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The Industrial Revolution

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									The Industrial Revolution
              What is the Industrial
                  Revolution?




• It is the shift from producing goods by hand to using machines to make
  goods
• There was also a major change in agricultural production, too
• Urban populations exploded as people moved from the countryside to the
  cities
• Started in Great Britain, spread to other wealthy countries with colonies
• Dramatically changed the way of life for Western Europe and the world
    Daily Life Before the Revolution
• Most of the population
  lived in country villages
• People farmed their land
  using human and animal
  labor
• They grew food on small
  plots to feed their families
• Livestock grazed on
  common public lands
• People produced goods in
  their homes and sold them
  to other villagers
   What Was So Special About Great
              Britain?
• England had large supplies
  of raw resources because
  of its colonies in the New
  World and Asia
• It had a powerful navy that
  protected merchant ships
  and made trade safer
• The government was stable
  and supported the growth of
  businesses
• More people began
  investing in private
  businesses, allowing them
  to come up with new and
  better ways of making
  products
The Agricultural Revolution in
        Great Britain
   The Open Field System
ADVANTAGES    • Europeans used this
                system for centuries
              • All villagers worked
                together
              • All the land was
                shared out
              • Everyone helped
                each other
              • Everyone had a strip
                of land to grow food
              • For centuries enough
                food had been grown
 Disadvantages of the Old System
                                          Field left fallow,
People have to walk over your strips to   less food produced
reach theirs
                                                     Difficult
                                                     to take
  No hedges                                          advantage
  or fences                                          of new
                                                     farming
No proper                                            techniques
drainage


            Because land in different            Animals can
            fields takes time to get to          trample crops
            each field                           and spread
                                                 disease
             Changes in Farming
• Farmers improved animal breeding methods to produce
  healthier livestock
• Scientific Revolution inspired farmers to breed better
  varieties of crops
• Increased quality of people’s diet as well as England’s
  food supply
• Population grew rapidly
      Jethro Tull’s New Machine




•   Seed drill
•   Planted seeds in straight rows
•   More efficient planting method
•   Farmers used to scatter seeds by hand
•   Produced healthier crops, organized crop fields, and
    reduced a farmer’s workload
    The Enclosure Movement
• Wealthy landowners bought large fields
  that villagers had used for strip farming
• They combined the small farms into large
  ones and enclosed them with fences
• Larger farms were much more efficient;
  new farming methods were used, more
  food was grown and food supplies soared
• Many poor farmers were forced off their
  land
      The British Labor Force
• England’s urban
  population was growing
  very fast for two
  reasons
• Better food supply
• Large number of
  farmers moved to the
  cities to find work
• Most of the labor force
  could adapt easily to
  new working conditions
  and were willing to
  learn new job skills
Great Britain’s Natural Resources
                   • Had vast supplies of raw
                     resources that could be
                     manufactured
                   • There were large coal
                     and iron deposits in
                     northern G.B.
                   • England had built
                     thousands of miles of
                     canals that could be used
                     to transport goods around
                     the country quickly
        Investments in Industry
• England was very
  prosperous and people
  had money to spend
• Wealthy merchants and
  businessmen wanted to
  sell more products and
  increase trade
• They paid people to find
  ways to produce more
  goods for less money at a
  faster rate
Industrialization




 The Factory System
  England’s Textile Production
• A textile is woven cloth
• People used to weave cloth in their homes
  – This was called a cottage industry
• The Agricultural Revolution and an increase in
  trade with American colonies created larger
  supplies of cotton and wool
• People in the textile business wanted a way to
  make more cloth to trade around the world
• They began developing machines that sped up
  production
         Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
• A device that removed
  seeds from raw cotton
  blossoms
   – People used to do this by
     hand
   – It cleaned cotton much
     faster than a person could
• Made the American
  South the cotton
  producing center of the
  world
• Caused an increase in
  slave labor and trade
  because more cotton
  needed to be grown and
  picked
          The Spinning Jenny
• Created by James
  Hargreaves
• Spun 8 times more
  cotton than a
  normal spinning
  wheel because it
  spun several
  threads at once
• Unfortunately the
  thread was really
  thick and broke
  easily when woven
Richard Arkwright
         • Made the Spinning Frame, a
           machine that produced
           stronger, thinner thread for
           weaving
         • Used water power to run his
           machine
         • Opened a mill with several
           spinning frames to make a lot
           of thread at once; he created
           the first factory
         • Encouraged weavers to move
           close to his mill and work there
         • He is considered the father
           of the Industrial Revolution
            The Flying Shuttle
• A device created by John
  Kay that made weaving
  fabric easier
• Weavers could now
  produce more cloth at a
  faster pace (faster than
  the spinning frames could
  produce the thread)
• Weavers had to compete
  for the limited supply of
  thread
          The Impact of One Device
• The Flying Shuttle created a need
  for more thread
• The need for more thread created
  a need for more cotton and wool
• The need for more cotton created
  a need for more cotton
  plantations and slave labor
• The need for more wool created a
  need for more sheep pastures
• Wealthy landowners enclosed
  more strip farms and converted
  them to large sheep pastures,
  forcing farmers to move to the
  cities and search for jobs in
  factories
          Edmund Cartwright
• Saw an opportunity to get rich in the weaving
  industry
• Invented the water powered loom
• Could weave more cloth in one day than 200
  people could by hand
           Textile Factories
• Were built to contain large machines that
  could not fit into a person’s home
• Factories could house several machines
  and workers in one area
• Early factories needed to be built by a
  water supply to power the machines
      Steam



Powering the Industrial
     Revolution
            The Steam Engine
• Created by James Watt
• Harnessed the force of
  steam to drive machines
• Steam created far more
  power than water, so
  most factories converted
  their machines to run on
  steam
• Steam-powered
  machines did not need to
  be located next to a large
  water source, but they did
  need a steady supply of
  coal
  Steam-powered Transportation
• Placed in trains and on
  ships
• People could now
  transport raw materials
  and finished products
  faster than ever before
• Sail ships and horse-
  drawn carriages became
  obsolete
• Railroads were built
  across the country
The Impact of the Railways
                                    Seaside towns          Newspapers could
 People were able to travel
                                developed; the railways      be sent from
 greater distances for work
                                 made cheap day trips       London all over
         and leisure
                                       possible              the country.

  Turnpike Trusts,                                           People became
   canals & stage                                          more interested in
  coach companies                                          politics & this led
 could not compete                  Social &                to the growth of
 & went bankrupt.              Economic Impact              political parties
                                of the Railways
                                                                Railway
  Townspeople were
                                                              engineering
 able to receive meat,
                                                            towns grew up
    fish, milk and
vegetables brought in      Industry grew, because the
 while they were still    railways needed coal & iron;
fresh by the railways.       railways in turn allowed        Mail delivery
                            factories to transport their       sped up
     Seafood                     goods to markets.
                                                             First Class Mail
How did railways create more jobs?
 Goods can now be                 Railways make the
   sold for less.                  moving of goods
                                       cheaper.

                    This is called
   More people      the Cycle of More people with jobs
   can afford to                      means …
                     Prosperity
  buy these goods


   More goods are sold           Businessmen employ
   & so more need to                more workers.
     be produced.
Who benefited from these new jobs?


                     ?

                              ?
     ?
Social Changes




            -Travel times reduced
                dramatically
             -More people began
                 travelling
           -A standard time was set
              for all of England
           (Greenwich Mean Time)
      The Revolution Spreads
• Great Britain tried hard to prevent other
  countries from industrializing, but it could not
  control all of the new ideas and technologies
• Industrialization did not spread evenly across
  the globe; it only took hold in countries similar to
  Great Britain
• They had to have natural resources, a large
  labor force, and money invested in industry
     Consequences of the Industrial
             Revolution
• Production and trade increased dramatically,
  industrialized countries got rich while many colonies and
  non-industrialized countries did not
• Competition between factories grew, spurring the
  invention of more machines
• Pollution skyrocketed and cities became dirtier than ever
  before

								
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