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									                                                                      The American Pageant
                               Chapter 20 Girding for War: The North and the South 1861-1865

 “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” I believe this government cannot endure half
slave and half free. I do not expect the house to fall: but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It
will be all one thing or all the other…”
                                        Abraham Lincoln, Speech, Springfield, Ill., June 17, 1858

“In your hands my dissatisfied fellow-country-men, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of
civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves
the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government, while I shall
have the most solemn one to “preserve, protect, and defend it.
I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion
may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection…”
                                       Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861

Differences in Political Philosophy between North and South
Southerners believed in the compact theory
     They had the right to secede from the Union
Northerners believed in the contract theory
     They were willing to prevent the south from seceding

         Compact Theory (South)                                Contract Theory (North)
    States, not the people, created the                    People, not the states, created the
      national government.                                   Union.
    State laws are supreme when in                         Federal government is supreme.
      conflict with the laws and actions of                 Federal laws and actions take
      the federal government.                                precedence over state laws and actions.
    States can declare the laws of the
      federal government null and void if
      they deem it necessary and
      appropriate.
    Logical conclusion of this theory if
      taken to its extreme is secession
Examples/Compact Theory                             Examples/Contract Theory
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions                  Marshall Court decisions
      (1798)                                            McCulloch v. Md.
    Hartford Convention (1815)                         Gibbons v. Ogden
    South Carolina Exposition and Protest              Webster’s Speech 1830
      (1828)                                            Jackson during Nullification Crisis
    Ordinance of Nullification (1832)

I. Consequences of Secession
    A. If secession states were allowed to leave new controversies existed:
        1) What share of the national debt should the South be forced to take with it?
        2) Which portions of the territories should the South be allowed to have?
        3) How would the fugitive slave law be resolved
    B. In Lincoln’s inaugural address he stated:
        1) He would safeguard slavery where it existed
        2) Must be free soil in the territories


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        3)   The union was “perpetual” and the secession of the Confederate states was illegal
        4)   Acts of violence in support of the secessionists was insurrection
        5)   He intended to enforce federal law throughout the union
        6)   He would continue to“hold, occupy, and possess” federal property in the seceded
             states and collect duties” there.

        Like Andrew Jackson in the Nullification Crisis,
        Lincoln would use force to enforce federal law
        The choice was now up to the South: Return to the Union or face war

II. Fort Sumter 1861, Call for Volunteers and More Secession
        A. Confederate states immediately began seizing federal arsenals, mints and other
           federal buildings within their borders
        B. At the time of Lincoln’s inaugural only two federal forts remained in Confederate
           states
                1) Fort Pickens, off Pensacola, Florida
                2) Forth Sumter 1861 in Charleston harbor, South Carolina
                           o Major Robert Anderson notified President Lincoln that provisions
                             and ammunition needed to be sent or Anderson would be forced to
                             surrender to the surrounding Confederate troops
                           o Reinforcements of any kind would be hit by Confederate fire
                           o Lincoln notified the South provisions, not reinforcements, would be
                             sent to Sumter
                           o April 12, 1861 as the U.S. naval forces moved into Charleston Bay,
                             the South began firing
                           o April 14, 1861: 34 hours of fighting resulted in the U.S. surrender of
                             the fort to the Confederacy, but no one died
                To Lincoln, the South had started the war and the honor and sanctity of the
                union must be preserved
        C. Volunteers—April 15, 1861 Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 militia men and
           volunteers to join the Union army
        D. Blockade—April 19, 1861 Lincoln ordered a blockade of southern ports called the
                 Anaconda Plan the blockade was designed to prevent the South from
                    exporting cotton and importing needed supplies
        E. More Secession
                 Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, seceded and joined the
                    Confederacy
                 Confederate capital moved from Montgomery, AL to Richmond, VA
                 Loss of Virginia, a key state because of its location, size, and population, was
                    a particularly heavy blow to the Union.
                           o Many Virginians opposed secession, especially in the northwestern
                             part of the state, which had strong economic ties to the Ohio Valley.
                           o Western delegates walked out of Virginia’s Secession Convention in
                             April, 1861, declaring secession an illegal attempt to overthrow the
                             federal government
                           o June, 1861, western Virginians organized a separate government
                             loyal to the Union
        F. West Virginia’s entry into the Union on June 20, 1863 Congress approved on the
           condition of gradual emancipation of slaves in the region




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III. Border States
     A. Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia
             Slave states that stayed in the Union
             If the North had fired first, and appeared as the aggressor, these states most likely
                would have joined the Confederacy
             Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
                       o There was significant manufacturing
             Kentucky and Missouri
                       o Needed their loyalty to keep control of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
             Kentucky
                       o Needed because of its access to the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee
                         Rivers which flowed into the Confederacy
             Maryland
                       o If it had become unstable, DC could have been cut off from the rest of
                         the Union
     B. In order to keep the border states in the Union, Lincoln had to publicly declare that he
        was not fighting to free blacks
             “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not to either
                save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I
                would do it, and if I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves, I would o it;
                and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do
                that.” President Lincoln
     C. Some border state families had sons who fought on both sides
     D. “Mountain whites” from the south sent 50,000 men to fight in the Union army
     E. Some southerners had settled in the upper Mississippi Valley states of
             Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois and therefore had southern sympathies as well as
                strong racial prejudices

IV. Native Americans and the Confederacy
    A. Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory (OK) sided with the Confederacy
          Some tribes owned slaves
    B. Confederacy invited delegates from the Five Civilized Tribes to attend the Confederate
       Congress
    C. Confederacy agreed to take over federal payments to the tribes
    D. The few Cherokee and Plains Native Americans that did side with the North were rounded
       up and put on reservations after the war

V. Comparison of Union and Confederate Strengths and Weaknesses
Union                                           Confederate
Population 22 million                           Population 6 million whites
Offensive war                                   Defensive war
        Had to conquer the South
More factories, wealth, transportation systems, Backward economy and underdeveloped
a much more diverse economy                     infrastructure, relied on overseas demand for
                                                cotton
Strong central government (A. Lincoln)          New, weak central government (J. Davis)
(Eventually ) Generals who understood the       Initially better generals
nature of “total war” such as                   Lee and Stonewall Jackson
 Grant and Sherman



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A. South was originally winning the war
     South hoped that northerners would get tired of waging “Mr. Lincoln’s War”
B. Circumstances that could have led to a southern victory:
    1) If the Border states had seceded
    2) If states of the upper Mississippi Valley had turned against the Union (OH, IN, and IL)
    3) If northerners had demanded an armistice
    4) If Britain and France had broken the Union’s naval blockade of Southern ports
Northern victory in the war was due in large part to the enormous population and industrial
and transportation advantages of the North.

VI. End of “King Cotton”
A. Southern political leaders relied on European military support for their war for independence
    1) 75% of British cotton was imported from Confederate states
    2) Although the ruling classes in Europe were sympathetic to the social and economic order
       of the south, working class Europeans were vehemently opposed to slavery and pressured
       GB and France not to intervene. (ie Uncle Tom’s Cabin)

B. “King Cotton” failed for the following reasons
    1) Huge amounts of cotton had been exported from 1857-1860 which led to surplus cotton
       in Britain
    2) Even though the exhaustion of the surpluses led to unemployment, public pressure to stop
       slavery in the U.S. prevented European public opinion from demanding a British break
       up of the Union blockade
    3) The industrial revolution absorbed some of the unemployment in textiles as workers were
       employed in other industries
    4) Union armies sent some confiscated cotton to Great Britain
    5) Southern blockade runners were able to get some cotton through to Europe
    6) As a result of the war and the blockade, cotton growers in Egypt and India increased their
       exports of cotton to Europe
    7) “King Wheat” and “King Corn” replaced “King Cotton”
           a) Using the new McCormick’s mechanical reaper, northern wheat farmers were
                able to produce large amounts of wheat
           b) Great Britain experienced a series of bad wheat harvests
           c) Great Britain increased their wheat and corn imports from the north
           d) If GB had intervened for cotton, they would have been cut off from wheat and
                corn
    8) France and Great Britain did not intervene because of
           a) Economic ties with the north
           b) Public pressure not to support slavery
           c) Eventual Union military victories

    VII. Diplomatic Challenges during the Civil War
    A. Trent Affair 1861
    1) In late 1861, the Confederate government dispatched a diplomatic mission to London
    2) Two delegates slipped past the Union blockade; took passage on British steamer, Trent
    3) Trent on November 8, 1861 was stopped at sea by an American cruiser whose
        commander ordered a boarding party to seize the two Confederates
    4) Great Britain
            a) Took the capture as an act of aggression against Britain and
            b) Began making war preparations to send 8,000 troops to Canada and
            c) Sent Lincoln an ultimatum demanding the release of the diplomats


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    5) Charles Francis Adams, American minister in London instructed by Lincoln to
            a) Assure the British government that the American captain had acted without
                authorization and that the
            b) Two prisoners would be “cheerfully liberated”
    6) Upon their release Lincoln is quoted as having said “One war at a time”
    7) GB backed down and the two Confederate diplomats were permitted to continue their
       journey to Europe
    8) Lincoln then instructed Adams to tell the British foreign secretary that British reaction to
       the Trent affair was a last justification for British seizures of American goods and sailors
       before the War of 1812
B. Confederate Ships Constructed in Great Britain
    1) The Confederate government purchased raiding ships from Great Britain which were
       designed to attack Union vessels around the world
    2) British law forbade the sale of warships to belligerents
            a) Confederate commissioner arranged to have ships built and then, on trial runs,
                escape to the Azores or elsewhere to be loaded with guns
            b) 18 ships were activated and attacked Union ships in the Atlantic, Pacific, and
                Indian oceans where thy sank hundreds of ships
            c) Most successful of the Confederate raiders were the
                        Florida and the Alabama, which captured thirty-eight and sixty-four
                         Union ships, respectively (mostly merchant marine)
                        1864 the Union navy destroyed the Alabama off the coast of France
    3) Angry northerners pushed for revenge against GB by taking Canada after the Civil War
       was over
    4) American foreign minister Adams eventually got GB to agree to stop producing raiders
       for the Confederacy
            a) 1863- two warships with iron rams and large guns were being constructed in GB
                for the Confederacy to break the Union blockade
            b) Had this happened
                        The south would have broken the blockade and been able to fire upon
                         northern cities
                        The Union would have invaded Canada
            c) 1863 Adams was successful in getting GB to purchase the warships for the
                British Navy instead of selling them to the Confederacy
    5) Southerners plotted revenge by attempting to invade the north via Canada
    6) Many bitter northerners demanded British cession of Canadian colonies to the U.S. as fair
       payment for the wartime losses of the Alabama and other commerce raiders built in GB
    7) British North American Act 1867 British parliament
            a) Established the Dominion of Canada to bolster Canadians politically and
                spiritually against the vengeance of the U.S.
    8) 1871 GB agreed to settle the Alabama dispute in court
    9) 1872 GB paid the U.S. 15.5 million dollars for damaged caused by the raiders

C. France in Mexico
    1) 1861 French troops, along with Britain and Spain occupied Mexico in a joint effort to
       collect debts
    2) Britain and Spain soon left but the ambitious
    3) Napoleon III set up a puppet government in 1864 and
           a. persuaded the Austrian Archduke Maximilian to accept the “throne” of Mexico




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          b. This gross violation of the Monroe Doctrine did not escape the attention of the
               U.S. but with the nation locked in war Sec. of State William H. Seward could do
               nothing about it
    4) 1865— after the war, Seward threatened to march U.S. troops from Texas to liberate
       Mexico
    5) Napoleon III withdrew his troops
    6) Austrian Archduke Maximilian was captured and killed by a firing squad

VIII. Presidential Power
A. Davis vs. Lincoln
    1) Confederate Constitution was based on states’ rights
            a. It could not prevent states from seceding from the Confederacy
            b. Some state troops refused to fight outside of their state borders
            c. President Jefferson Davis
                        Wanted states’ rights with a tightly knit central government
                        Was often in conflict with debates in the Confederate Congress over
                         states rights
            d. Confederate Congress threatened to impeach Davis several times
            e. States’ rights was an issue for southern states when they were part of the Union
                and it was still an issue for them within the Confederacy
    2) Lincoln in contrast
            a. Had a stable government based on republican ideals
            b. Enjoyed a healthy economy and international relations, Davis had neither
B. Lincoln’s Emergency wartime actions
        Because Congress was not in session when war was declared (April, 1861)
    1) Lincoln exercised executive authority (without the consent of congress) to do all of the
        following:
            a) Declare a blockade of the Atlantic coast of the Confederacy
            b) Increase the size of the army
            c) Authorized the U.S. Treasury to give $2 million dollars to three private citizens
                for military purposes
            d) Suspended habeas corpus to arrest anti-unionists
    3) Lincoln exercised unusual wartime authority throughout the war
            a) Conducted “supervised” voting in border states
            b) Suspended anti-union newspapers
            c) Arrested editors of newspapers Lincoln thought were “obstructing” the war

IX. Union vs. Confederate Forces
  A. Union Armies
    1) 1861- When war was declared, all states were to send a quota of volunteers based on
       population
    2) At first more volunteers enlisted than were needed, eventually bounties had to be offered
       as incentives to volunteer
    3) Conscription Act—March 1863
            a) First conscription law in American history
            b) Permitted individuals to escape military service by paying the government $300
                or hiring a substitute to enroll for three years
                        Provision led to criticism that the act favored the upper-class
                        Resentful working-class rioted in some major cities and federal troops
                           were needed to restore order



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                            o   1863- anti-black Irish immigrants rioted in NYC
                                    Rioting went on for days, many died, including blacks
                                        who were lynched
                                    Federal troops restored order
  B. Confederate Armies
   1) When early enlistments dropped off the Confederacy also used conscription (one yr.
       sooner than the Union)
   2) Confederate Draft Act 1862 which eventually required all males between 17-50 to serve
            Excluded from the draft were overseeers of 15 of more slaves
            Substitutes could also be paid to serve in place of a wealthy southerner
            By 1864 these exceptions had to be eliminated
            Conscripts from the Appalachian mountain region, the hill region of Tennessee,
               and northern Alabama deserted the army in large numbers

X. Economic Changes
   For the Union:
  A. Internal Revenue Act of 1862
                      1) Taxes on tobacco, alcohol, medicine, and newspaper ads
                      2) Taxes were eventually levied on practically every state of
                           manufacturing, sales, and professional services
                      3) Nearly all of these taxes were ended when the war was over
  B. Income tax was levied for the first time
                      1) 3% tax on those earning $600-10,000 a year
                      2) 5% tax on those earning over $10,000 a year
 C. Morrill Tariff Act 1861
                     1) Increased tax on imports by 5-10%
                           This amount had to increase because of the internal taxes being paid
                            by American businessmen
 D. U.S. Treasury bond sales
      1) Biggest revenue raiser during the war was the sale of federal Treasury bonds
      2) New York Banking House of Jay Cooke served as the government’s agent in selling
          bonds worth over 2.5 billion dollars
      3) Cooke’s Banking House earned 3/8 of 1% on every sale
 E. Reform of the nation’s banking system
    1) In 1862, Congress passed an act that created a national currency, called greenbacks
        because of their color
            a) This money was not backed by gold, silver, or government bonds: its value
                fluctuated according to the credit of the U.S. and news from the battlefield
            b) At its lowest point, greenbacks were worth only 39 cents of a gold dollar
    2) Since 1832, when President Jackson vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the
        United States, Americans had relied on state banks
        a) National Banking System 1863
                 Gave charters to a number of National Banks
                 Each member bank received a supply of new “national bank notes” equal to
                    90% of the value of U.S. bonds it deposited in the Treasury
      The new banking system functioned under this system until it was replaced by the
      Federal Reserve System established in 1913




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 F. Southern Economic Conditions
  1) Customs duties stopped as a result of the blockade
  2) Confederate bonds—$400 million were sold at home and abroad
  3) Internal taxes were increased by Richmond (including10% tax on farm produce)
           Southern resistance to taxes from a central government resulted in only minimal
              success by the Richmond government to raise revenue
  4) Confederate money was called blue-backed money and suffered from severe inflation
           At the end of the war the Confederate dollar was worth only 1.6 cents

G. Increased Prosperity in the North
   1) New factories were very successful as a result of high protective tariffs
   2) A new millionaire class emerged “the fortunes of war”
   3) Graft (corruption as a result of government spending and jobs) became prevalent
   4) New inventions such as the
            Sewing machines resulted in standard sizes and ended the custom tailoring
               required before the war (used first for uniforms)
            Mechanical reapers required less farm hands and allowed farm workers to join
               the army while production still increased
   5) Grain sales created prosperity
            Dethroned “King Cotton” and
            Allowed the north to stockpile supplies and weapons from Europe
   6) Petroleum 1859
            Discovered in Pennsylvania
            Sent a rush of oil workers “59ers” to work in the new “petroleum plutocracy”
   7) Homestead Act of 1862
            Granted to any citizen or alien who had filed the proper papers as much as 160
               acres of land upon payment of a $10 fee and proof that he had lived upon his
               homestead for five years.
            Passed to help keep the northern agricultural economy healthy
            Over 1.2 million acres were assigned under the act during the war
            After the war it contributed significantly to the settlement of the Great Plains
       Shipping was the only northern industry to suffer during the war due to attacks at sea
       by the Alabama and others
   8) Contributions of Women during the war
            As men went off to war, women entered the workforce
                             “government girls” 500 hired in D.C.)
            New inventions made factory jobs more available to women
            Over 400 women dressed as men and served in the military
            Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (first American female physician)
                             Organized U.S. Sanitary Commission to provide medical
                                assistance and training for the military
            Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix revolutionized nursing during the war
            Sally Tompkins ran Confederate infirmary in Richmond and earned the rank of
               Captain
       Both north and south women ran fundraisers to support their troops in battle




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