‐sponsored  Pre-­‐K  programs  in  the  
                                                                                     bottom  5  states;  enrollment  is  nearly  50%  higher  
                                                                                     in  the  top  5  states.  
                                                                                     On  average,  over  40%  of  4  year  olds  are  enrolled  
      Connecticut  is  ranked  1st  with  a  B-­‐   and  Virginia  is                in  Pre-­‐K  programs  in  the  top  10  states,  compared  
      ranked  last  with  an  F.                                                     to  less  than  23%  in  the  bottom  10  states.  
      All  of  the  top  5  states  have  mandated  expansions                       Unsurprisingly,   reading   and   math   proficiency   are  
      of   the   Family   Medical   Leave   Act;   only   1   of   the               strongly   related   to   high   school   graduation   rates  
      bottom  5  has.                                                                and  poverty  rates.  
      Unsurprisingly,   states   which   score   well   on                   
      expansions   to   the   Family   Medical   Leave   Act  
      compared   to   other   states   tend   to   score   well   on       Savings  &  Assets  
      sick   and   safe   leave   policies   and   medical/                Meeting   basic   health   and   safety   needs   alone   leaves   a  
      pregnancy   leave   expansions.   But   certainly   not   all        family   short   of   genuine   financial   stability.   Workers  
      states   that   score   well   on   one   leave   policy   area      must   develop   savings   and   assets   to   avoid   financial  
      score  well  on  all.                                                crises   and   build   wealth,   allowing   for   greater   security  
      Access   to   unemployment   insurance   varies                      and   economic   mobility.   At   an   absolute   minimum,  
      significantly  across  the  states:  An  average  of  64%            workers  need  to  save  for  
      of  unemployed  people  eligible  for  unemployment                  emergencies                 and  
                                                                                                                      Meeting  basic  needs  alone  
      insurance   in   the   top   10   states   were   receiving          retirement.   Emergency                    leaves  a  family  short  of  
      unemployment   insurance,   compared   to   just   43%               savings   allow   families   to            genuine  financial  stability.  
      in  the  bottom  10  states.                                         weather   crises such   as                 Despite  their  importance,  
                                                                           a      sudden          medical  
                                                                                                                      however,  there  are  few  state-­‐
                                                                           expense   or   job   loss                  level  policies  that  directly  
Education  &  Training                                                     without   going   into   debt.             promote  asset  building  and  
Quality   education   is   security s   foundation.   A   quality          Retirement  savings  allow                 savings.    
primary   and   high   school   education   helps   prevent                workers   to   live   in  
poverty,   and   provides   greater   prospects   for   long-­‐term        economic   security   after   their   working   years   without  
security.   Post-­‐secondary   education   allows   workers                having   to  rely   on   support   from   their   families   or   public  
greater   career   options   and   access   to   fields   and              programs.   Beyond   emergency   retirement   savings   lie   a  
occupations   with   higher   wages.   From   Head   Start   to            wide   variety   of   savings   that   enable   work,   education  
late-­‐career   retraining,   the   education   and   training             and   long-­‐term   asset   development.   Savings   and   assets  
opportunities   available   to   youth   and   workers   directly          are  also  important  to  virtuous  cycles  in  which  increased  
Spring  2013                                                                                   The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     6  
parent   security   translates   into   increased   security   for              The  Scorecard  also  includes  in  the  Supports  category  a  
the  following  generation  or  generations.                                    limited   number   of   policies   and   programs   not  
                                                                                traditionally   thought   of   as   support   programs,   such   as  
The  Scorecard  examines  public  supports  program  asset                      property   tax   relief,   which   decrease   the   income  
limits,  state  college  savings  plans,  public  pensions,  and                residents  need  to  achieve  security.    
consumer   protection   laws.   Despite   their   importance,                     
there  are  relatively  few  state-­‐level  (or  federal)  policies                                              need   for   supports   and   the  
that  directly  promote  savings  and  asset  building.  Partly                                                         budgets  differ  greatly,  
due   to   this   lack,   there   is   less   variety   in   policies   and     the   Scorecard   grades                                supports  
policy   grades   among   states   in   savings   and   assets   than           on:    
in   the   other   Elements   of   Economic   Security.  
                                                                                                 Program  income  eligibility  limits  (relative  to  state  
Considering   their   potential   to   increase   the   stability   of  
                                                                                                 median  income);  
families,  communities  and  state  economies,  the  lack  of  
asset-­‐building   policies   is   a   key   failing   among   state                             Program  spending  per  participant;  
governments.                                                                                     Maximum  benefit  amounts.  
Findings                                                                        Findings  
       Colorado   is   ranked   1st   with   a   B+   and   Idaho   is                           Maine   is   ranked   1st   with   a   B   and   Utah   is   ranked  
       ranked  last  with  a  C.                                                                 last  with  a  D+.  
       Only  6  states  have  removed  asset  limits  from  their                                9  of  10  states  in  the  top  10  have  SCHIP/Medicaid  
       Temporary   Assistance   to   Needy   Families   (TANF)                                   eligibility   of   at   least   300%   of   the   federal   poverty  
       programs.   23   states   have   done   so   for   their                                  line;  only  2  of  the  bottom  10  states  have  the  same  
       Medicaid   and   State   Child   Health   Insurance                                       standard.  
       Programs  (SCHIP)  and  26  states  have  done  so  for  
                                                                                                 The   top   5   states   have   an   average   SNAP  
       their  Supplemental  Nutrition  Assistance  Programs  
                                                                                                 participation  rate  of  89%;  the  average  among  the  
       (SNAP,  formerly  food  stamps).  
                                                                                                 50  states  and  DC  is  75%.1    
       An  average  of  44%  of  workers  in  the  top  5  states  
       participated       in      an      employer-­‐sponsored  
       retirement   plan   in   2010;   37%   of   workers   in   the  
       bottom  5  states  participated.  
Public   support   programs   do   not   provide   genuine  
economic  security,  but  they  do  provide  critical  stability  
and  fill  economic  security  gaps  that  exist  in  the  absence  
of   good   jobs,   effective   education   systems   and   labor  
markets   which   respond   to   worker   needs.   Support  
programs  fully  or  partly  funded  and/or  administered  by  
states   can   reduce   what   families   pay   for   their   basic  
needs.   Childcare   subsidies   and   Medicaid,   for   instance,  
                                 health,  safety  and  stability.  
Support   categories   examined   include   medical  
assistance,   food   assistance   and   child   care   assistance.                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                       Simple  average  of  state  rates.  
Spring  2013                                                                                                              The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     7  
The   Scorecard   includes   rankings   and   grades   for   the          weather   emergencies   and   retire   with   basic   economic  
current   market   realities   a   state s   residents   face             security.   The   BEST   measures   the   local   costs   of   basic  
(Appendix  C).  Workers  who  attain  multiple  Elements  of              needs   for   420   different   family   configurations,   and  
Economic   Security   are   likely   to   approach   some                 points   to   the   income   and   hourly   wages   workers   need  
semblance   of   stability,   if   not   economic   security.   But       to   meet   all   of   these   expenses.   The   Elder   Index  
even  those  who  have  good  jobs  and  the  support  of  far-­‐         enumerates  the  specific  budget  needs  of  retired  elders,  
sighted   public   policy   may   still   have   some   trouble           based   on   health,  family   and   housing   status.   Together,  
meeting   their   basic   needs   where   local   wages   are   not       the  BEST  Index  and  Elder  Index  represent  the  expenses  
responsive  enough  to  the  high  cost  of  living.                      people   face   and   the   incomes   they   need   across   the  
The   Scorecard   measures   and   grades   affordability   in              
each   state   by   comparing   the   costs   of   basic   needs   to     Grades   for   working-­‐age   household   expenses   are  
typical  incomes.  Expressing  the  cost  of  basic  needs  as  a         derived   by   dividing   monthly   basic   costs   by   monthly  
percentage   of   median   state   household   income   allows            state   median   household   incomes.   The   Scorecard   uses  
an  examination  of                         price  of  security  and      median               household  
the   adequacy   of   typical   incomes.   The   affordability            income   because   it   is   the  
grades   suggest   the   challenges   residents   face   and   the        broadest,   most   generic               The  relationship  between  
need  for  policy  makers,  advocates  and  citizens  to  focus           and   most   widely   used               affordability  rankings  and  overall  
                                                                                                                   economic  security  policy  grades  
on  policies,  such  as  housing,  transportation  and  health            income             benchmark  
                                                                                                                   and  rankings  is  very  weak.    
care   policies,   which   can   affect   the   market   rates   of       available.   Elder-­‐related  
goods   and   services.   The   affordability   grades   also             affordability   calculations  
provide   valuable   information   and   context   when                   are         created           by  
thinking   about   priorities,   the   efficacy   of   public             comparing   basic   costs   to  
investment,  and  the  need  to  attract  private  investment.            median   monthly   income  
                                                                          in   retirement   figures  
Affordability  grades:                                                    derived  from  US  Census  Bureau  data.    
      May   or   may   not   be   determined   or   strongly                
      influenced  at  the  state  level;                                  Findings  
      Likely   reflect   market   phenomena   as   much   or  
                                                                                    Alaska,   with   a   grade   of   B,   is   the   state   where  
      more  than  they  reflect  policy  choices;    
                                                                                    median   income
      May   reflect   the   downstream   confluence   of  
                                                                                    basic   expenses.   However,   no   single   basic   need   is  
      multiple  policy  effects.  
                                                                                    most  affordable  in  Alaska.    
Because   the   connection   between   policy   and                                 Maine   is   the   least   affordable   state,   with   a   grade  
affordability  is  not  always  direct  and  clear,  affordability                  of   D+.   While   neither   expenses   nor   incomes   are  
grades  are  not  included  in  a  stat                                             exceptional   in   Maine,   wages   are   below   average  
                                                                                    and  expenses  are  above  average.  
Scorecard   affordability   calculations   use   basic   needs  
                                                                                    While  costs  of  basic  needs  do  tend  to  be  lower  in  
definitions   and   costs   drawn   from                      Basic  
                                                                                    states   with   lower   median   incomes,   the  
Economic   Security   Tables    Index   (BEST)   and   Elder  
                                                                                    connection   between   incomes   and   costs   is   not  
Economic  Security  StandardTM  Index  (Elder  Index).  The  
BEST   budget   enumerates   working   families'   economic  
security   needs   during   their   working   years,   and   the  
minimum   savings   and   assets   that   allow   them   to  

Spring  2013                                                                                  The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     8  
      Table  5:  Top  10  State  Rankings  and  Grades  for                        Table  6:  Bottom  10  State  Rankings  and  Grades  
      Affordability                                                                for  Affordability  

      Rank*                      State                 Grade                            Rank*              State                    Grade  
           1          Alaska                             B                              42          Kentucky                        C-­‐  
           2          Utah                               B                              43          Florida                          C-­‐  
           3          Wyoming                            B                              44          Georgia                          C-­‐  
           4          Virginia                           B-­‐                           45          North  Carolina                  C-­‐  
           5          North  Dakota                      B-­‐                           46          South  Carolina                  C-­‐  
           6          Hawaii                             B-­‐                           47          Massachusetts                    C-­‐  
           7          Washington                         B-­‐                           48          Alabama                          C-­‐  
           8          Delaware                           B-­‐                           49          Vermont                          C-­‐  
           9          Iowa                               C+                             50          Mississippi                      D+  
           10         Nebraska                           C+                             51          Maine                            D+  

      *  States  are  ranked  according  to  numerical  grade,        
      not  letter  grade.                                                            
            not      letter  grade.  
     States  that  are  affordable  for  working  households                       Private   transportation   (i.e.,   cars)   is   more  
     are  not  necessarily  affordable  for  retired  seniors.                     affordable   in   states   with   higher   median   incomes  
     This   underscores   the   important   fact   that   states                   and   lower   rates   of   poverty.   This   is   likely   due   to  
     that   are   generally   less   expensive   for   employers                   the   fact   that   costs   of   car   ownership,   other   than  
     and  consumers  are  not  necessarily  affordable  for                        insurance,   are   similar   across   the   country,   and   do  
     all  residents.                                                               not  respond  to  local  incomes.    
     The   relationship   between   affordability   rankings                       In   contrast   to   health   care   and   transportation,  
     and   overall   economic   security   policy   grades   and                   housing rent   and   homeownership is   less  
     rankings   is   very   weak                                                   affordable   in   places   where   incomes   and  
     economic   security   policies   have   not   been                            education   levels   are   higher.   In   fact,   buying   a  
     designed   in   direct   response   to   the   actual                         home   on   a   typical   income   is   much   more  
     contemporary   cost   challenges   of   middle   class                        challenging  in  a  state  with  above  average  incomes;  
     residents,  let  alone  low-­‐income  residents.                              homes   and   rent   are   more   affordable   in   states  
     Basic  needs  costs  are  rarely  uniformly  low  or  high                    with   higher   poverty   rates.   This   may   be   because  
     within  a  state.  Most  states       dents  face  a  mix  of                 higher   incomes   create   disproportionate  
     relatively   affordable   and   less   affordable   needs.                    competition   for   quality   housing,   and/or   promote  
     California,  Hawaii  and  New  Jersey  all  have  1  basic                    the   construction   of   newer   and   more   expensive  
     need   ranked   least   affordable   and   1   basic   need                   housing.    
     ranked  most  affordable.                                                     Child   care   affordability   has   little   connection   to  
     Health   care   is   more   affordable   in   states   with                   incomes,   or   to   any   other   expense s   affordability.  
     higher   median   incomes   and   lower   rates   of                          Child  care  is  expensive,  relative  to  incomes,  nearly  
     poverty.   Health   care   affordability   is   particularly                  everywhere   in   the   country   due   to   an   unusually  
     important   to   security   because   forgoing   medical                      complex  supply  and  demand  dynamic.    
     care   often   leads   to   increased   insecurity,   and                     Mississippi   is   the   only   state   least   affordable   for  
     health   care   bills   are   a   major   contributor   to                    two   senior   expenses health   care   and  
     poverty  and  bankruptcy  filings.                                            transportation.    

Spring  2013                                                                                     The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     9  
      New  Jersey  is  the  least  affordable  state  for  elders                   income   on   transportation   than   elders   spend   in  
      who   own   their   own   homes;   but   the   typical   New                  other   states.   This   is   not   atypical   for   areas   with  
      Jersey   elder   spends   a   smaller   proportion   of                       denser  populations.  

The   Economic   Security   Scorecard   investigates   the                 Much   of   the   policy   that   exists   today   is   a   collection   of  
                                                                           policies  created  over  many  years,  in  response  to  many  
economic   security   budgets   and   evaluates   common                   distinct   economies,   budget   contexts   and   constituent  
state   policies   that   should   help   families   and   seniors         and   political   needs.   State   policies   are   also   often  
obtain  those  basic  needs.  State  policy  must  respond  to             designed   in   response   to,   or   in   conjunction   with,  
the  realities  of  living  costs  and  the  labor  market.  When          changing  federal  policy.  Change  at  the  federal  level,  or  
wages  are  stagnant  and  good  jobs  hard  to  find,  policies           an   unfortunate   lack   of   change   at   the   federal   level,  
that  invest  in  the  workforce,  protect  elders  and  ensure            demands  more,  and  more  concerted,  efforts  from  state  
adequate   consumer   demand   are   critical   in   creating   a          leadership.    
strong  and  growing  middle  class.                                         
                                                                           Because   creating   a   deliberate,   contemporary,  
Those   states   that   have   taken   innovative   steps   to             integrated   approach   to   economic   security   is  
increase   security,   sometimes   in   challenging                        challenging,   states   should   focus   intently   on   defined  
environments,   must   be   applauded,   and   looked   to   for           basic   needs,   and   should  establish  and  apply   a   guiding,  
ideas.  Scorecard  results  suggest,  however,  that  a  great  
many   state   policies   are   not   meeting   their   potential   to     definition   of   economic   security   policies   is   both  
stabilize   communities,   and   some   states   simply   lack             comprehensive   and   detailed   enough   to   constitute   a  
policies   that   could   and   should   be   preventing                   map  that  shows  where  states  have  yet  to  go.    
unnecessary  hardship  and  igniting  economic  growth.    

Spring  2013                                                                                  The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     10  
Appendix  A:  Economic  Security  Scorecard  State  Overall  Grades  &  Rankings
                              Economic                                                                                   Economic      
            State           Security  Grade     Ranking                    Ranking                    State           Security  Grades  
 Alabama                         D+               50                         1             Washington                      B-­‐  
 Alaska                          C-­‐             39                         2             Vermont                         C+  
 Arizona                         C-­‐             46                         3             Oregon                          C+  
 Arkansas                        C                31                         4             District  of  Columbia          C+  
 California                      C                25                         5             Wisconsin                       C+  
 Colorado                        C                24                         6             Connecticut                     C+  
 Connecticut                     C+               6                          7             New  Jersey                     C  
 Delaware                        C-­‐             33                         8             Maine                           C  
 District  of  Columbia          C+               4                          9             New  York                       C  
 Florida                         C                21                         10            Iowa                            C  
 Georgia                         C-­‐             41                         11            Massachusetts                   C  
 Hawaii                          C                29                         12            Rhode  Island                   C  
 Idaho                           C-­‐             47                         13            Minnesota                       C  
 Illinois                        C                15                         14            Nevada                          C  
 Indiana                         C-­‐             44                         15            Illinois                        C  
 Iowa                            C                10                         16            Louisiana                       C  
 Kansas                          C                23                         17            Maryland                        C  
 Kentucky                        C                28                         18            Nebraska                        C  
 Louisiana                       C                16                         19            Oklahoma                        C  
 Maine                           C                8                          20            Ohio                            C  
 Maryland                        C                17                         21            Florida                         C  
 Massachusetts                   C                11                         22            New  Mexico                     C  
 Michigan                        C-­‐             32                         23            Kansas                          C  
 Minnesota                       C                13                         24            Colorado                        C  
 Mississippi                     D+               49                         25            California                      C  
 Missouri                        C-­‐             42                         26            Montana                         C  
 Montana                         C                26                         27            North  Carolina                 C  
 Nebraska                        C                18                         28            Kentucky                        C  
 Nevada                          C                14                         29            Hawaii                          C  
 New  Hampshire                  C-­‐             37                         30            West  Virginia                  C  
 New  Jersey                     C                7                          31            Arkansas                        C  
 New  Mexico                     C                22                         32            Michigan                        C-­‐  
 New  York                       C                9                          33            Delaware                        C-­‐  
 North  Carolina                 C                27                         34            Pennsylvania                    C-­‐  
 North  Dakota                   C-­‐             43                         35            Virginia                        C-­‐  
 Ohio                            C                20                         36            Texas                           C-­‐  
 Oklahoma                        C                19                         37            New  Hampshire                  C-­‐  
 Oregon                          C+               3                          38            Wyoming                         C-­‐  
 Pennsylvania                    C-­‐             34                         39            Alaska                          C-­‐  
 Rhode  Island                   C                12                         40            South  Carolina                 C-­‐  
 South  Carolina                 C-­‐             40                         41            Georgia                         C-­‐  
 South  Dakota                   C-­‐             45                         42            Missouri                        C-­‐  
 Tennessee                       D+               48                         43            North  Dakota                   C-­‐  
 Texas                           C-­‐             36                         44            Indiana                         C-­‐  
 Utah                            D+               51                         45            South  Dakota                   C-­‐  
 Vermont                         C+               2                          46            Arizona                         C-­‐  
 Virginia                        C-­‐             35                         47            Idaho                           C-­‐  
 Washington                      B-­‐             1                          48            Tennessee                       D+  
 West  Virginia                  C                30                         49            Mississippi                     D+  
 Wisconsin                       C+               5                          50            Alabama                         D+  
 Wyoming                         C-­‐             38                         51            Utah                            D+  
Spring  2013                                                                         The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     11  
Appendix  B:  Economic  Security  Scorecard  State  Grades  &  Rankings Elements  of  Economic  Security  
                                                                               Education  &  
            State           Income     Job  Quality          Supports            Training        Savings  &    Assets  
 Alabama                      F             D-­‐               C-­‐                D+                  B  
 Alaska                       C             D-­‐               C                   C-­‐                C  
 Arizona                      D+            D-­‐               C                   D+                  B  
 Arkansas                     D+            D                  C-­‐                C+                  C+  
 California                   C-­‐          C+                 C-­‐                D+                  C+  
 Colorado                     C             D                  D+                  C                   B+  
 Connecticut                  C             B-­‐               C+                  C-­‐                C+  
 Delaware                     C+            D-­‐               C-­‐                D+                  B-­‐  
 District  of  Columbia       B             C                  B-­‐                D                   B  
 Florida                      B             D-­‐               C                   C                   C  
 Georgia                      D+            D                  C-­‐                C                   C+  
 Hawaii                       C-­‐          C+                 C                   D                   C  
 Idaho                        C-­‐          D                  C                   D+                  C  
 Illinois                     C-­‐          D                  C+                  C                   B  
 Indiana                      D+            D                  C                   D+                  C+  
 Iowa                         C+            D+                 C+                  C                   B-­‐  
 Kansas                       C+            D                  C-­‐                C                   B-­‐  
 Kentucky                     D+            D                  C                   C+                  C+  
 Louisiana                    C             D                  C                   C                   B-­‐  
 Maine                        C             C-­‐               B                   C                   C+  
 Maryland                     C+            D-­‐               C                   C                   B-­‐  
 Massachusetts                B             D+                 C+                  C                   C  
 Michigan                     C-­‐          D                  C+                  C                   C  
 Minnesota                    C+            D+                 C                   C                   B-­‐  
 Mississippi                  F             D-­‐               C-­‐                C                   B-­‐  
 Missouri                     D             D-­‐               B-­‐                C                   C+  
 Montana                      C-­‐          D+                 C                   C                   C+  
 Nebraska                     B-­‐          D-­‐               C                   C-­‐                B-­‐  
 Nevada                       B+            D                  C                   D                   B-­‐  
 New  Hampshire               C-­‐          D                  C-­‐                D+                  C+  
 New  Jersey                  C-­‐          C+                 B-­‐                C+                  C  
 New  Mexico                  C+            D                  C                   D+                  B-­‐  
 New  York                    B             D+                 C                   C                   C+  
 North  Carolina              C             D                  C                   C-­‐                B-­‐  
 North  Dakota                D-­‐          D                  D+                  C+                  B  
 Ohio                         C             D                  C                   C                   B  
 Oklahoma                     C             D-­‐               C-­‐                C+                  B-­‐  
 Oregon                       B             C                  C+                  C-­‐                B-­‐  
 Pennsylvania                 D-­‐          D+                 C+                  C                   C+  
 Rhode  Island                B-­‐          C                  C                   D+                  B-­‐  
 South  Carolina              D             D-­‐               C                   C-­‐                B  
 South  Dakota                C-­‐          D                  D+                  C                   C  
 Tennessee                    F             D-­‐               C+                  C                   C+  
 Texas                        C-­‐          D-­‐               C-­‐                C                   C+  
 Utah                         D-­‐          D                  D+                  C-­‐                C  
 Vermont                      B+            D+                 B-­‐                B-­‐                C  
 Virginia                     C+            F                  D+                  D+                  B  
 Washington                   A             C+                 C                   C-­‐                C+  
 West  Virginia               D-­‐          D+                 C+                  C+                  C+  
 Wisconsin                    C+            C                  C+                  C+                  B-­‐  
 Wyoming                      D             D                  D+                  C+                  B-­‐  
Spring  2013                                                                The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     12  
Appendix  C:  Economic  Security  Scorecard  State  Grades  &  Rankings Affordability  
                                            Overall                                         Elder  Health  
   Ranking                  State           Grade       Child  Care      Health  Care           Care          Rent    
     48          Alabama                      C-­‐          C+                D+                 D+            C+  
      1          Alaska                       B             B+                B+                 B             A-­‐  
     24          Arizona                      C             C-­‐              C                  A-­‐          C  
     38          Arkansas                     C             B                 C-­‐               F             C+  
     22          California                   C             C+                B                  A-­‐          F  
     12          Colorado                     C+            D+                B                  B             C-­‐  
     37          Connecticut                  C             C-­‐              B+                 B-­‐          D  
      8          Delaware                     B-­‐          B                 B-­‐               B+            C-­‐  
     17          District  of  Columbia       C+            F                 B                  C             C+  
     43          Florida                      C-­‐          C+                D+                 A-­‐          F  
     44          Georgia                      C-­‐          B-­‐              C-­‐               D             C-­‐  
      6          Hawaii                       B-­‐          B+                A                  A-­‐          D-­‐  
     18          Idaho                        C+            B                 C                  C             C+  
     29          Illinois                     C             D+                C                  C+            C-­‐  
     20          Indiana                      C+            C                 C-­‐               C+            C  
      9          Iowa                         C+            C                 B-­‐               C-­‐          B  
     15          Kansas                       C+            C                 C+                 C             B  
     42          Kentucky                     C-­‐          D+                D-­‐               D             B-­‐  
     39          Louisiana                    C             A-­‐              D                  D+            C  
     51          Maine                        D+            D+                D+                 D-­‐          C-­‐  
     11          Maryland                     C+            B                 A-­‐               C+            D+  
     47          Massachusetts                C-­‐          F                 B-­‐               D+            C-­‐  
     32          Michigan                     C             C-­‐              C-­‐               B             D+  
     19          Minnesota                    C+            D                 B-­‐               C+            C  
     50          Mississippi                  D+            A-­‐              F                  F             C+  
     31          Missouri                     C             B-­‐              C-­‐               C             C+  
     14          Montana                      C+            D                 C-­‐               B-­‐          B+  
     10          Nebraska                     C+            C+                B-­‐               C-­‐          A-­‐  
     25          Nevada                       C             C-­‐              B-­‐               A             C-­‐  
     23          New  Hampshire               C             C+                B-­‐               C+            C  
     33          New  Jersey                  C             C+                B+                 C+            D  
     35          New  Mexico                  C             C-­‐              F                  C+            C  
     41          New  York                    C-­‐          F                 C                  B-­‐          D  
     45          North  Carolina              C-­‐          D+                D+                 D             C  
      5          North  Dakota                B-­‐          B-­‐              B-­‐               D             A  
     21          Ohio                         C+            B-­‐              C-­‐               A-­‐          C  
     28          Oklahoma                     C             B                 C-­‐               D+            B  
     34          Oregon                       C             D                 C+                 B-­‐          D  
     26          Pennsylvania                 C             C+                C                  C             C  
     40          Rhode  Island                C-­‐          D+                C-­‐               B-­‐          C  
     46          South  Carolina              C-­‐          B-­‐              F                  D             C  
     13          South  Dakota                C+            B+                C-­‐               D             A+  
     36          Tennessee                    C             A-­‐              D+                 C-­‐          C  
     27          Texas                        C             B-­‐              C                  C             C+  
      2          Utah                         B             A-­‐              A-­‐               A-­‐          C  
     49          Vermont                      C-­‐          C-­‐              C                  D             C-­‐  
      4          Virginia                     B-­‐          A-­‐              A-­‐               B             C+  
      7          Washington                   B-­‐          C                 B                  A-­‐          C  
     16          West  Virginia               C+            C                 D-­‐               D             A  
     30          Wisconsin                    C             D-­‐              C                  B             C+  
      3          Wyoming                      B             B                 B                  C             A+  
Spring  2013                                                                          The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     13  
Appendix  C:  Economic  Security  Scorecard  State  Grades  &  Rankings Affordability  (Continued)  
                                                                           Elder                                                  Elder  
            State           Homeownership       Elder  Rent            Homeownership       Utilities       Transportation     Transportation    
 Alabama                        B                   B-­‐                   B-­‐               F                 F                  F  
 Alaska                         C+                  C+                     C+                 B-­‐              A                  B  
 Arizona                        C                   C-­‐                   B-­‐               C                 C-­‐               B  
 Arkansas                       B                   B-­‐                   B                  D-­‐              D                  D  
 California                     F                   F                      C-­‐               A+                B-­‐               B+  
 Colorado                       C-­‐                C                      C+                 A-­‐              B                  B  
 Connecticut                    D                   D+                     F                  C                 B+                 C+  
 Delaware                       C                   C                      B                  C-­‐              B-­‐               A-­‐  
 District  of  Columbia         D                   D+                     D+                 A+                A-­‐               B+  
 Florida                        C-­‐                D-­‐                   D+                 C                 D+                 C+  
 Georgia                        C+                  C-­‐                   C                  D                 D+                 C-­‐  
 Hawaii                         F                   D+                     C+                 B                 A+                 B  
 Idaho                          C                   B-­‐                   B-­‐               B-­‐              C-­‐               C-­‐  
 Illinois                       C-­‐                C                      C-­‐               B-­‐              B-­‐               B  
 Indiana                        B                   B-­‐                   B                  C-­‐              C                  C+  
 Iowa                           B                   B+                     B                  C+                C+                 C-­‐  
 Kansas                         B                   B                      B-­‐               C-­‐              C+                 C-­‐  
 Kentucky                       B                   B-­‐                   B                  D+                D-­‐               D-­‐  
 Louisiana                      B                   C-­‐                   B                  D+                F                  D  
 Maine                          C                   C+                     C-­‐               D+                C-­‐               D  
 Maryland                       D+                  D                      D+                 B                 A                  B+  
 Massachusetts                  D                   D+                     F                  B                 B                  C+  
 Michigan                       C+                  C                      C                  D+                C-­‐               B  
 Minnesota                      C                   C                      C+                 B+                B-­‐               C+  
 Mississippi                    B                   C                      B-­‐               F                 F                  F  
 Missouri                       B-­‐                B-­‐                   B-­‐               D+                D+                 C-­‐  
 Montana                        C                   B+                     B-­‐               B-­‐              C-­‐               B-­‐  
 Nebraska                       B                   B                      B-­‐               C+                C+                 D+  
 Nevada                         C-­‐                D                      C                  B-­‐              C                  B-­‐  
 New  Hampshire                 D                   C+                     D-­‐               B-­‐              B+                 C+  
 New  Jersey                    D-­‐                D-­‐                   F                  C+                B-­‐               A  
 New  Mexico                    B-­‐                C+                     B                  C                 D                  C-­‐  
 New  York                      C-­‐                D                      F                  B-­‐              B-­‐               B+  
 North  Carolina                C+                  C                      C                  C-­‐              D+                 C-­‐  
 North  Dakota                  A-­‐                B                      B                  B+                B-­‐               D-­‐  
 Ohio                           B-­‐                C+                     C+                 C-­‐              D+                 C+  
 Oklahoma                       B                   B-­‐                   B                  D                 D                  C-­‐  
 Oregon                         D                   C-­‐                   C                  B-­‐              C                  B  
 Pennsylvania                   B-­‐                C                      C-­‐               D+                C+                 B  
 Rhode  Island                  D                   C+                     F                  C                 B-­‐               C  
 South  Carolina                B-­‐                C                      C+                 D                 D                  D+  
 South  Dakota                  B                   B                      B-­‐               C+                C                  D-­‐  
 Tennessee                      B-­‐                B-­‐                   B-­‐               D                 D                  D-­‐  
 Texas                          B-­‐                C-­‐                   C+                 C-­‐              C                  C  
 Utah                           C-­‐                C+                     B                  B+                B                  B+  
 Vermont                        D+                  C                      D-­‐               C-­‐              C+                 D+  
 Virginia                       C                   D+                     C+                 B                 B+                 B  
 Washington                     D+                  C                      C                  B+                B                  A-­‐  
 West  Virginia                 A                   A-­‐                   A-­‐               D-­‐              B-­‐               D+  
 Wisconsin                      C                   C                      C-­‐               B-­‐              C                  C+  
 Wyoming                        B                   A-­‐                   B-­‐               B+                B-­‐               C-­‐  
Spring  2013                                                                                 The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     14  
The   Economic   Security   Scorecard   ranks   and   grades                 policy)                                                              This  
state   policies   for   all   50   states   and   the   District   of       typically   results   in   only   exceptionally   good   policies  
Columbia.  Policies  graded  met  the  following  criteria:                  receiving   A s,   and   exceptionally   bad   policies   receiving  
     1. Directly  affect  economic  security;                                F s.  
     2. Affect  large  segments  of  a  state s  population;                   
     3. Are  determined  at  the  state  level;                              Some   policy   grades   are   combined   with   other   related  
     4. Are  gradable.                                                       policy  grades  to  create  policy  area  grades.  For  example,  
                                                                             a   state s   grade   for   Unemployment   Insurance  Access   is  
The  Scorecard  presents  a  separate  Affordability  section                created   using                                          Duration   of  
that   grades   states   on   how   well   a   state    median               unemployment   benefits;   2)   Insured   unemployment  
income  meets  the  average  state  costs  for  basic  needs.                rate   and;   3)   Benefit   exhaustion   rate.   Policy   values   are  
Affordability  grades:                                                       assigned   a   z-­‐score   and  
     1. May   or   may   not   be   determined   or   strongly               graded   on   the   curve.            Table  7:  Grade  Mid-­
            influenced  at  the  state  level;                               They           are         then       points  (10-­Point  Scale)  
     2. May   directly   measure   or   strongly   reflect   local           converted   to   numerical  
            markets;                                                         scores  using  a  standard               Grade       Score  
     3. May   reflect   the   downstream   confluence   of                   10-­‐point   grading   scale.            A+            99  
            multiple  policy  effects.                                       The   scores   of   all                  A             95  
                                                                                                                      A-­‐          91  
                                                                             policies  that  make  up  a  
                                                                                                                      B+            88  
The   Scorecard   employs   a   comprehensive   definition   of              composite   policy   area  
                                                                                                                      B             84.5  
security.   Few   of   the  policies   included   in   the   Scorecard       grade          are         then  
                                                                                                                      B-­‐          81  
are   deliberately   designed   to   assist   specific                       averaged   to   create   a  
                                                                                                                      C+            78  
demographic  groups.  Potential  future  research  includes                  final   policy   area   grade.  
                                                                                                                      C             74.5  
versions  of  the  Scorecard  evaluating  policies   effects  on             See   the   Sources   and  
                                                                                                                      C-­‐          71  
women,   communities   of   color,   youth,   seniors,                       Definitions   table   in  
                                                                                                                      D+            68  
immigrant  workers  and  other  specific  populations.                       Appendix   E   for   a   list   of       D             64.5  
                                                                             composite   policies   and               D-­‐          61  
Individual   policies   are   assigned   grades   and   rankings             the   input   policies   that            F             57.5  
based   on   z-­‐scores   (standard   scores).   The   Scorecard             make  up  their  grades.                
uses  z-­‐scores  to  grade  values   on  a  curve.   A  z-­‐score  is           
the   measure   of   the   distance   between   a   value                    In   cases   where   1   or  
(measured  in  dollars,  percent,  etc.)  and  the  mean  value              more  states  lack  a  policy  entirely,  states  are  graded  on  
for   the   larger   data   set,   measured   in   standard                  having   or   lacking   a   policy.   States   without   policies  
deviations.   Data   values   equal   to   or   close   to   the   mean      receive   grades   of   F.   For   example,   in   the   case   of   paid  
value   for   all   states   are   assigned   a   grade   of   C.   The      family   leave,   those   states   with   policies   receive   higher  
                       data  value  is  from  the  mean  (average            grades  than   those   states  without   policies,  and   policies  

                                        Figure  4:  The  Economic  Security  Scorecard  Grade  Calculation  

                                                                              (5)  Economic    
                                                        Policy  Area             Security                       Overall  
                                                          Grades                Element                         Grade  

Spring  2013                                                                                  The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     15  
which   are   more   inclusive   and/or   allow   more   leave        policy   grades   to   numerical   scores   on   a   standard   10-­‐
receive  higher  grades.                                              point  grading  scale  and  calculating  a  simple  average  of  
                                                                      the  policy  area  grades.    
Once   all   policies   have   been   graded,   the   Scorecard         
calculates  a  grade  for  each  major  Element  of  Economic         Once   grades   have   been   assigned   to   all   Elements   for  
Security   (Income,   Job   Quality,   Education   &   Training,      each   state,   Element   numerical   scores   are   simple-­‐
Savings   &   Assets,   and   Supports)   by   converting   state     averaged   to   produce   the   overall   grade.

Spring  2013                                                                          The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     16  
Appendix  E:  Sources  and  Definitions    
   Element           Policy  Area           (Individual)  Policy                    Data  Definition                            Data  Source  
Income           Minimum  Wage           State  Minimum                   The  state  minimum  wage                 Department  of  Labor.  
                                         Wage                             passed  by  each  state                   Minimum  Wage  Laws  in  the  
                                                                          legislature                               States  
Income           Minimum  Wage           State  Minimum                   State  policies  regarding                Department  of  Labor.  
                                         Wage  Law  Update                updating  the  state  minimum             Minimum  Wage  Laws  in  the  
                                         Policies                         wage                                      States    
                                                                                                                    State  Department  of  Labor  
Income           State  Earned           State  Earned  Income            Percentage  of  the  federal              2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Income  Tax             Tax  Credits                     credit  the  state  credit  allows        Tax  Forms  
                 Credits                                                  residents  to  claim  
Income           State  Earned           State  Earned  Income            The  income  eligibility  limit  for   2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Income  Tax             Tax  Credits                     the  credit,  if  it  differs  from  the   Tax  Forms  
                 Credits                                                  federal  limit  
Income           State  Earned           State  Earned  Income            Whether  or  not  the  state              2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Income  Tax             Tax  Credits                     credit  is  refundable                    Tax  Forms  
Income           State  Child  and       State  Child  and                The  maximum  possible  credit            2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Dependant  Care         Dependent  Care                  or  deduction  available  to              Tax  Forms  
                 Credits                 Credits                          residents  
Income           State  Child  and       State  Child  and                The  income  eligibility  limit,  if      2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Dependant  Care         Dependent  Care                  one  exists                               Tax  Forms  
                 Credits                 Credits  
Income           State  Child  and       State  Child  and                Whether  or  not  the  state              2011  State  Individual  Income  
                 Dependant  Care         Dependent  Care                  credit  is  refundable                    Tax  Forms  
                 Credits                 Credits  
Job  Quality     Sick  and  Safe  Days   State  Policies  for  Paid   State  and  city  state  policies             National  Partnership  for  
                                         Sick  and  Safe  Days        for  mandatory  paid  sick  days              Women  and  Families.  
                                         Off                          for  private  employees  in  the              Paid  Sick  Days  Campaigns,  
                                                                      state                                         Statistics  and  Stories  
Job  Quality     Sick  and  Safe  Days   State  Policies  on              State  policies  on  mandatory            National  Partnership  for  
                                         Flexible  Sick  Leave            flexible  sick  leave-­‐  i.e.            Women  and  Families.  
                                                                          allowing  employees  to  take  a          Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                          sick  day  to  care  for  a  sick  
                                                                                                                    State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                          child-­‐  for  private  employees  in  
                                                                          the  state                                Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     FMLA  Expansions        Paid  Family  Leave              Whether  or  not  a  state  has  a        National  Partnership  for  
                                         Benefits                         policy  mandating  paid  family           Women  and  Families.  
                                                                          leave  benefits  for  private             Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                          employees  in  the  state  
                                                                                                                    State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                                                                    Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     FMLA  Expansions        FMLA  Expansion  for             Whether  or  not  a  state  has           National  Partnership  for  
                                         Small  Business                  offered  FMLA  protection  for            Women  and  Families.  
                                         Owners                           small  business  owners  beyond           Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                          the  requirements  of  federal  
                                                                                                                    State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                                                                    Help  New  Parents  

Spring  2013                                                                                        The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     17  
Job  Quality     FMLA  Expansions         FMLA  Expansion  for           Whether  or  not  a  state  has        National  Partnership  for  
                                          Workers  with  Less            FMLA  protection  covering             Women  and  Families.  
                                          Time  on  the  Job             workers  who  have  worked  for        Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                         their  employer  for  less  time  
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                         than  required  by  federal  law  
                                                                                                                Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     FMLA  Expansions         FMLA  Expansion  for           Whether  or  not  a  state  has        National  Partnership  for  
                                          the  Length  of  Time          offered  FMLA  protection  for  a      Women  and  Families.  
                                          Offered                        longer  period  of  time  than         Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                         required  by  federal  law  
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                                                                Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     FMLA  Expansions         FMLA  Expansion  on            Whether  or  not  a  state  has        National  Partnership  for  
                                          the  Definition  of            expanded  the  FMLA  definition        Women  and  Families.  
                                          Family                                                                Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                                                                Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     Medical/Pregnanc         Expansion  for  Small         Whether  or  not  a  state  has         National  Partnership  for  
                 y  Disability  Leave     Business  Owners              expanded  their                         Women  and  Families.  
                 Expansions                                             Medical/Pregnancy  Disability           Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                        Leave  protection  for  small  
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                        business  owners  beyond  the  
                                                                        requirements  of  federal  law          Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     Medical/Pregnanc         Expansion  for                Whether  or  not  a  state  has         National  Partnership  for  
                 y  Disability  Leave     Workers  with  Less           expanded  their                         Women  and  Families.  
                 Expansions               Time  on  the  Job            Medical/Pregnancy  Disability           Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                        Leave  protection  covering  
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                        workers  who  have  worked  for  
                                                                        their  employer  for  less  time        Help  New  Parents  
                                                                        than  required  by  federal  law  
Job  Quality     Medical/Pregnanc         Expansion  for  the           Whether  or  not  a  state  has         National  Partnership  for  
                 y  Disability  Leave     Length  of  Time              expanded  their                         Women  and  Families.  
                 Expansions               Offered                       Medical/Pregnancy  Disability           Expecting  Better:  A  State-­‐by-­‐
                                                                        Leave  protection  for  a  longer  
                                                                                                                State  Analysis  of  Laws  That  
                                                                        period  of  time  than  required  
                                                                        by  federal  law                        Help  New  Parents  
Job  Quality     UI  Access               Duration  of  UI              Number  of  weeks  of                   Center  on  Budget  and  Policy  
                                          benefits,  in  Weeks,         unemployment  insurance  a              Priorities,  Policy  Basics:  How  
                                          for  Initial  Claims  Filed   state  offered  to  workers  who        Many  Weeks  of  
                                          in  May  2012                 filed  their  first  claim  in  May  
                                                                                                                Compensation  are  Available?  
Job  Quality     UI  Access               UI  Insured                                                           Department  of  Labor,  
                                          Unemployment  Rate             unemployed  who  are                   Unemployment  Insurance  
                                                                         receiving  unempoyment                                   th
                                                                                                                Data  Summary:  4   Quarter  
Job  Quality     UI  Access               UI  Exhaustion  Rate           Number  of  UI  average                Department  of  Labor,  
                                                                         monthly  last  payments                Unemployment  Insurance  
                                                                         divided  by  the  number  of  UI                         th
                                                                                                                Data  Summary:  4   Quarter  
                                                                         average  monthly  first  
Job  Quality     UI  Benefits             UI  Replacement  Rate          Average  weekly  benefit               Department  of  Labor,  
                                                                         divided  by  the  average  weekly      Unemployment  Insurance  Data  
                                                                         wage                                   Summary:  4th  Quarter  2011  

Spring  2013                                                                                    The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     18  
Job  Quality     UI  Benefits        UI  Maximum  Benefits   Maximum  weekly  benefits                             Department  of  Labor,  
                                                             (not  counting  dependant                             Unemployment  Insurance  
                                                             allowances)  divided  by  the                                            th
                                                                                                                   Data  Summary:  4   Quarter  
                                                             median  household  income  in  
                                                                                                                   2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                                   Community  Survey  data  
Supports         CCDF                CCDF  Spending  Per              Average  state  match                        Administration  for  Children  
                                     Capita                           expenditure  per  child  served              and  Families  
                                                                      by  CCDF  programs  over                     FFY  2010  CCDF  Data  Tables  
                                                                      average  annual  cost  for  a  4  
                                                                      year  old  in  a  child  care  center  
                                                                                                                   Child  Care  in  America:  2011  
                                                                                                                   State  Fact  Sheets  
Supports         CCDF                CCDF  Accessibility              Income  limits  for  child  care                                                  
                                                                      subsidies  for  a  family  of  3  as  a      State  child  care  assistance  
                                                                      percentage  of  state  median                policies  2011:  reduced  support  
                                                                      income                                       for  families  in  challenging  
Supports         CCDF                CCDF  Copayments                 Maximum  family  fee  for  full              Administration  for  Children  
                                                                      time  care  for  the  first  child  in       and  Families  
                                                                      2009  divided  by  maximum                   State  Plans  2010-­‐2011  
                                                                      eligibility  income  for  a  3  
                                                                      person  family    
Supports         CCDF                CCDF  Subsidies,  as  a          Percentage  of  the  75th                                                       
                                     Percentage  of  the              percentile  by  most  recent                 State  child  care  assistance  
                                     75th  percentile                 released  market  rate  survey               policies  2011:  reduced  support  
                                                                      for  4  year  olds  in  full  time  care     for  families  in  challenging  
Supports         Elder  Medicaid     Elder  Medicaid                  Aged  Medicaid  income  limits               Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                     Income  Limits                   over  elder  income  in                      Struggling  With  Financing:  
                                                                      retirement                                   The  Recession  and  National  
                                                                                                                   Health  Reform  Dominate  
                                                                                                                   State  Medicaid  Concerns  
                                                                                                                   2010  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                                   Community  Survey  
Supports         Elder               Existence  and  Quality          Existence  of  a  state                      National  Conference  of  State  
                 Pharmaceutical      of  State                        pharmaceutical  assistance                   Legislatures  
                 Assistance          Pharmaceutical                   program                                      State  Pharmaceutical  
                                     Programs                                                                      Assistance  Programs  
Supports         Elder               Existence  and  Quality          Whether  or  not  the  state                 National  Conference  of  State  
                 Pharmaceutical      of  State                        program  works  with  Medicare               Legislatures  
                 Assistance          Pharmaceutical                                                                State  Pharmaceutical  
                                     Programs                                                                      Assistance  Programs  
Supports         Elder               Existence  and  Quality   Income  eligibility  limit  for  a                  National  Conference  of  State  
                 Pharmaceutical      of  State                 single  person                                      Legislatures  
                 Assistance          Pharmaceutical                                                                State  Pharmaceutical  
                                     Programs                                                                      Assistance  Programs  
Supports         Elder               Existence  and  Quality   Existence  of  a  state                             National  Conference  of  State  
                 Pharmaceutical      of  State                 pharmaceutical  discount                            Legislatures  
                 Assistance          Pharmaceutical            program                                             State  Pharmaceutical  
                                     Programs                                                                      Assistance  Programs  

Spring  2013                                                                                     The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     19  
Supports         Elder              Existence  and  Quality        Discount  program  income                 National  Conference  of  State  
                 Pharmaceutical     of  State                      limit                                     Legislatures  
                 Assistance         Pharmaceutical                                                           State  Pharmaceutical  
                                    Programs                                                                 Assistance  Programs  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Spending             Medicaid  expenditures  as  a             The  Council  of  State  
                                    as  a  Percentage  of          percentage  of  total                     Governments  
                                    State  Budgets                 expenditures,  2011                       The  Book  of  the  States  2012  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Eligibility          Eligibility  limit  for  a  working       Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   parent  over  median                      State  Health  Facts:  Adult  
                                                                   household  income,  2011                  Income  Eligibility  Limits  at  
                                                                                                             Application  as  a  Percent  of  the  
                                                                                                             Federal  Poverty  Level  (FPL),  
                                                                                                             January  2012  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Eligibility          Eligibility  limit  for  a  jobless       Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   parent  over  median                      State  Health  Facts:  Adult  
                                                                   household  income,  2011                  Income  Eligibility  Limits  at  
                                                                                                             Application  as  a  Percent  of  the  
                                                                                                             Federal  Poverty  Level  (FPL),  
                                                                                                             January  2012  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Eligibility          Eligibility  limit  for  a  working       Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   childless  adult  over  median            State  Health  Facts:  Adult  
                                                                   household  income,  2011                  Income  Eligibility  Limits  at  
                                                                                                             Application  as  a  Percent  of  the  
                                                                                                             Federal  Poverty  Level  (FPL),  
                                                                                                             January  2012  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Eligibility          Eligibility  limit  for  a  jobless       Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   childless  adult  over  median            State  Health  Facts:  Adult  
                                                                   household  income,  2011                  Income  Eligibility  Limits  at  
                                                                                                             Application  as  a  Percent  of  the  
                                                                                                             Federal  Poverty  Level  (FPL),  
                                                                                                             January  2012  
Supports         Medicaid           Medicaid  Spending             Medicaid  expenditures  by                The  Council  of  State  
                                    per  Capita                    Medicaid  enrollee                        Governments  
                                                                                                             The  Book  of  the  States  2012  
Supports         SCHIP              SCHIP  Eligibility             SCHIP/Medicaid  eligibility               Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   limit  for  a  child  under  19  over     State  Health  Facts:  Income  
                                                                   median  household  income,  
                                                                   2011                                      Separate  CHIP  Programs  by  
                                                                                                             Annual  Incomes  and  as  a  
                                                                                                             Percent  of  Federal  Poverty  
                                                                                                             Level,  January  2012  
                                                                                                             2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                             Community  Survey  
Supports         SCHIP              SCHIP  Participation           SCHIP/Children's  Medicaid                Kaiser  Family  Foundation  
                                                                   participation  rate,  2009                State  Health  Facts:  Income  

                                                                                                             Separate  CHIP  Programs  by  
                                                                                                             Annual  Incomes  and  as  a  
                                                                                                             Percent  of  Federal  Poverty  
                                                                                                             Level,  January  2012  
Supports         Housing            Housing  Trust  Funds          Number  of  housing  trust                Housing  Trust  Fund  Project  
                 Preservation                                      funds  in  state,  dedicated  
                                                                   funding  source,  existence  of  
                                                                   any  local  housing  trust  funds  

Spring  2013                                                                                  The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     20  
Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Existence  of  a  property  tax          State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               relief  program  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Availability  of  the  program  to       State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               renters  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Availability  of  the  program  to       State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               seniors  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Maximum  relief  available  to           State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               seniors  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Income  limit  for  a  single            State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               senior  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Availability  of  the  program  to       State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               families  

Supports         Real  Estate  Tax     Property  Tax  Relief          Maximum  relief  available  to           State  Tax  Websites,  2012  
                 Relief                                               families  

Supports         SNAP                  SNAP  Participation            SNAP  participation  rate,  2009         Food  and  Nutrition  Services  
                                       Rate                                                                    Empirical  Bayes  Shrinkage  
                                                                                                               Estimates  of  State  
                                                                                                               Supplemental  Nutrition  
                                                                                                               Assistance  Program  
                                                                                                               Participation  Rates  in  2007-­‐
                                                                                                               2009  for  All  Eligible  People  
                                                                                                               and  the  Working  Poor  
Education        Workforce             Workforce  Funding             Workforce  Investment  Act               Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Per  Capita  of                funding  for  program  year              PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                       Unemployed                     2010  over  number  of  state            Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  
                                                                      unemployed,  2010  
Education        Workforce             Job  Placement  Rate:          Percentage  of  adults  who              Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Adults                         used  Workforce  Investment              PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                      Act  training  who  entered  
Education        Workforce             Job  Placement  Rate:          Percentage  of  youth  who  used         Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Youth                          Workforce  Investment  Act               PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                      training  who  entered  
Education        Workforce             Job  Placement  Rate:          Percentage  of  dislocated               Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Dislocated  Workers            workers  who  used  Workforce            PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                      Investment  Act  training  who  
                                                                      entered  employment  
Education        Workforce             Number  of                     Total  number  of  Workforce             Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Unemployed  Served             Investment  Act  exiters,  2010,         PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                       via  Training                  over  the  number  of  people            Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  
                                                                      unemployed  in  2010  (average)  
Education        Workforce             Income  of  Exiters:           Average  earnings  of  adult             Department  of  Labor  
                 Development           Adults                         Workforce  Investment  Act  exiters      PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                      in  program  year  2010  over  state     2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                      median  household  income,  2010  
                                                                                                               Community  Survey  

Spring  2013                                                                                   The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     21  
Education        Workforce            Income  of  Exiters:           Average  earnings  of  youth            Department  of  Labor  
                 Development          Youth                          Workforce  Investment  Act              PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                     exiters  in  program  year  2010        2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                     over  state  median  household          Community  Survey  
                                                                     income,  2010  
Education        Workforce            Income  of  Exiters:           Average  earnings  of                   Department  of  Labor  
                 Development          Dislocated  Workers            dislocated  worker  Workforce           PY  2010  WIASRD  Data  Book  
                                                                     Investment  Act  exiters  in            2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                     program  year  2010  over  state        Community  Survey  
                                                                     median  household  income,  
Education        Preschool            Percentage  of  3  Year        Percentage  of  three  year  olds       National  Institute  for  Early  
                                      Olds  in  Preschool            enrolled  in  a  state-­‐funded         Education  Research  
                                                                     preschool  program                      The  State  of  Preschool  2009  
Education        Preschool            Percentage  of  4  Year        Percentage  of  four  year  olds        National  Institute  for  Early  
                                      Olds  in  Preschool            enrolled  in  a  state-­‐funded         Education  Research  
                                                                     preschool  program                      The  State  of  Preschool  2009  
Education        Public  School       School  Finance                Percentage  difference                  US  Census  Bureau  
                                      Inequality                     between  the  expenditure  per          Federal,  State,  and  Local  
                                                                     pupil  at  the  10th  and  90th         Governments:  Public  
                                                                     percentiles                             Elementary-­‐Secondary  
                                                                                                             Education  Finance  Data,  
                                                                                                             Technical  Documentation  
Education        Public  School       Math  Proficiency  in          Percentage  of  eighth  grade           National  Center  on  Education  
                                      the  8th  Grade                students  at  or  above  'basic'        Statistics  
                                                                     math  proficiency,  2011  
Education        Public  School       Reading  Proficiency           Percentage  of  eighth  grade           National  Center  on  Education  
                                      in  the  8th  Grade            students  at  or  above  'basic'        Statistics  
                                                                     reading  proficiency,  2011  
Education        Public  School       High  School                   Averaged  Freshmen                      National  Center  on  Education  
                                      Graduation  Rates              Graduation  Rate,  08-­‐09              Statistics  

Assets  &        College  Savings     529  Plan  Access              Number  of  plans  offered              Saving  for  
Savings          Plans                                                                                       529  Plan  Details  

Assets  &        College  Savings     529  Plan  Access              Minimum  contribution                   Saving  for  
Savings          Plans                                               required  to  open  an  account         529  Plan  Details  

Assets  &        College  Savings     529  Plan  Ease  of  Use       Whether  or  not  the  state            Saving  for  
Savings          Plans                                               makes  contributions  to  a  529        529  Plan  Details  
                                                                     plan  tax  deductible  
Assets  &        College  Savings     529  Plan  Ease  of  Use       What,  if  any,  account  fees  are     Saving  for  
Savings          Plans                                               charged  by  each  program  to          529  Plan  Details  
                                                                     open  the  account  or  as  
                                                                     monthly  or  annual  charges  
Assets  &        Retirement           Retirement  Plan               Percentage  of  all  workers  in        Employment  Benefit  Research  
Savings          Savings              Participation                  state  participating  in  an            Institute  
                                                                     employer-­‐sponsored                    Employment-­‐  based  
                                                                     retirement  plan,  2010                 Retirement  Plan  Participation:  
                                                                                                             Geographic  Differences  and  
                                                                                                             Trends,  2010  

Spring  2013                                                                                 The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     22  
Assets  &         Retirement           Pension  Participation         Percentage  of  those  15  and            Miriam  King,  Steven  Ruggles,  
Savings           Savings                                             older  who  worked  in  the  last         J.  Trent  Alexander,  Sarah  
                                                                      year  who  were  enrolled  in  a          Flood,  Katie  Genadek,  
                                                                      pension                                   Matthew  B.  Schroeder,  
                                                                                                                Brandon  Trampe,  and  
                                                                                                                Rebecca  Vick.  Integrated  
                                                                                                                Public  Use  Microdata  Series,  
                                                                                                                Current  Population  Survey:  
                                                                                                                Version  3.0.  
Assets  &         Retirement           State  Pension  Plans          The  number  of  years  an                National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Savings                                             employee  must  work  to  be              Legislatures  
                                                                      fully  vested  in  their  pension  
                                                                                                                Safety  Worker  Retirement  
                                                                                                                Plans  -­‐Tables  
Assets  &         Retirement           State  Pension  Plans          Employee  contribution                    National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Savings                                             requirements  for  state                  Legislatures  
                                                                      pension  plans                                                        c  
                                                                                                                Safety  Worker  Retirement  
                                                                                                                Plans  -­‐Tables    
Assets  &         Consumer             Pay  Day  Lending              Existence  of  pay  day  lending          National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Protection                                          legislation                               Legislatures  
                                                                                                                Payday  Lending  Statutes  
Assets  &         Consumer             Pay  Day  Lending              Maximum  allowable  loan            National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Protection                                          amount  from  a  pay  day  lender   Legislatures  
                                                                                                          Payday  Lending  Statutes  
Assets  &         Consumer             Pay  Day  Lending              Allowable  finance  charges  for          National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Protection                                          a  pay  day  lender                       Legislatures  
                                                                                                                Payday  Lending  Statutes  
Assets  &         Consumer             Consumer  Security             Who  can  request  a  freeze  on          National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Protection           Report  Freeze  Laws           their  credit  report  and  when          Legislatures  
                                                                                                                Consumer  Report  Security  
                                                                                                                Freeze  State  Laws  
Assets  &         Consumer             Laws  on  Mortgage             Whether  or  not  a  state  has           National  Conference  of  State  
Savings           Protection           Fraud                          laws  on  mortgage  fraud                 Legislatures  
                                                                                                                Mortgate  Fraud  
Assets  &         Support  Program     Asset  Limits,  TANF           Unrestricted  asset  eligibility          Urban  Institute  
Savings           Asset  Limits                                       limits  for  TANF                         Welfare  Rules  Database  

Assets  &         Support  Program     Asset  Limits,  SNAP           Asset  eligibility  limits  for  SNAP   Congressional  Research  
Savings           Asset  Limits                                                                               Service  
                                                                                                              The  Supplemental  Nutrition  
                                                                                                              Assistance  Program:  
                                                                                                              Categorical  Eligibility  
Assets  &         Support  Program     Asset  Limits,                 Asset  eligibility  limits  for         New  America  Foundation  
Savings           Asset  Limits        Medicaid/SCHIP                 Medicaid  and  SCHIP                    Table  One:  Summary  of  Asset  
                                                                                                              Limits  and  Exclusions  
Affordability     Child  Care          Child  Care                    Annual  cost  of  child  care  for  a                                           
                  Affordability        Affordability                  four  year  old  in  center  care         State  Child  Care  Assistance  
                                                                      over  median  household                   Policies  2011:  Reduced  
                                                                      income,  2011                             Support  For  Families  In  
                                                                                                                Challenging  Times  
                                                                                                                2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                                Community  Survey  

Spring  2013                                                                                   The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     23  
Affordability     Health  Care            Family  Plan  Health            Average  total  family  premium     Medical  Expenditure  Panel  
                  Affordability           Care  Affordability             for  employer-­‐sponsored           Survey  
                                                                          insurance  over  median             2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                          household  income,  2011            Community  Survey  
Affordability     Health  Care            Single  Plan  Health            Average  employee                   Medical  Expenditure  Panel  
                  Affordability           Care  Affordability             contribution  for  single  plan     Survey  
                                                                          premiums  for  ESI  over  median    2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                          household  income,  2011            Community  Survey  
Affordability     Health  Care            Single  Plan  Health            Average  total  single  premium     Medical  Expenditure  Panel  
                  Affordability           Care  Affordability  2          for  employer-­‐sponsored           Survey  
                                                                          insurance  over  median             2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                          household  income,  2011            Community  Survey  
Affordability     Elder  Healthcare       Elder  Healthcare               Elder  Index  health  care          Wider  Opportunities  for  
                  Affordability           Affordability                   expense  over  median  income       Women  
                                                                          in  retirement                      The  Economic  Security  
                                                                                                              2010  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                              Community  Survey  
Affordability     Rent  Affordability     Housing  Cost                   Percentage  of  renter  occupied   2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                          Burdened  Renters               units  spending  30%  or  more      Community  Survey  
                                                                          of  household  income  on  gross  
                                                                          rent,  2011  
Affordability     Homeownership           Home  Affordability             BEST  monthly  savings  amount                               
                  Affordability                                           for  a  three  bedroom  house       2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                          over  median  household             Community  Survey  
                                                                          income  in  2011  
Affordability     Homeownership           Housing  Cost                   Percentage  of  owner  occupied   2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                  Affordability           Burdened                        units  spending  30%  or  more      Community  Survey  
                                          Homeowners                      of  household  income  on  
                                                                          selected  monthly  owner  costs,  
Affordability     Homeownership           Homeownership                   Median  selected  monthly           2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                  Affordability           Affordability                   owner's  costs  as  a  percentage   Community  Survey  
                                                                          of  median  income,  2011  
                                                                          among  all  homeowners  
Affordability     Elder  Rent             Housing  Cost                   Percentage  of  elder  renter       2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                  Affordability           Burdened  Elder                 occupied  units  spending  30%      Community  Survey  
                                          Renters                         or  more  of  household  income  
                                                                          on  gross  rent  
Affordability     Elder  Rent             Elder  Rent                     Elder  Index  rent  expense  over   Wider  Opportunities  for  
                  Affordability           Affordability                   median  income  in  retirement   Women  
                                                                                                              The  Economic  Security  
                                                                                                              2010  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                              Community  Survey  
Affordability     Elder                   Housing  Cost                   Percentage  of  elder  owner        2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                  Homeownership           Burdened  Elder                 occupied  units  spending  30%      Community  Survey  
                  Affordability           Homeowners                      or  more  of  household  income  
                                                                          on  selected  monthly  owner  
Affordability     Elder                   Elder  Homeownership            Elder  Index  homeowner  w/o  a      Wider  Opportunities  for  Women  
                  Homeownership           Affordability                   mortgage  expense  over  median      The  Economic  Security  Database  
                  Affordability                                           income  in  retirement               2010  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                               Community  Survey  

Spring  2013                                                                                     The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     24  
Affordability     Utilities               Utilities  Affordability          Median  annual  utility  value  over     2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                  Affordability                                             median  household  income,  2011         Community  Survey  

Affordability     Transportation          Car  Ownership                    BEST  transportation  costs  over                    alculations  
                  Affordability           Affordability                     median  household  income                2011  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                                     Community  Survey  

Affordability     Elder                   Elder  Car  Ownership             Elder  Index  transportation  costs      Wider  Opportunities  for  Women  
                  Transportation          Affordability                     over  median  income  in                 The  Economic  Security  Database  
                  Affordability                                             retirement                               2010  1-­‐Year  American  
                                                                                                                     Community  Survey  

Spring  2013                                                                                         The  Economic  Security  Scorecard     25  



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