1. Define networks
Two or more computers connected together.
2. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of networks
- Easy sharing of data
- Centralized management of software
- Easier system maintenance
- Intellectual property
3. Define client – server – hosts
- Client: computer that request the service from the
server.(Ex. PC in school lab, PC at home, your smart
- Server: computer that respond to clients’ requests.(Ex.
Google Server, School server)
- Hosts: server/client
4. Describe the different types of servers
- Mail server
- Web server
- Video server
- Database server
5. Describe networks topologies(organization)
- star topology
- Ring topology
- Bus topology
- Mish/Redundant topology
6. Explain grid computing or distributed processing
Special software distributes the computation tasks over the
network to the different computers. The computers then
work on their assigned task in parallel and send back the
results to a central server.
7. Define Ethernet
It is a way to connect a computer to a network. It relies on
copper wires for transmitting data.
8. Compare b/w client-server and peer-to-peer networks
Contains server No Server
One Powerful computer and All computers have the same
many clients power
9. State the advantages and disadvantages of P2P network.
- Simple network
- No need for network administrator
- Easy data sharing
- Difficult administration
- Lack of security
10.Describe LAN at home components.
LAN: Local Area Network
- Router: to rout the signals to the computers in LAN
- Network cables: Copper, Twisted, Fiber optics,
- Modem: hardware to change analogue signals to digital
and vice versa.
- Network card: Ethernet card
VLAN: Virtual LAN is a software solution that divides up a
computer network into several subnetworks.
12. Define Internet
Internet (International Network) is the network of all
computer networks around the world.
13. Define ARPANET
The first network, launched in 1969, university of California
was connected to university of Stanford.
14. Identify Intranet
Network that belongs to a particular organization. ( Ex.
15. Identify Extranet
Extension of Intranet, they allow business partners to access
a part of the company’s Intranet for the purpose of data
16. Define VPN
Virtual Private Network used to encrypt the data sent over
the network and make it appear as if the company owns
private network (Security issue)
17. Describe Hubs – Switches – Routers.
Hubs: Hardware used to connect the computers in the
network, has one input port and several output ports, it is the
least intelligent. Distributes data to all computers in the
Switches: More intelligent than hubs, send data only for the
Routers: The most complex, routs the data to the computer
intended and know the IP address for the sender and
18. Define ISP
ISP: Internet Service Providers, the company that supplies a
connection to the Internet (Ex. Batelco, Zain,...)
19. Outline the possible technologies that may be used to
connect to the Internet.
- TV cables: very fast connection
- ADSL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line): send
digital signals through telephone lines
- Analogue dial-up: Connecting telephone line to
computer modem directly
- Fiber Optics: signals are transmitted using light over
glass fiber optic cables. Very fast.
- Wireless (WiFi): no cables needed.
- Mobile phone network: WiFi for mobiles (Smart phones)
- ISDN (integrated services digital networks): faster than
- WiMax (Worldwide interoperability for Microwave
access): WiFi to cover larger geographic regions.
20. Describe the connection methods that can be used to
set up a LAN
- Ethernet: wired network
- WLAN (Wireless LAN) for long distance
- Bluetooth: wireless for short distance.
21. Define NOS
NOS (Network Operating System) operating systems
that specifically designed to operate and manage
22. State the main features for NOS:
- User Management
- Permission management
- Allows data access
- Allows hardware access
- Data security
- Remote access
23. Define RAID system
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is an
assembly of several inexpensive hard disk drives
connected together to reduce the risk of data loss in
case of disk failure.
24. Define Protocols.
Protocols are agreements or standards on how data is to
be exchanged over a network.
25. State the protocol’s responsibilities
26. Describe the common protocols.
- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) used by the internet.
- HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): specifies how
WebPages should be transferred.
- HTTPS (Secured HTTP): Uses encryption to make data
- POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3): used when receiving e-
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol): used for uploading and
27. Construct and Describe networks layers:
How do internet applications communicate with
Protocol used: HTTP, POP3, FTP.
How is the data transmitted over the network?
Protocol used: TCP/IP.
How the computer is physically connected to the
28. Describe Synchronous and Asynchronous
Synchronous: both sender and receiver are online. Ex.
(telephone call, chatting, video conferences)
Asynchronous: one of both parties (sender or receiver)
online. Ex. (SMS, forums, E-mail)
29. Define remote access.
Using your computer to access another computer over a
30. Outline the two types of remote access.
- Accessing the files on another computer
- Accessing the desktop of a computer.
31. Describe bit rate.
A measure of transmission speed of data over a
telecommunication line. It measures how many bits can
be transmitted in 1 second. Ex. (512 bps, 54 kbps, 1000
32. Define bandwidth, Broadband
Bandwidth: amount of data that can be transferred per
unit of time.
Broadband: Network connection with large bandwidth.
33. State the cases where large bandwidth is necessary.
- When downloading large media files
- For internet telephony such as VoIP (Voice over IP)
- For watching internet TV (IPTV)
- For websites that extensively use high resolution pixel
- When several computers share a common line.
34. Define Network Administrator
Sysadmin is a person who is responsible for ensuring
that the LAN is working efficiently and smoothly.
35. Outline the tasks for sysadmin
- Upgrading and updating the software on the network
- Registering user accounts
- Setting up the permissions of the users
- Connecting and removing hardware of the LAN
- Giving advice and support to the users.
- Informing the administration about who violates network
36. Define encryption and decryption.
- Encryption: is a method of making information
unreadable to other people
- Decryption: is converting the information back into
37. State some applications for encryption
- Billing information
- Individual files.
- Private information
38. Explain SSL and TLS
- SSL: Secure Socket Layer
- TLS: Transport Layer Security
Both are encryption methods that are commonly used to
encrypt websites. They are used in E-commerce. They
use https:// instead of http://
39. Outline the steps of network authentication
- Switch on your PC
- Enter login and password combination
- The server compares the combination with database
- If combination matches, the server will give you the
- If combination is incorrect, access will not be given.
40. Define Password
Password is a secret combination of characters that is
used to authenticate a user.
41. Outline the guidelines for strong passwords.
- Hard to guess
- Long enough
- Change periodically
- Use complex (upper-case, lower-case and special
- Keep your login name secret.
Example for simple password: naseem123
Example for complex password: N@seem_123
42. Define access level in networking
The permissions that determine the freedom that a user
has when dealing with the files stored on the computer
or the network.
43. Describe the security problems in networking
- Hacking: the attempt to gain illegal access to a computer
system over a network.
- Denial of Service(DoS): send many requests to the
server to make the server slow and overloaded.
- Phreaking: manipulation of telephone lines to gain illegal
- Phishing: spying of user’s personal data.
- Cracking: removing the copy protection of a piece of
- Malware: computer programs that are designed to do
44. Outline the different security measures that can be used
to secure networks.
- Physical access control
45. Define firewall
Firewall is a computer with software that protects a
LAN from the WAN.
46. Outline the common firewall features:
- Allows certain data packets to pass
- Allows trusted websites to pass
- Allows trusted e-mail to be accessed.
- Prevents the direct access to the HD from the WAN
- Filters the data that passes into the LAN
- Protects the LAN from unauthorized access.
47. State the reasons that cause network failing
- Network overload
- Viruses and worms
- HD failure
48. Define proxy server.
A computer that acts as an intermediary b/w the user’s
computer and the internet.
49. State the main advantages for proxy servers.
- Hide IP address
- Increase efficiency
- View blocked websites
- Increase security
50. Describe the licensing models for network software.
- Single user: one person
- Multi-users: for specified number of users.
- Concurrent license: central server
- Network license: for the whole LAN
- Site license: unlimited.
51. Outline the ways that could be used to monitor user
behavior on a network.
- keystroke monitoring software (key loggers)
- system performance monitor
- Surveillance software.
52. Define packet sniffer.
Program that monitors the data packets that pass over
the network then decodes and analyses the packets.
53. Define network policy
A formal, organization-internal specification on how
networks are to be used properly.
54. State some network policy rules.
- Backup issues
- Disaster recovery
- Network usage
- Redundancy specifications
55. State the ACM code of ethics.
ACM: Association of Computing Machinery.
56. Define UPS
UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply, a piece of
hardware that is connected to the server to keep the
server running for several minutes when the power is
57. Explain the possible ethical issues related to networks.
11E- TEST - Wed, 20-3-2013
11M- TEST - Wed, 20-3-2013
ALL NETOWKS – Case Study