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TRADE POLICY BY SECTOR OVERVIEW
1. Since the first review of its trade policy, Burkina Faso has made efforts to deregulate and support key sectors of the economy in order to achieve the objectives determined in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). In the agricultural sector, the reforms initiated under the Agricultural Structural Adjustment Programme (PASA) have been ongoing since the first review and tariffs have been liberalized. The introduction of the WAEMU‟s CET (Chapter III(2)(iv)) has significantly lowered the simple average of duties and taxes applicable to agricultural products, which fell from 31.6 per cent in 1997 to 17.6 per cent in 2004. 2. The State has continued to reform the cotton subsector, the cornerstone of the rural economy. The Textile Fibres Company (SOFITEX), in which the State has become a minority shareholder, remains the leading operator in the subsector because of its de facto monopoly on the collection of seed cotton in the cotton-growing areas of the west and south-west. Since the first review, the objective of reform in the subsector has been to give producers a more important role in managing the subsector (with the State taking on a secondary role), to raise their incomes, and to establish a fund to provide support during periods when the selling price of cotton fibre on global markets does not cover production costs. The level of prices guaranteed to producers prior to the season depends on previous trends in global prices and the performance of SOFITEX. Another aim of the reform is to open up new cotton-growing areas in the centre and the east to allow the entry of new operators able to provide cotton producers with support, as SOFITEX did in the past. In the long term, the latter should be privatized. 3. Although Burkina Faso has achieved new records in cotton production, the earnings it derives from marketing “white gold” suffer from the subsidies granted by developed countries and from the decline in the United States dollar. In coordination with other countries in West and Central Africa, the Burkina authorities have taken several types of action in the WTO with regard to subsidies. 4. Reform in the sugar and rice subsectors has continued with the privatization of the State enterprises involved and tariff liberalization. Non-tariff protection measures are still in force, however (reference values, requirement to obtain a national conformity certificate even though there are no Burkina standards). The non-traditional rice, sesame, maize, fruit and vegetable subsectors have been taken over by the Agricultural Subsectors Promotion Company (SOPROFA), which is a new publicprivate partnership model. 5. Industrial production of gold ended in 2000 and a new Mining Code was adopted in 2003 with a view to strengthening the mining sector‟s contribution to the objectives of the PRSP; the new Code still gives both Burkina and foreign enterprises the same rights and obligations. The price of hydrocarbons is fixed monthly depending on global prices, and the State enterprise, which has a monopoly on import and storage of hydrocarbons, is included in the privatization programme. In 2000, it was decided to speed up reform in the electricity sector, but the price of a KWh has not changed since 1994. 6. The industrial sector is disadvantaged by the high cost of production factors. Consequently, it has not changed greatly since the first review, except for the progress made in privatization. The sector is still protected by various tariff and non-tariff measures (tariff barriers, barriers to intracommunity trade, reference values, national conformity certificate) and the State still participates in enterprises deemed to be of national interest. The authorities have, however, analysed and then
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confronted the problems of substance in the sector by creating a programme in support of competitiveness and development of enterprises (PACDE) in 2003. 7. Even though the specific commitments made under the GATS were limited to certain tourism services, in 1998 the authorities opened up the telecommunications sector to competition and since 2000 two private mobile telephone operators have provided this service. It is planned to privatize the National Telecommunications Board (ONATEL), the traditional operator, and its exclusive rights over fixed telephony, inter alia, will end in 2005. Microfinance has expanded considerably since the first review and several institutions are financed by the Government or by NGOs. It is not included among Burkina Faso‟s commitments under the GATS. (2) (i) AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK, AND FORESTRY Overview1
8. Burkina Faso‟s economy chiefly depends on the primary sector as it contributes an average of one third of nominal GDP and constitutes the major source of income and jobs for some 86 per cent of the working population, as well as over half of export earnings from goods. The importance of the primary sector for Burkina‟s economy is, however, much greater than its contribution to GDP formation inasmuch as the processing of primary products dominates the secondary sector (for example, the processing of seed cotton), while transport and commercial activities related to domestic and foreign trade play a significant role in the services sector. The primary sector is dominated by agriculture (57 per cent of the primary sector‟s contribution to nominal GDP in 2002) and livestock breeding (30 per cent); fisheries and forestry only make a modest contribution (13 per cent). 9. It is estimated that around 9 million hectares of land has agricultural potential and one third (3.5 million hectares) on average is exploited annually. The potential of irrigated land is estimated to be some 233,500 hectares, of which around 11 per cent has been equipped. Grazing areas cover 61 per cent of Burkina Faso‟s land area. 10. During the period 1995-2003, growth in agricultural production in real terms was 6 per cent on average, although there was a sharp fall in 2000 caused by unfavourable climate conditions. Between 1998 and 2003, the authorities recorded an increase of 37 per cent in cereal production and 175 per cent in cotton production, the principal cash crop (Table IV.1). Cotton production should reach 500,000 tonnes for the 2003-2004 season as a result of the increase in land under cultivation, favourable rainfall and little damage by pests. For the 2003-2004 season, the outlook is good for cereal production, which reached a record level in the 2002-2003 season with a surplus of around 1 million tonnes. These surpluses mean that the food security situation is deemed to be globally satisfactory.2 Rates of growth in production of sesame and maize have been adequate.
The main sources for this section are the information provided by the Burkina authorities and the following references: Government of Burkina Faso (2004), Government of Burkina Faso (2000), IMF (2003b). 2 “Rapport mensuel sur la Sécurité alimentaire du Burkina Faso”, Famine Early Warning Network Systems, 15 December 2003 [on line]. Available at http://www.fews.net/ [19 January 2004].
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Table IV.1 Agricultural production, 1998-2003 1998 Cereals („000 tonnes) - Maize - Other cereals Other crops („000 tonnes) - Groundnuts - Cowpeas - Potatoes - Sesame Cotton („000 tonnes) Crop production (CFAF billions) Crop production (1985 CFAF billions) .. Not available. 2,657 378 2,279 668 214 338 13 13 285 348 294 1999 2,670 469 2,201 709 208 309 17 9 254 374 305 2000 2,287 424 1,863 412 169 128 27 7 276 361 277 2001 3,101 606 2,495 927 301 376 42 31 378 493 367 2002 3,119 653 2,466 770 324 330 37 14 406 542 371 2003 3,651 801 2,849 .. 340 .. 39 .. 500 491 422
Source: Government of Burkina Faso (2004).
11. Burkina Faso‟s performance in food production in 2001 shows that food crops are used mainly for domestic consumption.3 Cereal production met some 99 per cent of the country‟s needs and the balance was covered by imports of rice and wheat; although there are marked fluctuations in cereal production from year to year, nine years out of 11 between 1993 and 2003 domestic production covered the population‟s needs. Imports play a more important role, however, in meeting needs for sugar (46 per cent) and edible vegetable oils (32 per cent). 12. Burkina Faso also has a large animal herd, estimated to be 22.6 million head in 2002 and comprising bovine animals (5 million), sheep (7.2 million), goats (9.2 million), pigs (0.7 million), asses and donkeys (0.5 million), equine animals (0.3 million), and camels (0.015 million). In 2002, exports of live cattle amounted to 802,000 head and accounted for 7 per cent of export earnings in 2001 (Table I.3). The number of poultry is estimated to be 23.8 million and is the population‟s main source of protein. (ii) (a) Agricultural policy Overview
13. The PASA was introduced in 1991 and has led to liberalization of pricing and marketing of agricultural products, privatization of almost all the enterprises engaged in production, processing and marketing of agricultural products, and the elimination of subsidies for agricultural inputs. The PASA has also allowed the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock to be reorganized and has enabled the State to refocus on support for producers, who are themselves grouped in cooperatives in order to administer their collective interests more effectively. With the exception of the cotton, sugar and rice subsectors (see below), the State has withdrawn from the majority of agricultural activities. 14. A strategy for sustainable growth in agriculture and an operational strategic plan (PSO) for its implementation were adopted in 1999, the objective being to achieve an annual increase of 5 to 10 per
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cent in agricultural production by 2010 and so significantly alleviate poverty4 A livestock development plan is included in the PSO and this subsector has benefited from a vast investment programme (CFAF 580 million) (US$968,000)) launched in 2000 in order to safeguard herds.5 15. Having noted that growth in the agricultural sector, which was 6 per cent over the period 1995-2002, is in the lower ranges of the PSO, at the end of 2003 the Government drew up and adopted a Rural Development Strategy (SDR) in order to meet the objectives set in the PRSP, which gives a central role to boosting the rural economy. The overall objective of the SDR is to ensure sustained growth of the rural sector so as to help alleviate poverty, increase food security and promote sustainable development. 16. The implementation of the PSO/SDR requires a certain number of measures, particularly better management of natural resources, revision of legislation on land ownership in order to make it more secure, improved access to agricultural machinery and inputs so as to increase yields, access to loans (section (4)) and enhanced competitiveness in cash crops (mainly cotton and oilseeds). Overall, the State intends to continue withdrawing from production and marketing while stepping up its support and advice to private operators (monitoring, research and development, information on market conditions) and its efforts to develop basic infrastructure and improve the quality of human resources. 17. Financing of the rural sector absorbs on average one quarter of the State‟s budget (Table IV.2). This spending is broken down as follows: expenditure related to operations and expenditure related to investment. As regards the latter, financing from external funds exceeded financing from own resources in 2002. State spending has risen sharply since 1996, although it has fallen slightly since 1998, when the sector‟s financing reached a record level of 11 per cent of GDP. Producers have also mobilized substantial financial resources either through bank loans (in particular, on the basis of cotton guarantees) or through indirect means, or microfinance (section (4)(iv)). 18. SOFITEX is still the main player in the cotton subsector, but the latter‟s structure has been changed in order to give producers a co-management role (see below). The State has withdrawn from the sugar subsector by opening up the capital of the Comoé sugar company (SOSUCO). Taking the SOFITEX as a model, the Agricultural Subsectors Promotion Company (SOPROFA) was created in 2001. It is a new public-private partnership model, 75 per cent of whose shares are held by private shareholders and 25 per cent by the State. It has taken over management of the sesame, rice (see below) and maize subsectors and also plays a role in boosting the tomato concentrate and mango juice subsectors, as well as trade in non-traditional fruit and vegetables.6 It works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture.
The other objectives set are to help to raise the income of farmers and breeders by at least 3 per cent annually, to create conditions favourable to food security, and to generalize and reinforce the sustainable management of natural resources by rural communities. See Government of Burkina Faso (2000). 5 Economic Mission, Embassy of France to Burkina Faso (2003b). 6 “La Politique Agricole du Burkina Faso”, interview with the Minister for Agriculture, Le Pays, 18 July 2002 [on line]. Available at http://www.abcburkina.net/politiq_agro/agro_burkina/salif_diallo.htm [10 January 2004].
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Table IV.2 Spending on operations and investment in the rural sector, 1996-2000 (CFAF millions) 1996 Rural sector Operating expenditure Investment expenditure - Domestic financing - External financing State Operating expenditure Investment expenditure - Domestic financing - External financing Share of the rural sector in the State budget (percentage) Source: Government of Burkina Faso (2004). 127,953 7.12 120,541 49,703 70,839 375,197 124,491 250,706 161,049 89,657 34.1 1997 111,709 8.486 103,223 49,561 53,662 543,697 184,118 359,579 183,110 176,469 20.5 1998 163,512 8.085 155,427 61,497 93,930 610,423 200,491 409,932 229,739 180,193 26.8 1999 158,827 8.082 150,745 51,490 99,255 609,597 215,037 394,560 201,149 193,411 26.1 2000 134,628 8.927 134,628 52,070 82,558 586,467 224,439 362,028 182,220 179,808 24.5
19. The liberalization of trade in agricultural products has continued with the introduction of the WAEMU‟s CET and its transitional preferential tariff regime for products originating in the WAEMU (Chapter III(2)(iv)). The simple average of customs duty, plus additional import taxes, is 17.6 per cent for agricultural products (Table III.1), which represents a decrease of 44 per cent in comparison with the simple average of 31.6 per cent recorded at the time of the first review. Nevertheless, there are still isolated instances of protection because of the application of various non-tariff measures on certain agricultural products, for example, the use of reference values as a basis for customs valuation and the requirement to produce a national conformity certificate (CNC). Sugar and rice are two basic food commodities on which a combination of these non-tariff measures is imposed. 20. Burkina Faso levies domestic taxes at the customs level. These consist of VAT at 18 per cent and excise duty on coffee, tea, cola and non-alcoholic beverages (10 per cent), alcoholic beverages (25 per cent), low-quality tobacco, cigars and cigarettes (17 per cent), and those of high quality (40 per cent). 21. The WAEMU is currently developing an operational agricultural policy for the Union (PAU) (Chapter II(4)(ii)) the legal framework of which was adopted in 2001.7 Even though tariff protection for agricultural products under the CET is already higher than the protection given to non-agricultural products, the possibility of revising the CET upwards appears to be under consideration. Studies have led to the identification of promising outlets for each of the member States. (b) Policy in the cotton subsector8
22. Cotton is the major cash crop and is grown by around 210,000 producers, mainly in the west and south-west of Burkina Faso, and it directly sustains 2 million people. Growing cotton gives producers large profits as a result of exports. It also has a structuring effect on the agricultural sector as a whole. The knock-on effect of increased revenue from the cotton trade has a direct impact on incomes in rural areas, where the poverty level is highest.9
Additional Act No. 3/2001. The main sources are the Ministry of the Economy and Finance (2003), IMF (2002) and the Economic Mission, Embassy of France to Burkina Faso (2003a). 9 US$1.88 according to footnote 2 in the IMF publication (2002).
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23. A minority of producers cultivate relatively large areas (up to 25 hectares), but the majority work on small farms (from 3 to 5 hectares). Yields per hectare vary somewhat, and range from around 800 to over 1,300 kg per hectare depending on the machinery used. Only 37 per cent of farms use animal teams or mechanization, however, and the PSO‟s objective is to reach a figure of 65 per cent by 2010. 24. Since 1996, producers have joined together in cotton producers‟ groups (GPC), which took over from village groups (GV) following various types of malfunctioning. The GPCs are a cooperative structure that facilitates the supply of inputs and agricultural machinery, and seeks to ensure proper management of loans and an increase in yields. The 7,005 GPCs are represented by the National Union of Burkina Cotton Producers (UNPCB). The State handed over part of the capital (30 per cent) of the SOFITEX in 1998 to the UNPCB10 to allow producers to take a leading role in managing the subsector. The State now has only a minority holding (35 per cent) and the French company Dagris (originally the Caisse française du développement des textiles (CFDT)) is the other major shareholder (34 per cent). 25. SOFITEX has the monopoly on the collection of seed cotton in cotton-growing areas where it is established (west and south-west), and also of the initial processing of cotton, including ginning (12 plants), and the marketing of cotton fibre, 97 per cent of which is exported.11 Inputs (fertilizers, pesticides) are supplied to producers by the SOFITEX, which also allows facilitates loans to farmers through the Burkina Agricultural and Commercial Bank (BACB), especially for the financing of inputs and equipment. The GPCs provide a solidarity guarantee scheme for such loans and the SOFITEX, on behalf of the CNCA, ensures that the loans are repaid when the seed cotton is marketed. Loans from the BACB rose from CFAF 28.5 billion (US$47.5 million) to CFAF 46.2 billion (US$77 million) between 1998 and 2002, two thirds of which went to the cotton subsector, either to SOFITEX or to producers. 26. The policy governing the cotton trade is implemented on the new basis of the joint-trade agreement approved by the Government and signed on 22 February 1999 by the UNPCB and the SOFITEX. The agreement provides for a joint committee to manage the subsector and to deal with issues related to the price of inputs proposed by the SOFITEX, the fixing of a floor price for producers per kg of seed cotton (CFAF 210 (US$0.35) for the first grade during the 2004-2005 season), an additional buying price or “cotton refund” (CFAF 25 (US$0.04) per kg) distributed during the following season om the evemt pf èpsotove cpttpm resiéts ("résultat coton") over the preceding season, a price support fund, financed by producers through a levy on the floor price12, research programmes and maintenance of rural roads for collecting seed cotton. The basic buying price for seed cotton from producers corresponds to a cost price of CFAF 650 per kg, which has subsequently risen because of inflation and the trend in SOFITEX‟s production costs. The subsector must cover its expenditure even when global prices fall, if necessary by adjusting the floor price or calling on the support fund. 27. SOFITEX‟s monopoly throughout Burkina Faso ended in 200113 Cotton-producing areas in the centre and east of Burkina Faso, which account for 20 per cent of domestic cotton production, are no longer subject to the SOFITEX monopoly, this will enable producers to sell their seed cotton to selected economic operators to be set up in the region.14 Pending the establishment of these operators, SOFITEX continues to support the producers. The State is selecting, on a best-offer basis, enterprises
Decree No. 98-267/PRES/PM/MEF of 24 June 1998. Decree No. 79-248/PRES/DR of 20 June 1979. 12 The "résultat coton" is the difference between the SOFITEX‟s income and expenditure. 13 Decree No. 2001-763/PRES/PM/MCPAE/MEF/AGRI of 31 December 2001, as amended. 14 Decree No. 2001-764/PRES/PM/MCPAE/MEF/AGRI of 31 December 2001, as amended.
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that may be given a monopoly on the collection and processing of seed cotton in these areas for eight years, up to 2012. The organization of the subsector will change as a result because the joint-trade agreement should pave the way for the arrival of newcomers. The State intends to guide this transition.15 28. The changes made to the regime governing the cotton subsector appear to have boosted cotton production (Table IV.3), mainly as a result of the expansion of the areas sown because yields have remained stable. As the volume of cotton ginned is 42 per cent on average, this trend has led to an increase in the volume of cotton fibre exported, which rose from 138,800 tonnes in 1998 to 141,900 tonnes in 2002. The record yield (500,000 tonnes) obtained in the 2003-2004 season, means that exports could total 210,000 tonnes, representing an increase of around 50 per cent since the last review.
Table IV.3 Cotton production, 1998-2004 1998-99 Cotton price to the producer (CFAF per kg)) Production - Volume of seed cotton („000 tonnes) - Value of production (CFAF billions) - Area („000 hectares) - Yield (tonne/hectare) .. Not available. 284 45.4 353 0.81 254 40.1 240 1.06 274 44.0 260 1.06 378 66.0 360.1 1.04 406 70.7 406.0 1.0 500 .. .. .. 185 1999-00 160 2000-01 175 2001-02 200 2002-03 175 2003-04 185
Source: Burkina authorities.
29. Although the volume exported underwent a slight increase between 1998 and 2002, Burkina Faso‟s cotton revenue fell from CFAF 120.9 billion to CFAF 88.8 billion (US$200 million to US$148 million). Earnings from exports of cotton fibre vary depending on fluctuations in global prices (expressed in United States dollars), trends in the euro/US dollar rate as the CFA franc is anchored to the euro, and the variability of domestic production as a result of decisions by producers and climate conditions. Since the first review, global prices have continued to decline, falling to UScents28.95 per lb in 2001, only to recover to UScents71.85 per lb in February 2004, although they are still well below the record level of US cents 115 per lb reached in May 1995. 30. According to Burkina Faso and the other cotton-producing countries in West and Central Africa, the subsidization of cotton production by certain WTO Members16 is considered to be one of the direct causes of the problems encountered in global cotton production. As shown in a study by the World Bank, these subsidies artificially inflate the offer on international markets and bring down export prices, thus lowering the export earnings of cotton-dependent countries.17 Because of this situation, the WAEMU countries took a common position on cotton at the Ministerial Meeting in Cancún.18 The sectoral initiative in favour of cotton consists of two key elements: (i) the phasing out
Decree No. 2003-644/PRES/PM/MCPEA/MAHRH/MFB/MECV of 19 December 2003. In particular the United States, China, European Union (for Spain and Greece). See WTO document TN/AG/GEN/4 of 16 May 2003. See also the study by the Ministry of Agriculture (2002). 17 Badiane, O., Ghura, D., Goreux, L. and Masson, P.R. (2002). 18 WTO document WT/L/539 of 29 August 2003.
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of domestic support for cotton production and cotton export subsidies; (ii) transitional measures in the form of financial compensation to offset the loss of revenue incurred.19 31. Under its Technical Assistance Plan for 2004, the WTO Secretariat organized a regional workshop on cotton for African countries on 23 and 24 March 2004 in Cotonou, in which the Director-General of the WTO took part. This workshop dealt only with development aspects, notably financial and technical assistance opportunities. (c) Policy in the sugar subsector
32. The company Société Nouvelle-Société sucrière de la Comoé (SN-SOSUCO), its new name after its capital was opened up to investors other than the State in 199820, still controls all production and processing of sugar cane in Burkina Faso. It has a de facto rather than legal monopoly because the contract-plan with the State ended when its capital was opened up. It has an area of 4,000 hectares under sugar cane and a processing plant. Sugar produced by the enterprise is sold on the domestic market through approved wholesalers. SN-SOSUCO‟s production covers around 46 per cent of Burkina‟s needs.21 It is the largest employer after the State and has 4,000 permanent, seasonal or day workers. 33. The State‟s withdrawal from SN-SOSUCO should continue with the sale of its residual holding22, but the progress of this project has been delayed because of the poor state of the company‟s finances. Since its capital was opened up, SN-SOSUCO has embarked upon a vast programme to improve production.23 The company, however, continues to find it difficult to face up to competition from imported sugar, mainly from Brazil and the European Union, which its managing director terms unfair competition.24 34. Sugar is classified as a consumer good in the CET and is therefore subject to the maximum tariff of 20 per cent25 Burkina also imposes a degressive protection tax (TDP) amounting to 5 per cent (Chapter III (2)(iv)). It applies duties and taxes levied by the customs on the basis of a reference value (Table AIII.1), as was the case at the time of the first review. Sugar also remains subject to a national conformity certificate (Table AIII.4).
WTO documents TN/AG/GEN/4 of 16 May 2003, WT/GC/W/511 of 22 August 2003, WT/L/539 of 29 August 2003 and G/AG/NG/W/188 of 26 September 2002. 20 Decree No. 98-343/PRES/PM/MCIA/MEF of 6 July 1998. The shareholders are: Sucre Participation (52 per cent); the State of Burkina Faso (28 per cent); the State of Côte d‟Ivoire (10.72 per cent); SOMDIAA (6.05 per cent); Burkina private sources (3.23 per cent). For further information, see http://www.ips-wa.org/sn_sosuco.htm. 21 FAO (2003), “Food Balance Sheet” [on line]. Available at http://apps.fao.org/debut.htm [4 January 2004]. 22 Law No. 015-2001/AN of 4 July 2001. 23 Almost three quarters of the 3,700 hectares of sugar cane have been razed in order to be regenerated and then replanted. The irrigation system has been improved. As a result, yield rose from 66 to 83 tonnes/hectare between the 1998-1999 and 2001-2002 seasons and the rate of extraction increased from 11.75 to 12.43 per cent. The company is now considering developing exports. 24 Mamadou Yéré, “Campagne sucrière SN-SOSUCO 2003-2004: 324,000 tonnes de canne attendues”, 24 November 2003, Lefaso.net [on line] http://www.lefaso.net/article.php3?id_article=465 [15 December 2003]. 25 The other taxes that apply to sugar imports are: a toll per tonne imported, which goes to the CCIABF, amounting to CFAF 75 (US$0.125); the contribution to the import inspection programme (CPVI), amounting to 1 per cent of the f.o.b. value; and a “levy at source” of 1 per cent on the c.i.f. value (half the levy applicable to imports of other products).
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Policy in the rice subsector
35. The quick and easy way in which rice is prepared has allowed it to penetrate urban markets. As a result, domestic consumption of rice is growing rapidly in Burkina Faso. Although domestic production has increased since the first review, from 90,000 to around 110,000 tonnes between the 1997-1998 and 2001-2002 seasons, imports cover an increasingly large proportion of Burkina Faso‟s needs (68 per cent in 2001).26 The Burkina authorities started to implement an action programme for the rice subsector in 2000 in order to increase rice production, mainly by improving facilities, introducing technical innovations and new machinery, as well as a professional structure for the subsector.27 36. The first review of Burkina Faso drew attention to the liberalization of the rice sector initiated in 1996.28 Since 2001, the SOPROFA has taken over the country's rice subsector in. Its activities involve signing contracts with producers, under which the SOPROFA guarantees the marketing of agricultural products covered by contracts with producers and pre-finances the inputs needed for their production. The State plays a role in ensuring that the floor price to the producer is sufficiently high, and officials from the Ministry of Agriculture work closely with the SOPROFA in supporting producers. The SOPROFA has therefore taken over the role of the national rice marketing company (SONACOR). 37. Husked rice is subject to a 10 per cent intermediate customs duty under the CET. Rice also requires a national conformity certificate (Table AIII.4), as was the case at the time of the first review. (3) (i) MINING, PETROLEUM AND ENERGY Mining
38. Mining activities have declined since the first review and now only make a modest contribution to real GDP. They chiefly concern gold, phosphates and manganese. Gold production was estimated to be 390 kg in 2002, all of which was produced by traditional methods (Table IV.4), as industrial production ceased in 2000; although gold prospection still exists, no new large mines have opened.29 The phosphate deposit at Kodjari has 30 million tonnes of reserves and produces 3,000 tonnes annually, ground and used as fertilizer in Burkina Faso. The manganese deposit at Tambao has 19 million tonnes of reserves, though production is less than 100,000 tonnes a year. It is not operating at present because there is no railway linking Tambao and Kaya. Burkina Faso also has zinc deposits (the major site at Perkoa, whose reserves are estimated to be 6 million tonnes, is being developed), as well as lead, silver, bauxite, iron, nickel and cobalt deposits.
FAO (2003). “Plan d’Action pour la filière riz” [on line]. Available at http://www.sofreco.com/Site%20francais/Developpement-rural/N3DRuralOrga/BurkinaOrga.htm. 28 In the first stages, this liberalization involved abolition of the monopoly on the collection and processing of paddy rice by the National Company for the Collection, Processing and Marketing of Rice (SONACOR), 90 per cent of whose capital was held by the General Equalization Fund (CGP). The State has eliminated the CGP's monopoly on the import and marketing of rice (whether imported into or produced in Burkina Faso). Prices for paddy rice were liberalized in 1996 (Order No. 96/063 of 18 October 1996). SONACOR was privatized in 1999. 29 The mine at Poura, the largest in Burkina Faso, which started to be renovated in March 1996, was closed in 1999 because of the low price of gold (U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Handbook (2000)).
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Table IV.4 Production and official exports of gold, 1994-2002 (Kilograms of fine gold) Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Source : Burkina authorities. Total production 1,637 1,619 1,063 1,088 1,091 869 553 209 390 Gold dust 906 945 769 944 951 738 515 209 390 Industrial gold 731 674 294 144 140 131 38 0 0 Official exports 1,642 1,896 1,460 1,072 1,097 869 606 212 390
39. Since 2003, Burkina Faso has had a new regulatory framework for mining, aimed at encouraging mining prospection so as to enhance the mining sector‟s contribution towards the objectives of the PRSP.30 Another objective is to formalize semi-mechanized small-scale operations. Gold is exploited by 100,000 workers using traditional methods on around 200 sites. The reason why this activity is important in Burkina Faso is that it complements agricultural activities and can be carried out with few resources.31 An additional reason is the nature of the gold deposits - in the form of a large number of small deposits. The activity is recognized as playing a central role in the rural economy and, consequently, in combating poverty, although it is often accompanied by social problems (work by women and children in unhealthy conditions) and has an adverse impact on the environment (water pollution by mercury).32 40. The new Mining Code replaces that adopted in 1997, but essentially contains the provisions introduced that year in order to make exploration and exploitation of Burkina‟s mineral resources more attractive. Like the former Code, the new Code covers mining resources (except for liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons and underground water) in Burkina Faso and specifies that these belong to the State. Domestic and foreign enterprises have the same rights and obligations under the Code. They may freely transfer capital, income and salaries for foreign natural or legal persons. The customs and tax concessions have been modified since the first review, but essentially provide the same incentives (Box IV.1).
Law No. 031-2003/AN of 31 July 2003. Gueye, D. (2001). 32 Bayah, J., Iddirisu, Y., and Tinorgah, C. (2003).
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Box IV.1: Tax and customs concessions under the Mining Code (2003) During the exploration stage, holders of a permit or authorization are given customs and tax concessions. At the customs level, these consist of a customs duty of 5 per cent on equipment (including parts and spare parts, with the exception of private vehicles), raw materials, fuel and lubricants, and materials to be used for exploration. These concessions are subject to the non-availability of equipment, raw materials or materials on the domestic market on terms that are at least the same as those applicable to the goods to be imported. Tax concessions consist of full relief from VAT on goods (imports and purchases on the domestic market) and services needed for exploration, as well as from tax on industrial and commercial profits (BIC), the minimum flat rate tax on industrial and commercial professions (IMFPIC), the business tax and the employers‟ apprenticeship tax (TPA). During the preparatory stage, customs concessions consist of total exemption from customs duties on raw materials, materials, fuel, lubricants and machinery required to operate the mine for a period of three years. The tax concession is total exemption from VAT on the necessary equipment and services. During the operating phase, the customs concessions give holders of permits the right to customs duty of 7.5 per cent on equipment, raw materials, fuel and lubricants, and materials throughout the period of operation, even though the holder may request their temporary admission. The tax concessions are taxation at a reduced rate of 35 per cent for the BIC, tax reduced by half on income from securities (IRVM), exemption from the IMFPIC for seven years, and from the business tax, the TPA and the tax on mortmain assets (TBM). Holders are also exempt from registration fees for acts involving an increase in capital. Source: Law No. 031-2003/AN of 31 July 2003.
41. The Code provides for three types of permit: exploration (three years, renewable twice); industrial operation of a large mine (20 years, renewable for consecutive periods of five years until the deposit is exhausted) or a small mine (10 years, renewable for consecutive periods of five years until the deposit is exhausted); and semi-mechanized small-scale operations (five years, renewable for consecutive periods of three years). Under the former Mining Code, semi-mechanized small-scale operations required an authorization and this is still the case for traditional (manual) small-scale exploitation. Semi-mechanized small-scale operations therefore benefit from the tax regime and customs concessions granted under the Code (Box IV.1). 42. Permits are the subject of a mining agreement between the company and the State. An industrial operating permit for a large mine is issued on condition that the State receives 10 per cent of the shares of the operating company; this condition no longer applies to operating permits for small mines, as was the case under the former Mining Code. Holders of permits or authorizations are subject to surface-ownership taxes and fees, the rates, bases and methods of imposition of which are fixed in regulations. 43. The Burkina Precious Metals Office (CBMP), a State-owned company, is the principal buyer of precious metals and stones from gold panners and mining enterprises; the Government‟s programme includes its privatization.33 The CBMP no longer has a monopoly on buying and marketing since mining activities were liberalized in 1997; three other offices have been set up. 34 Until the adoption of the new Mining Code in 2003, the purchase and exporting of gold required approval from the Ministers for Mining and for Trade35, the current requirement is notification to the Minister responsible for mining. Purchases by the CBMP and other offices are usually destined for
Law No. 015-2001/AN of 4 July 2001. Order No. 97/035/MEM/MEF/MCIA. 35 Order No. 97/062/MEM/MEF/MCIA of 18 September 1997.
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export; in 2001, earnings from mining and quarrying industries accounted for 3.7 per cent of exports (Table I.3). (ii) Petroleum
44. Burkina does not produce petroleum at present, and prospection does not appear to have revealed any promising potential for petroleum exploration or exploitation. Petroleum products nevertheless account for some 25 per cent of imports (Table I.5), mainly to cover domestic needs. 45. The Burkina National Hydrocarbons Company (SONABHY) has a monopoly on importing and stocking hydrocarbons.36 Tariffs have been fixed on a monthly basis according to prices on the global market since 7 February 200137, except for products that are subsidized by the State.38 These include butane gas and domestic diesel fuel (used by the Burkina National Electricity Company (SONABEL) to generate electricity), with annual subsidies amounting to around CFAF 7 billion (US$11.7 million). As part of the reform of the energy sector decided in 2000 (see below), it is planned to open up the capital of the SONABHY. (iii) Electricity
46. The authorities recognize that the lack of competitiveness in the manufacturing sector, despite the devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994, stems from the high costs of certain factors, particularly electricity, not only because of Burkina Faso‟s landlocked situation but also because the State still has a monopoly on their supply.39 The selling price per KWh was been fixed at CFAF 85 (US$0.14) in 1994 and has not been changed since then to bring it into line with production and infrastructure maintenance costs. The social dimension of supplying electricity is also a factor because in 2002 there were 202,891 subscribers.40 Several private operators generate electricity for their own needs (for example, mines, the SN-SOSUCO sugar plant, some of SOFITEX‟s cotton-ginning plants). 47. From 1986 onwards41, SONABEL had a monopoly on the production, transport and distribution of electricity, but this was partly abolished in 1998.42 This initial reform allowed new operators to become involved in areas not served by the SONABEL, including two cooperatives that have been operating since the beginning of 2004.43 Their electricity rates are determined by the Commission on regulation of electricity prices according to a formula laid down in the relevant regulations (based on SONABEL‟s costs and average production costs) and approved by the
Kiti (Law) No. 85-035/CNR/PRES/PRECO of 9 October 1985. The monopoly on distribution was liberalized in 2002 (Decree No. 2002-146/PRES/PM/MCPEA/MCR of 3 May 2002), but it should nevertheless be noted that the SONABHY was not engaged in this activity in practice, which is carried out by private operators. 37 Petroleum products are transported to SONABHY‟s depots in Côte d‟Ivoire by rail (SITARAIL) or by road. They are allowed into Côte d‟Ivoire under a special private bonded warehouse regime so that duties and taxes are suspended until they are released for consumption. They then become subject to a number of duties and taxes: customs duty of 5 or 10 per cent depending on the product; supplementary taxes of 1.5 per cent (community levies and statistical fee); 18 per cent VAT; and excise duty (ChapterIII.2(iv)). 38 “Une des conséquences de la crise irakienne”, interview with Mr. Jean-Hubert Yaméogo, Director General of the SONABHY, Sidwaya, 14 March 2003 [on line]. Available at http://www.sidwaya.bf/sitesidwaya/sidawaya_quotidiens/sid2003_14_03/economie_1.htm [14 January 2004]. 39 Ministry of Mining, Quarrying and Energy (2000). 40 SONABEL (2003). 41 Kiti (Law) No. AN IV/239/CNR/PRES/EQUIP of 31 December 1986. 42 Law No. 060/98/AN of 17 December 1998. 43 Order No. 93/MCE/SG/DGE/DEE of 5 December 2002.
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regulatory authority for the electricity subsector. SONABEL‟s rates are the same throughout Burkina Faso. They are approved by an interministerial committee following a proposal by SONABEL, but according to the authorities they do not reflect the long-term marginal cost of electricity.44 48. Under the PRSP, it was decided in 2000to speed up reform in view of the importance attached to boosting industry. The principal measures decided were the following: revision of the relevant legislation; opening up of SONABEL‟s capital to private interests in 2004; interconnection with Ghana in 2012 and with Côte d‟Ivoire (already established), together with an extension of the link up to Ouagadougou, in order to obtain supplies at lower cost.45 The accompanying measures include the reform of the SONABHY (see above) so as to lessen the cost of petroleum products used as inputs; in 2002, thermal energy represented 82 per cent of SONABEL‟s total production of 365 million KWh.46 (4) (a) INDUSTRIES Overview
49. In 2002, the manufacturing sector accounted for around 18.5 per cent of nominal GDP (Table I.1). The industrial fabric comprises some 100 units, most of which are located in Ouagadougou or Bobo Dioulasso. The major part is composed of State enterprises whose capital has been opened up to private interests or which have been wholly privatized, to which must be added government-owned industrial enterprises included in the privatization programme; since the first review, some government-owned enterprises have been closed (Table III.3). 50. The key industrial activities involve the processing of local resources, especially cotton: ginning, cotton oil and cake, cotton yarn and fabric. The trend in the textile industry is subject to the fluctuations in cotton production (Table IV.5). The agro-food industry is the second main industrial activity (sugar, wheat, beer and other beverages), followed by tobacco. Burkina Faso also has companies manufacturing consumer goods (soap, tyres, batteries, bicycles and mopeds).47 In 2000, the industrial sector employed around 16,000 people, the same as in 1996.
Table IV.5 Industrial production by main branch of activity, 1994-2000 (CFAF billions) Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Textiles 40.3 58.2 50.2 80.5 105.4 93.7 67.8 Agro-food 25.8 10.2 11.8 21.1 71.5 68.3 67.5 Tobacco 11.2 6.7 7.9 15.9 10.9 12.3 12.4 Metal and metalwork 6.5 10.2 7.6 5.5 9.5 9.9 9.6 Mechanical engineering and transport 6.3 7.4 10.8 2.4 12.0 12.8 9.0 Chemicals 4.5 8.8 7.4 0.4 7.8 11.3 7.6 Manufacture of rubber and plastics 3.6 3.6 2.5 1.7 5.2 6.9 5.3 Total 102.5 107.2 99.4 128.7 227.2 219.9 184.1
Source : Burkina authorities.
Ministry of Mining, Quarrying and Energy (2000). Imported energy rose from 67 million KWh in 2001 to 111 million KWh in 2002. 46 SONABEL (2003). 47 Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Crafts of Burkina Faso (1999).
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51. In the majority of subsectors, only one enterprise is operational48 and competition on the domestic market is mainly from imports. Some Burkina enterprises are approved under the Community Preferential Tax regime (TPC), which allows them to supply markets in member States of the WAEMU without paying any customs duty (Chapter III(2)(vi)). 52. There are also semi-industrial or small-scale manufacturing activities (for example, bakeries, workshops making clothing) which do not appear in the statistics because they are mostly informal. In the Ouagadougou urban area, for instance, 74.3 per cent of the working population (all sectors combined) is in the informal sector. (b) Industrial policy
53. Burkina Faso redefined its industrial development policy in 1998 and chose an approach based on subsectors.49 The strategy defines 12 subsectors, including, cotton, cereals, fruit and vegetables, oilseeds, animal resources (milk, meat, hides and skins), metalworking and metal articles, and polymers (rubber and plastics). 54. The importance of access to regional and international markets as outlets for increased production is recognized in the PSRP, as has been the experience of many Asian countries. The PRSP recommends that the Burkina economy open up to foreign trade in order to lower the high cost of inputs and to foreign direct investment. Support for exports is promised, especially for the clothing, agro-food and small agricultural machinery subsectors. The PRSP defines a programme of action to encourage the emergence of operators capable of carrying out such projects, and this was reaffirmed in the “Policy letter on development of the private sector” in 2002 (Chapter II(3)(i)). A programme in support of competitiveness and development of enterprises (PACDE) was launched in 2003. 55. Three institutions provide support for the private sector: the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Crafts of Burkina Faso (CCIA-BF), the Burkina Dockers‟ Council (CBC) and the National Foreign Trade Board (ONAC). The ONAC has several functions in support of exporting enterprises (Chapter III(3)(iv)). The State retains a right of control and continues to subsidize these institutions.50 Under the PACDE, it is planned to set up an enterprise centre (financed through French cooperation and by the European Union), and to implement other projects in support of economic operators. 56. In order to obtain an authorization to set up an industry, an economic operator must make an application to the Minister responsible for industry containing the following information: identity (address and nationality) of the promoter; purpose of the project; site of the facility with the building plan; nature of the enterprise (company or individual enterprise); amount of the investment, details of how it is to be realized, and financing; estimated production capacity; number of jobs to be created; list of equipment to be purchased; and environmental impact. The activity may be carried out under the ordinary law regime or under an approval regime; the latter gives the right to tax and customs concessions under the Investment Code (Chapter II(3)(iii)(e)). Authorization is granted one week at the latest after the application has been filed. 57. The main policies restricting competition are border measures. Burkina Faso applies the WAEMU‟s CET to goods imported from third countries, together with supplementary duties (statistical fee and community solidarity levies), whereas industrial goods from enterprises of WAEMU origin approved under the TPC regime enjoy duty-free entry. The simple average of duties
Economic Mission, Embassy of France to Burkina Faso (2003c). Ministry of Trade, Industry and Crafts (1998). 50 “Guide de l’opérateur” [on line]. Available at www.tradepoint.bf [15 January 2004].
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applied on imports of non-agricultural products (excluding petroleum) is 14.3 per cent (Table AIII.2), but the WTO Secretariat‟s analysis of the Burkina tariff highlights the escalation of the tariff regime according to the level of processing (Chart III.1) and the relatively high level of protection granted for finished products. 58. In addition to tariff measures, there are also non-tariff measures, including reference values (Table AIII.1) and the requirement to provide a national conformity certificate, even though there are no Burkina standards in this respect (Table AIII.4), the measures are combined in the majority of cases. The Professional Association of Burkina Industrialists (GPI) is requesting the Government for support measures.51 The tobacco industry is protected (in addition to customs duties in category 3 of the CET) by lower excise duty on low-quality products than on those of higher quality (Chapter III(2)(iv)); this gap already existed at the time of the first review and has been narrowed since then. (5) (i) SERVICES Overview
59. The services sector in Burkina Faso accounted for 49 per cent of the formation of nominal GDP in 2002, a slight increase since the first review due to the growing share of services provided by the State (20 per cent in 2002). Trade constitutes the bulk of commercially-traded services; it should be noted that the data available do not take into account the insignificant activity of traders in the informal sector (section (3)(i)). 60. Burkina Faso has a deficit in commercial services, mainly because of expenditure involved in financing international trade-related transport, which accounted for 62 per cent of the total spending of US$141 million in 2001.52 Burkina Faso is a landlocked country and so must pay the cost of bringing in goods by rail or road from ports in neighbouring countries (Abidjan in Côte d‟Ivoire and Accra in Ghana). These costs are partly offset by the contribution of tourism, the only sector in which Burkina Faso has made specific commitments under the GATS. Although Burkina Faso did not participate in the negotiations on telecommunications services in the WTO, the authorities have opened up the telecommunications sector to competition. Financial services do not form part of Burkina‟s commitments either, but there has been an expansion in microfinance. The authorities see a central role for this type of loan for the financing of activities in rural areas, and microfinance therefore receives subsidies with the support of development partners. (ii) Telecommunications
61. Since the first review, Burkina‟s stock of telephones has increased significantly, rising from 37,771 subscribers in 199753 to around 54,286 in 2003, with 49,250 fixed lines (total capacity is 74,936 lines) and 5,036 mobile telephone customers.54 Teledensity is low, with 0.4 telephones per 100 inhabitants, but 87.5 per cent of the national network is digital.
“Groupement professionnel des industriels: ‘Nous avons besoin du soutien de État’”, Interview with Mr. Kam Ollé, in charge of the GPI, Le Pays, 6 January 2004 [on line]. Available at http://www.lefaso.net [15 January 2004]. 52 IMF data available on the BOP CD-ROM, version 1.1.85. 53 Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Crafts of Burkina Faso (1999). 54 Available [on line] at http://www.onatel.bf [16 January 2004].
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When the telecommunications sector was opened up in 1998,55 three regimes were created: Regime of exclusive rights: the National Telecommunications Board (ONATEL), the traditional operator of the fixed telephone network in Burkina Faso, has a legal monopoly until 31 December 2005 for fixed telephony services, international calls, telex and telegraphy; Regulated competition regime: three mobile telephone operators (TELMOB (a subsidiary of ONATEL), in competition with CELTEL and TELCEL-FASO) were granted GSM licences in 2000 and the networks started functioning in 2001; Free competition regime: access to the Internet and data transmission services.56
It is planned to sell the State‟s 34 per cent holding in ONATEL‟s capital to private interests in mid-2004. 63. The new Telecommunications Code set up the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (ARTEL), under the supervision of the Minister for Finance.57 ARTEL‟s role is basically to approve interconnection agreements among operators, settle disputes, organize invitations to compete with a view to the granting of any licences (fixed and mobile telephony, radio), endorse ONATEL‟s interconnection list, and approve terminal equipment. 64. Burkina Faso has not made any specific commitments in this sector under the GATS and did not take part in the WTO negotiations on basic telecommunications services, which ended in 1997. (iii) Tourism
65. In 2002, 198,376 tourists visited Burkina Faso, up by 7.6 per cent in comparison with the previous year. Tourism in Burkina Faso is the main source of earnings from services exports and income was US$19.9 million in 2001, representing 54 per cent of the credit shown.58 Over half the earnings from tourism are, however, related to business trips involving only a short stay in the country (2.77 days on average). The authorities nevertheless intend to boost the economic contribution of tourism by diversifying products and promoting Burkina Faso as a tourist destination abroad59, with the support of a new regulatory framework for tourist accommodation.60 66. Hotel and restaurant services and the services of travel agents and tour operators are the only specific commitments made by Burkina Faso under the GATS.61 The Schedule specifies that the number of foreign travel agencies may not exceed one third of the national total; this requirement no longer appears in the new regulatory framework for tourist accommodation.
Law No. 051/98/AN of 4 December 1998. See Prime Minister, General Delegation for Automation, “Les Tics au Burkina” [on line]. Available at http://www.delgi.gov.bf [16 January 2004]. 56 ONATEL offers Internet access services (FASONET), in competition with five Internet access providers, and data transmission for enterprises (FASOPAC), in competition with another operator. 57 Decree No. 99-419/PRES/PM/MC of 20 October 1999. See http://www.artel.bf. 58 IMF data available at BOP CD-ROM, version 1.1.85. 59 Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism (2003). 60 Law No. 058-2003/AN of 22 October 2003. 61 WTO document GATS/SC/14 of 15 April 1994.
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67. The banking sector in Burkina Faso is chiefly composed of nine banking institutions and financial establishments62, which support formal industrial activity and import-export transactions (75 per cent of loans are for the short term). These activities are subject to the WAEMU‟s common banking regulations and the prudential provisions of the WAEMU Banking Commission, which also has a monitoring role.63 Applications for approval must be addressed to the Minister for Finance of Burkina Faso, who checks the contents and their consistency with the WAEMU banking regulations. The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) gives approval, subject to the opinion of the Banking Commission, for loan establishments and appoints their auditors. This two-tier approval system can lead to delays. The Commission must express its opinion within a period not exceeding six months. 68. Since the first review, microfinance has greatly expanded, particularly outside the urban centres served by banking institutions. As a result of strong mobilization of savings (6 per cent of the assets in the banking system in 1999), microfinance allows farmers and micro, small and medium enterprises to have access to loans (8 per cent of loans in the banking system in 1999).64 There are a large number of financial institutions providing microfinance in Burkina Faso, but they are mainly mutual funds or savings and loan cooperatives or decentralized financial schemes (SFDs), and institutions financed by NGOs or by the State. 69. The SFDs are subject to the common regulations of the WAEMU, implemented by member States.65 In Burkina Faso, they come under the supervision of the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, and 35 of them have been granted an authorization to engage in their activities; the authorities also indicate that there are institutions that have not been recognized.66 The Federation of Burkina Credit Unions (FCPB) dominates the microfinance market. It has 69 per cent of the customers, mobilizes 82 per cent of deposits and grants 67 per cent of the loans. In 2001, the sector received subsidies amounting to some CFAF 1.55 billion (US$2.6 million).67 70. Burkina Faso did not make any specific commitments in this sector under the GATS and did not take part in the WTO negotiations on financial services, which ended in 1998.
The Banque agricole et commerciale du Burkina (BACB), Banque commerciale du Burkina (BCB), Banque internationale du Burkina (BIB), Banque internationale pour le commerce, l’industrie et l’agriculture du Burkina (BCIA-B), Bank of Africa (BOA), ECOBANK, SGBB, SOBFI and SOBCA. 63 Information on the West African Banking Commission is available at http://www.izf.net/izf/FicheIdentite/COBAC.htm [16 January 2004]. 64 IMF (2002). 65 Law No. 59/94/ADP of 15 December 1994 and its Implementing Decree No. 95-308/PRES/MEFP of 1 August 1995. 66 Ministry of Finance and Budget (2003b). 67 BCEAO, “Les faits marquants de la finance décentralisée au Burkina en 2001” [on line]. Available at http://www.bceao.int/internet/bcweb.nsf/French.htm [18 January 2004].
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Bayah J., Iddirisu Y. and Tinorgah C. (2003), "Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining as a Tool in Rural Development", available on line at www.eireview.org [13 January 2004]. Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Crafts of Burkina Faso (1999), Données économiques et sociales du Burkina Faso (Economic and social data on Burkina Faso), 1998/99. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD (undated), "Concurrence: Cas du Burkina Faso", Communication submitted by Burkina Faso, available on line at http://r0.unctad.org/en/subsites/cpolicy/docs/IGE0702/BurkinaFaso.pdf[27 November 2003] Commission of the European Union (2001), "Burkina Faso - Communauté européenne: Document de stratégie de coopération et programme indicatif pour la période 2001-07" (Burkina Faso - European Community: Cooperation strategy paper and indicative programme for the period 2002-2007), available on line at http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/development/body/csp_rsp/csp_en.cfm [1 December 2003]. Commission of the European Union (2002), "Afrique de l‟Ouest - Communauté européenne: Document de stratégie de coopération régionale et programme indicatif régional pour la période 200207" (West Africa - European Community: Regional cooperation strategy paper and regional indicative programme for the period 2002-2007), available on line at http://europa.eu.int/comm/development/body/csp_rsp/print/r10_rsp_fr.pdf#zoom=100 [1 December 2003]. Commission of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) (2003a), Point de la mise en oeuvre des réformes communautaires: Burkina Faso (Evaluation of the implementation of Community reforms: Burkina Faso), October 2003. WAEMU Commission (2003b), Rapport d’activités de la Commission 2002 (Commission activity report 2002),available on line at http://www.uemoa.int/Publication/2003/RapportCom2002.pdf [11 September 2003]. WAEMU Commission (2004), “Rapport de surveillance multilatérale” (Multilateral surveillance report). Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO (2003), "Food Balance Sheets", available on line at http://faostat.fao.org/faostat/collections?version=ext&hasbulk=0&subset=nutrition [4 January 2004]. International Monetary Fund, IMF (2001), West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU): Recent Economic Developments and Regional Policy Issues in 2000, IMF Country Report No. 01/193, available on line at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2001/cr01193.pdf [29 October 2003]. IMF (2002), "Burkina Faso: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix", IMF Country Report No. 02/93, available on line at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2002/cr0293.pdf [29 October 2003].
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IMF (2003a), "Burkina Faso: 2003 Article IV Consultation and Request for a New Three-Year Arrangement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility”, IMF Country Report No. 03/197, available on line at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2003/cr03197.pdf [29 October 2003]. IMF (2003b), "Burkina Faso: Statistical Annex”, IMF Country Report No. 03/198, available on line at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2003/cr03198.pdf [29 October 2003]. IMF (2003c), West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)): Recent Economic Developments and Regional Policy Issues, IMF Country Report No. 03/70, available on line at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2003/cr0370.pdf [29 October 2003]. IMF (2003d), Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003, Washington, D.C. Government of Burkina Faso (2000), Burkina Faso: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, available on line at http://www.imf.org [27 October 2003]. Government of Burkina Faso (2004), Document de stratégie de développement rural à l’horizon 2015 (Rural development strategy paper for 2015). Gueye D. (2001), "Small-Scale Mining in Burkina Faso", International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), No. 73, available on line at http://www.iied.org/mmsd/mmsd_pdfs/asm_burkina_faso_eng.pdf [13 January 2004]. Ministry of Agriculture (2002), "Pauvreté rurale et commerce international" (Rural poverty and international trade), available on line at http://www.abcburkina.net/coton_act/pauvre_commerc_intt.htm [13 January 2004]. Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism (2003), "Le Burkina Faso aujourd'hui" (Burkina Faso today), available on line at http://www.culture.gov.bf/M.C.A.T/tourisme/tourisme_aujourdhui.htm. Ministry of Trade, Industry and Crafts (1998), "Stratégie de développement industriel: Synthèse" (Industrial development strategy: a synthesis). Ministry of the Economy and Finance (2003), "Étude de l‟impact des variations du prix du coton sur la pauvreté rurale au Burkina Faso" (Study of the impact of fluctuations in cotton prices on rural poverty in Burkina Faso). Ministry of Finance and Budget (2003a), "Balance des paiements Année 2002" (Balance of payments 2002). Ministry of Finance and Budget (2003b), "Les institutions de micro-crédit au Burkina Faso" (Microcredit institutions in Burkina Faso), available on line at http://www.finances.gov.bf/default.php?fichier=finances/microfinance [17 January 2004]. Ministry of Mining, Quarrying and Energy (2000), "Lettre de politique de développement du secteur de l‟énergie" Policy letter on development of the energy sector). Economic Mission of the French Embassy in Burkina Faso (2003a), "Secteur Agriculture: le Coton au Burkina Faso" (The agricultural sector: cotton in Burkina Faso), available on line at http://www.izf.org [29 October 2003].
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Economic Mission of the French Embassy in Burkina Faso (2003b), "Le secteur de l‟élevage au Burkina Faso" (The livestock sector in Burkina Faso), available on line at http://www.izf.org [29 October 2003]. Economic Mission of the French Embassy in Burkina Faso (2003c), "Principales entreprises au Burkina Faso" (The leading enterprises in Burkina Faso), available on line at http://www.izf.net/izf/ee/pro/index_frameset.asp?url=http://www.izf.net/izf/EE/pro/burkinafaso/5031. asp [29 October 2003]. Badiane O., Ghura D., Goreux L. and Masson P.R. (2002), “Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2867. Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (International Francophone Organization) (2002), Programmation de l’Agence intergouvernementale de la Francophonie (Programmes of the Intergovernmental Francophone Agency), available on line at http://www.agence.francophonie.org/doc/programmes/2004_programmation.pdf [1 December 2003]. United Nations Development Programme, UNDP (2003), Human Development Report, available on line at: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2003/pdf/hdr03_complete.pdf [29 October 2003]. Executive Secretariat of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) (2000a), "Achievements of ECOWAS: Market Integration Programme, 25th Anniversary Report 1975-2000", available on line at http://www.sec.ecowas.int/sitecedeao/english/achievements-1.htm [27 October 2003]. ECOWAS Executive Secretariat (2000b), Rapport Annuel 2000 (2000 Annual Report), available on line at http://www.sec.ecowas.int/sitecedeao/english/kouyate-rep2000-1.htm [27 October 2003]. SONABEL (Burkina National Electricity Company) (2003), "Données et chiffres" (Facts and figures), available on line at http://www.sonabel.bf/statist/chiff_caract.htm [14 January 2004]. African Union (2001), "New African Initiative", available on line at http://www.africa-union.org [1 November 2003]. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Handbook (2000), "The Mineral Industries of Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Niger", available on line at http://minerals.er.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2000/uvmlmrngmyb00.pdf [14 January 2004].