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					3.3 Networks

  1. Define networks
     Two or more computers connected together.
  2. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of networks
     - Advantages:
     - Easy sharing of data
     - Centralized management of software
     - Easier system maintenance
     - Disadvantages:
     - Security
     - Control
     - Intellectual property
  3. Define client – server – hosts
     - Client: computer that request the service from the
        server.(Ex. PC in school lab, PC at home, your smart
     - Server: computer that respond to clients’ requests.(Ex.
        Google Server, School server)
     - Hosts: server/client
  4. Describe the different types of servers
     - Mail server
     - Web server
     - Video server
     - Database server
  5. Describe networks topologies(organization)
     - star topology
     - Ring topology
     - Bus topology
     - Mish/Redundant topology
  6. Explain grid computing or distributed processing
     Special software distributes the computation tasks over the
     network to the different computers. The computers then
     work on their assigned task in parallel and send back the
     results to a central server.
  7. Define Ethernet
   It is a way to connect a computer to a network. It relies on
   copper wires for transmitting data.
8. Compare b/w client-server and peer-to-peer networks

      Client-server                P2P
      Centralized                  Decentralized
      Contains server              No Server
      One Powerful computer and    All computers have the same
      many clients                 power

9. State the advantages and disadvantages of P2P network.
         Advantages:
   - Simple network
   - No need for network administrator
   - Easy data sharing
         Disadvantages:
   - Difficult administration
   - Lack of security

10.Describe LAN at home components.
   LAN: Local Area Network
   - Router: to rout the signals to the computers in LAN
   - Network cables: Copper, Twisted, Fiber optics,
     Bluetooth, WiFi.
   - Modem: hardware to change analogue signals to digital
     and vice versa.
   - Network card: Ethernet card
11.Define VLAN.
   VLAN: Virtual LAN is a software solution that divides up a
   computer network into several subnetworks.

12.      Define Internet
    Internet (International Network) is the network of all
    computer networks around the world.
13.      Define ARPANET
    The first network, launched in 1969, university of California
    was connected to university of Stanford.
14.      Identify Intranet
    Network that belongs to a particular organization. ( Ex.
    School network,…)
15.      Identify Extranet
    Extension of Intranet, they allow business partners to access
    a part of the company’s Intranet for the purpose of data
16.      Define VPN
    Virtual Private Network used to encrypt the data sent over
    the network and make it appear as if the company owns
    private network (Security issue)
17.      Describe Hubs – Switches – Routers.

    Hubs: Hardware used to connect the computers in the
    network, has one input port and several output ports, it is the
    least intelligent. Distributes data to all computers in the
    Switches: More intelligent than hubs, send data only for the
    computer intended.
    Routers: The most complex, routs the data to the computer
    intended and know the IP address for the sender and
    receiver computers.
18.       Define ISP
    ISP: Internet Service Providers, the company that supplies a
    connection to the Internet (Ex. Batelco, Zain,...)
19.       Outline the possible technologies that may be used to
          connect to the Internet.
    - TV cables: very fast connection
    - ADSL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line): send
        digital signals through telephone lines
    - Analogue dial-up: Connecting telephone line to
        computer modem directly
    - Fiber Optics: signals are transmitted using light over
        glass fiber optic cables. Very fast.
    - Wireless (WiFi): no cables needed.
    - Mobile phone network: WiFi for mobiles (Smart phones)
    - ISDN (integrated services digital networks): faster than
    - WiMax (Worldwide interoperability for Microwave
      access): WiFi to cover larger geographic regions.
20.     Describe the connection methods that can be used to
        set up a LAN
    - Ethernet: wired network
    - WLAN (Wireless LAN) for long distance
    - Bluetooth: wireless for short distance.
21.     Define NOS
        NOS (Network Operating System) operating systems
        that specifically designed to operate and manage
        computer networks.
22.     State the main features for NOS:
    - User Management
    - Permission management
    - Allows data access
    - Allows hardware access
    - Data security
    - Backup
    - Remote access
23.     Define RAID system
        RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is an
        assembly of several inexpensive hard disk drives
        connected together to reduce the risk of data loss in
        case of disk failure.
24.     Define Protocols.
        Protocols are agreements or standards on how data is to
        be exchanged over a network.
25.     State the protocol’s responsibilities
        Page 104
26.     Describe the common protocols.
    - TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
      Protocol) used by the internet.
    - HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): specifies how
      WebPages should be transferred.
    - HTTPS (Secured HTTP): Uses encryption to make data
      more secure.
    - POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3): used when receiving e-
    - FTP (File Transfer Protocol): used for uploading and
      downloading files.
27.    Construct and Describe networks layers:

                           Application Layer
             How do internet applications communicate with
             each other?
             Protocol used: HTTP, POP3, FTP.

                             Internet Layer
             How is the data transmitted over the network?
             Protocol used: TCP/IP.

                          Hardware Layer
             How the computer is physically connected to the

28.    Describe Synchronous and Asynchronous
       Synchronous: both sender and receiver are online. Ex.
       (telephone call, chatting, video conferences)
       Asynchronous: one of both parties (sender or receiver)
       online. Ex. (SMS, forums, E-mail)
29.    Define remote access.
       Using your computer to access another computer over a
30.    Outline the two types of remote access.
    - Accessing the files on another computer
    - Accessing the desktop of a computer.
31.    Describe bit rate.
           A measure of transmission speed of data over a
           telecommunication line. It measures how many bits can
           be transmitted in 1 second. Ex. (512 bps, 54 kbps, 1000
32.        Define bandwidth, Broadband
           Bandwidth: amount of data that can be transferred per
           unit of time.
           Broadband: Network connection with large bandwidth.
33.        State the cases where large bandwidth is necessary.
      -   When downloading large media files
      -   For internet telephony such as VoIP (Voice over IP)
      -   For watching internet TV (IPTV)
      -   For websites that extensively use high resolution pixel
      -   When several computers share a common line.
34.         Define Network Administrator
            Sysadmin is a person who is responsible for ensuring
            that the LAN is working efficiently and smoothly.
35.         Outline the tasks for sysadmin
      -   Upgrading and updating the software on the network
      -   Registering user accounts
      -   Setting up the permissions of the users
      -   Connecting and removing hardware of the LAN
      -   Giving advice and support to the users.
      -   Informing the administration about who violates network
36.         Define encryption and decryption.
      -   Encryption: is a method of making information
          unreadable to other people
      -   Decryption: is converting the information back into
          readable form.
37.         State some applications for encryption
      -   Billing information
      -   VoIP
      -   Individual files.
      -   E-mails
    - Private information
38.     Explain SSL and TLS
    - SSL: Secure Socket Layer
    - TLS: Transport Layer Security
      Both are encryption methods that are commonly used to
      encrypt websites. They are used in E-commerce. They
      use https:// instead of http://
39.     Outline the steps of network authentication
    - Switch on your PC
    - Enter login and password combination
    - The server compares the combination with database
    - If combination matches, the server will give you the
    - If combination is incorrect, access will not be given.
40.     Define Password
        Password is a secret combination of characters that is
        used to authenticate a user.
41.     Outline the guidelines for strong passwords.
    - Hard to guess
    - Long enough
    - Change periodically
    - Use complex (upper-case, lower-case and special
    - Keep your login name secret.
      Example for simple password: naseem123
      Example for complex password: N@seem_123

42.     Define access level in networking
        The permissions that determine the freedom that a user
        has when dealing with the files stored on the computer
        or the network.
43.     Describe the security problems in networking
    - Hacking: the attempt to gain illegal access to a computer
      system over a network.
    - Denial of Service(DoS): send many requests to the
      server to make the server slow and overloaded.
      - Phreaking: manipulation of telephone lines to gain illegal
      - Phishing: spying of user’s personal data.
      - Cracking: removing the copy protection of a piece of

    - Malware: computer programs that are designed to do
      something harmful.
44.    Outline the different security measures that can be used
       to secure networks.
    - Login/password
    - Biometrics
    - Physical access control
    - Encryption
    - Firewalls
45.    Define firewall
       Firewall is a computer with software that protects a
       LAN from the WAN.
46.    Outline the common firewall features:
    - Allows certain data packets to pass
    - Allows trusted websites to pass
    - Allows trusted e-mail to be accessed.
    - Prevents the direct access to the HD from the WAN
    - Filters the data that passes into the LAN
    - Protects the LAN from unauthorized access.
47.    State the reasons that cause network failing
    - Network overload
    - Viruses and worms
    - HD failure

48.       Define proxy server.
          A computer that acts as an intermediary b/w the user’s
          computer and the internet.
49.       State the main advantages for proxy servers.
      -   Hide IP address
      -   Increase efficiency
      -   View blocked websites
      -   Increase security
50.         Describe the licensing models for network software.
      -   Single user: one person
      -   Multi-users: for specified number of users.
      -   Concurrent license: central server
      -   Network license: for the whole LAN
      -   Site license: unlimited.
51.         Outline the ways that could be used to monitor user
            behavior on a network.
      -   keystroke monitoring software (key loggers)
      -   system performance monitor
      -   Surveillance software.
52.         Define packet sniffer.
            Program that monitors the data packets that pass over
            the network then decodes and analyses the packets.
53.         Define network policy
            A formal, organization-internal specification on how
            networks are to be used properly.

54.        State some network policy rules.
      -   Backup issues
      -   Archiving
      -   Disaster recovery
      -   Network usage
      -   Redundancy specifications
      -   Failover

55.        State the ACM code of ethics.
           ACM: Association of Computing Machinery.
           Page 115.
56.        Define UPS
           UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply, a piece of
           hardware that is connected to the server to keep the
         server running for several minutes when the power is
  57.    Explain the possible ethical issues related to networks.
         Page 117.

11E- TEST - Wed, 20-3-2013

11M- TEST - Wed, 20-3-2013

ALL NETOWKS – Case Study

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