Superconducting Power Equipment:
Readiness Review Program
Mike Gouge, ORNL
Steve Ashworth, LANL
DOE 2009 Superconductivity for Electric Systems
August 4-6, 2009
SPE Readiness Review Program
• Goal: enhance the probability of successful SPE
• Relevance to DOE-OE Program Mission:
– Development of HTS wires, and novel and revolutionary electric R e s is ta n c e
power equipment, such as cables, fault current limiters, and
transformers, utilizing HTS wires. is fu tile .
• The major tool: phased readiness assessments:
– Focus is on early identification and resolution of technical
• issues involving cryogenic temperatures, mechanical stresses,
vacuum + high voltage dielectrics are a major concern
– Performed by an independent small group
– Emphasis is on an objective technical review
– Report goes directly back to SPE team with a copy to DOE
Anticipate at least 4 reviews over a project’s lifetime
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4
During R&D + End of Before system “Lessons
conceptual design and operations or learned” after
design after prior to tie-in to electric demo phase
award significant grid
• Risk/reliability issues tracked by
projects – Captures actions/issues/concerns
from each readiness review
– Assigns owner for resolution
– Set ‘resolve by’ date
Peer Review Interface
• At the annual DOE peer review:
– Each SPE team should present “readiness” preparation activities
in accordance with the evaluation criteria (next slide).
– Only non-proprietary information presented.
– Peer reviewers provide feedback on readiness review program
as implemented by each SPE projects.
Relevant 2009 Peer Review evaluation criteria
distributed by Energetics
• Approach and project management (25%)
– Degree to which the project approach is free of major
flaws that would limit the project’s effectiveness or
efficiency. If this project is continuing, the degree to
which the project has effectively planned its future,
defined milestones, identified risks, considered
contingencies to mitigate/manage risks, built in
optional paths, etc.
FY 2003-2009 Review Summary
• Four SPI readiness reviews in FY 2003
• Nine reviews in FY 2004
• Eleven reviews in FY 2005
• Three cable projects reviewed in FY 2006
• One project review in FY 2007 (SFCL).
• Three FCL project reviews and one cable (LIPA
pre-energization) review in FY 2008.
• Two FCL project reviews (AMSC and Zenergy)
and one cable project review (LIPA) in FY 2009.
FCL Readiness Reviews
FCL Review Team:
Dr. Michael Gouge, ORNL
Dr. Mischa Steurer, CAPS/FSU
Dr. William Hassenzahl, AEA
2009 FCL SPE Readiness Reviews
• A 2nd Readiness Review of AMSC FCL project (with
Siemens and Nexans staff participation) was conducted on
January 13-14, at AMSC.
• An 2nd Readiness Review of Zenergy FCL project was
conducted on June 23-24 at Zenergy San Francisco office.
• This met a DOE milestone to complete 2009 readiness
reviews of the fault current limiter projects by July 2009.
FCL off FCL concept FCL on
FCL Readiness Reviews: Generic
• Once the design configuration of the
various components (HTS elements,
shunt coils, connections, etc.) is
established, a rigorous test program and
assessment method should quantify
acceptable performance over the design
– Weibull or similar statistical approach on
– FMEA on systems/components
• The reliability of the individual series and
parallel components has to be
demonstrated to support the overall
SFCL device availability as required by Status and grid parameters
the utility. of FCL Projects
• Example: AMSC project added a 2nd
series “fast” breaker on FCL to ensure
FCL elements not damaged by failure of
one fast breaker to open.
Weibull Statistics: An effective tool for predicting
performance of both insulators and conductors
HV breakdown of LN: A compilation by Prof. M. O.
Pace, UT-K and ORNL: BD voltage vs. gap HV breakdown of LN
From ORNL testing
FCL Readiness Reviews Generic Issues
and Recommendations (cont.)
• More experiments are needed on PD (partial discharge) in dielectric
materials to support aging studies.
• Cryogenic system reliability: redundancy in rotating parts like
compressors and submerged pumps, purity of LN, etc.
• There is very limited experience with a closed liquid nitrogen system
that will experience the operating conditions of a commercial SFCL
(high voltage, high fault current – heating and forces, and boiling LN).
• Recovery under load (RUL - if required) needs more R&D.
– Thermal response times can be large at 77 K.
• Benefits of a single-phase prototype tested off-grid.
• The SPE projects should consider the development of a
comprehensive set of design and performance criteria.
– High voltage standards: An FCL can be part breaker, part reactor and part
transformer (see Thursday pm roundtable agenda)
– Initial efforts by IEEE and CIGRE working groups
Generic Issues and Recommendations (cont.)
• There are several issues remaining that SPE teams need
to carefully evaluate regarding the use of 2G conductor in
Delamination remains an issue: qualify the proposed conductor for
the intended operation: thermal stresses and cycles, mechanical
and combined stresses at normal and during faulted conditions
keep to a minimum (improve Ic uniformity)
compatibility of joint solder to laminated or plated materials and YBCO
solder temperature and impact on laminate, YBCO and insulation
Substrate and laminate materials: evaluate intrinsic ferromagnetic
and enhanced superconductor hysteretic losses in ac applications
(cables, FCLs and transformers)
Cost: earlier manufacturer projections indicated cost at or below
1G. This has not yet happened and 2G $/kA-m are about 2 x 1G.
Cable Readiness Reviews
Steve Ashworth, LANL
Andreas Neuber, Texas Tech
Ed Hahn, NYPA (ret)
SPI Cable Project Status
◦ Successful operation
Phase 1 (1G wire)
Phase 2 (30m, 2G wire section)
◦ Very successful test period
◦ Off line in March 2008
AEP Bixby Substation (Southwire)
◦ Successful operation
◦ Nearly 3 kA at low voltage (13.8 kV)
◦ On line for three years
◦ Energized Spring 2008
◦ 138 kV at low currents (50-450 A)
◦ No significant issues
SPE Cable Project Status
• LIPA II
– Initial Readiness Review in 2009
• Southwire/Entergy New Orleans Cable
– Slow start due to reduced load growth
– Initial Readiness Review planned in FY 2010
FY 2009 Plans FY 2009 Performance
• Continue focused reviews as projects Two SPE FCL projects were reviewed this FY.
complete final design, fabricate/install LIPA II cable project had initial review this FY.
equipment and commission systems
• Encourage the SPE projects to develop All the projects have implemented risk
risk identification and mitigation assessment and management tools
processes to manage risks.
• More emphasis is needed on R&D and Cryogenics dielectrics R&D (next talk).
Projects aware of HV scaling issues.
design guidelines in HV cryogenic
dielectrics for the grid-based SPI
• A web-site will be implemented with Implemented in 2008-2009:
lessons-learned from prior SPI projects Upgraded in 2008. Final reports added for
and general design guidance GE HTS Generator Project and Reliance
Electric (Baldor) HTS Motor Project
Comprehensive data on breakdown in liquid
nitrogen vs. gap (dc, ac, impulse) 2009
FY 2010 Plans
• A program solicitation on superconducting power equipment
resulted in five new HTS demonstration projects in 2007.
– 3 HTS FCL projects and 2 HTS cable projects.
– In FY 2008 the three FCL projects had initial Readiness Reviews.
– One FCL project was subsequently declined by SuperPower; leaving 2
FCL projects that were reviewed in 2009 as well as the LIPA cable project
– Plan a third readiness review in 2010 of each FCL project as they complete
planned R&D and detailed design to review the final technical baseline and
associated risk assessments.
– Conceptual and preliminary design reviews for the two cable projects are
planned in 2009-2010.
– “Lessons-learned” reviews are planned as these projects finish their in-grid
• In 2010 the web-site will be upgraded further:
– Lessons-learned from prior projects
– General design guidance on high voltage, vacuum, etc.
Research Integration - General
• Since the reviews contain a large amount of proprietary material,
the results and recommendations are typically shared only
between the project being reviewed, the reviewers and DOE.
• The reviewers, to the extent possible, highlight potential problem
areas that they have learned from other projects.
• Have engaged review staff from 2 DOE labs, 2 DOD labs, a
university, CAPS/FSU, NYPA and outside consultants to leverage
• Steve Ashworth (LANL), who leads the readiness review team of
the DOE cable projects, has, with DOE-OE support, performed
oversight and targeted assessments on the DHS 25-m FCL cable
Research Integration – Support of Overall Program
• Participated in 8th annual EPRI Superconductivity Conference held at Oak Ridge
on November 12-13, 2008.
– Emphasis on HTS applications and testing.
• Participated in a Coated Conductor for Applications workshop at University of
Houston on December 4-5, 2008.
– Session A on HTS applications chaired by Mike Gouge.
• Task Force on Fault Current Limiter Testing sponsored by the IEEE Switchgear
Administrative Subcommittee had their first meeting in Atlanta, GA on January
15, 2009 and second meeting on May 5 in Ashville, NC.
– A Project Authorization Request (PAR) for initiating a working group to develop a
Guide for testing FCLs is under way.
• CIGRE Working Group A3.23 "Application and feasibility of fault current limiters
in power systems“ met in Los Angeles on March 9-11, 2009.
– Dr. Mischa Steurer serves on the FCL readiness review team and is engaged with
both of these committees and is Chairman of the IEEE Task Force.