WK10AssgnWilliamsR.docx - educationaltechnology123 - home

Document Sample
WK10AssgnWilliamsR.docx - educationaltechnology123 - home Powered By Docstoc
					            Week 10 Assignment


Evolution of Educational Technology Timeline




    Student: roger.williams2@Waldenu.edu


            Student ID# A00265570


          Program: PhD in Education


     Specialization: Educational Technology




               Walden University


                August 12, 2012
                                        The Six Strands of Technology Evolution

•   Strand 1: Toffler’s Wave Theory

•   Strand 2: Technology

•   Strand 3: Work

•   Strand 4: Education Theories

•   Strand 5: Society & Cultural

•   Strand 6: Educational Legislation
                                                  Evolution of Educational Technology


                                                      Prepared by Roger Williams


Strand 1              Year            Name of Event              Description/Significance of Event
                                                                                                                            Web Reference(s).

Wave Toffler's      1800BC - First Wave - Agriculture Age People began clearing land and tilling the
                      1750                                       soil in order to plant crops        http://wavesofthefuture.net/wave-
Theory –                                                                                             agricultural-revolution-environment-
                                                                                                     hunting-gathering.shtml
Toffler's Wave                                              the necessities of the community were
                                                                 produced by the community

                                                             social classes and an early division of labor
                                                                           began to emerge.

                                                                  information was conveyed orally            http://wavesofthefuture.net/wave-
                                                                                                             agricultural-revolution-environment-
                                                                                                             hunting-gathering.shtml

Wave Toffler's      1750AD -    Second Wave – Industrial     schools took over the education of children
                      1955             Revolution                                                     http://wavesofthefuture.net/wave-
Theory –Toffler's                                            automobile and consumer goods were cheap industrial-fossil-fuels-oil-crisis.shtml
Wave


                                                              education was basic reading, writing, and
                                                                             arithmetic



                                                               large amounts of information had to be
                                                                  written, checked for accuracy and
                                                                       distributed efficiently



Wave Toffler's       1955 - Third Wave - Information Age education is a part of work and personal life
                     Present                                     and spread over a lifetime            http://www.toffler.com/
 Theory –Toffler's
     Wave

                                                            electronic communities are being created by
                                                                    users of personal computers



                                                              systematic records can now be kept and
                                                                            maintained




                                                            technology has bridged the gap between the
                                                                    producer and the consumer

  Possible Fourth    Future        Biotechnology and        The Virtual Age is the ultimate progress of
      Wave –                                                 information technology and knowledge http://online.sfsu.edu/~mahmoodi/
                                   Digital/Virtual Age          based environments into a three-         papers/paper_C50.pdf
                                                                    dimensional virtual world.

                                                               Much higher speed CPU’s, high speed
                                                              transmission media (larger bandwidths),       http://online.sfsu.edu/~mahmoodi/
                                                                              huge                                 papers/paper_C50.pdf

                                                              capacities of memory and sophisticated
                                                            real-time virtual reality software are needed
                                                                                   to
                                                                 power us into the Virtual Age.



                                                          Charted by an act of Congress in 1906,
    Strand 2:       1905   The Carnegie Foundation for the                                       http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/edu
                                                           the same year the Foundation
   Technology               Advancement of Teaching is                                           cationhistorytimeline.html
                                                           encouraged the adoption of a standard
                                      founded
Key advances and                                          system for equating ‘seat time’ (the
 innovations for                                          amount of time spent in a class) to high
      each                                                school credits. Still in use today, this
decade from 1900-                                         system came to be called the Carnegie
      2012                                                Unit.



    Strand 2:       1905   school museums were started to The purpose of the school museums was to http://education.stateuniversity.com/pag
   Technology                   manage instructional         collect and loan to teachers exhibits, es/2495/Technology-in-Education-
                                                             photographs, and other materials for   SCHOOL.html
Key advances and                      media
                                                                        classroom use
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Thomas Edison                  demonstrated the first talking motion
                    1910                                  picture.                                   http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade00.ht
                                                                                                     ml
    Strand 2:
                                                                                                     http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/
   Technology
                                                                                                     a/twentieth_2.htm
Key advances and
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012

                           Technology use                  The motion picture projector was one of the
    Strand 2:       1910   in schools changed dramatically first technological devices used in schools http://www.ehow.com/info_8416115_te
   Technology              from 1900 to 1999.                                                          chnology-during-1900s-schools.html

Key advances and
 innovations for                                           The very first instructional films were
      each                                                 made in 1910.

decade from 1900-
      2012



                                                                                                        http://education.stateuniversity.com/pag
    Strand 2:       1910       silent films produced for   George Kleine published the Catalogue of es/2495/Technology-in-Education-
   Technology                       instructional use      Educational Motion Pictures with a 1,000 SCHOOL.html
                                                           plus titles of films that could be rented by
Key advances and
                                                                              schools
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           In the 1920s and 1930s radio    Sound was added to motion pictures and
    Strand 2:       1920   broadcasting and sound          radio broadcasting began                    http://www.ehow.com/info_8416115_te
   Technology              recording boomed.                                                            chnology-during-1900s-schools.html

Key advances and
 innovations for                                            the Audiovisual Instruction Movement
      each                                                 began.
decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Artificial life begins   the first robot was built
    Strand 2:       1921                                                                  http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/
   Technology                                                                             a/twentieth_3.htm

Key advances and
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Overhead Projector       “Initially used by the U.S. military for
    Strand 2:       1930                                                                     http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
                                                    training purposes in World War II,
   Technology                                                                                sroom-technology/
                                                    overhead projectors quickly spread to
Key advances and                                    schools and other organizations around
 innovations for                                    the country”
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Sydney L . Pressey       The first teaching machine was
    Strand 2:       1934                                                                  http://www.answers.com/topic/pro
                                                    invented in by Sydney L. Pressey
   Technology                                                                             grammed-
                                                                                          instruction#ixzz23MU0bYIN
Key advances and
 innovations for
      each
decade from 1900-
      2012




                           modern color television system A German patent in 1904 had the earliest
                    1940                                  proposal for a color television system     http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/
                           Invented by Peter Goldmark                                                a/twentieth_5.htm
                                                          Between 1946 and 1950 the research staff
                                                          of RCA Laboratories invented the world's
                                                          first electronic, monochrome compatible,
                                                          color television system

                           First Computer Built (ENIAC)   John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert built
    Strand 2:       1945                                  the Electronic Numerical Integrator and    http://www.computersciencelab.com/Co
   Technology                                             Calculator (ENIAC) at the University of    mputerHistory/HistoryPt4.htm
                                                          Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1945
Key advances and
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                                                          The ARPANET was developed by
    Strand 2:       1940                                                                             http://www.infoplease.com/spot/9
                                                          the Department of Defense working
   Technology                                                                                        9internet1.html
                                                          with several universities
Key advances and
 innovations for                                          the goal of ARPANET was to allow
                                                                                                http://www.infoplease.com/spot/9
      each                                                university-based researchers to share
                                                                                                9internet1.html
                                                          information while working for the
decade from 1900-
      2012                                Defense Department




                           Headphones     Thanks to theories that students could
    Strand 2:       1950                                                             http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
                                          learn lessons through repeated drills
   Technology                                                                        sroom-technology/
                                          and repetition (and repeated
Key advances and                          repetition) schools began to install
 innovations for                          listening stations that used
      each                                headphones and audio tapes. Most
decade from 1900-                         were used in what were dubbed
      2012                                ‘language labs’ and this practice is still
                                          in use today, except now computers
                                          are used instead of audio tapes.

                           Slide Rule     “William Oughtred and others
    Strand 2:       1950
                                          developed the slide rule in the 17th
   Technology
                                          century based on the emerging work
Key advances and                          on logarithms by John Napier. The use
 innovations for                          of slide rules continued to grow
      each                                through the 1950s and 1960s even as
decade from 1900-                         digital computing devices were being
      2012                                gradually introduced; but around 1974
                                          the electronic scientific calculator
                                          made it largely obsolete and most
                                          suppliers left the business.”

                           Liquid Paper   “A secretary made this white liquid in
    Strand 2:       1960                                                           http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
                                          her kitchen and sold the company to
   Technology                                                                              sroom-technology/
Key advances and                                          Gillette for about $50 million.”
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           E-mail and Usenet              Email started in 1965 so that users
                    1965                                                                           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History
                                                          could communicate using
                                                                                                   _of_the_Internet#Use_and_culture
                                                          a timesharing mainframe computer

                           Computer Floppy Disks          IBM completed the first "memory
                    1971                                                                           http://library.thinkquest.org/J00260
                           Introduced                     disk" or the "floppy disk"
                                                                                                   4/LG-floppydisk.html
                                                          The "floppy" was invented by IBM
                                                          engineers led by Alan Shugart

                           Microsoft Founded              Founded in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq
    Strand 2:       1975                                                                           http://www.microsoft.com/en-
                                                          "MSFT") is the worldwide leader in
   Technology                                                                                      us/news/inside_ms.aspx
                                                          software, services, and solutions that
Key advances and                                          help people and businesses realize
 innovations for                                          their full potential.
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           By the 1980s,                  The computer was not used extensively
    Strand 2:       1980                                                                        http://www.ehow.com/info_84161
                           microcomputers had been        in education until the 1980s, but
   Technology                                                                                   15_technology-during-1900s-
                           introduced that could fit on   interest in the computer in the
                                                                                                schools.html
Key advances and
 innovations for           desktops.                 classroom began during the 1950s with
      each                                           researchers at IBM who developed
                                                     Computer Assisted Instruction
decade from 1900-
      2012
                                                     programs.


                                                                                              http://education.stateuniversity.co
                                                                                              m/pages/2495/Technology-in-
                                                                                              Education-SCHOOL.html



                           Pac-Man Video Game        On May 22, 1980, the Pac-Man video
                    1980                                                                   http://history1900s.about.com/od/
                           Released                  game was released in Japan and in the
                                                                                           1980s/qt/Pac-Man.htm
                                                     United States.

                                                     It quickly became an icon of the 1980s
                                                     remains one of the most popular video
                                                     games in history.

                           the IBM Personal Computer The IBM PC had about 10 times the
    Strand 2:       1981                                                                      http://www.britannica.com/EBchec
                                                     memory capacity of other computers
   Technology                                                                                 ked/topic/452928/personal-
                                                     The IBM PC became the world’s most       computer-PC
Key advances and
 innovations for                                     popular personal computer
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           the electronic age        The World Wide Web was born
    Strand 2:       1989                                                                      http://websearch.about.com/od/se
                                                     when Tim Berners-Lee put together a
                                                                                              archingtheweb/f/what-year-was-
   Technology                                        way to organize documents across     the-world-wide-web-born.htm
                                                     computers with a markup language
Key advances and
                                                     called HTML
 innovations for
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012




                           Computer-based learning   “The 1980s and 1990s produced a
    Strand 2:       1990                                                                    http://www.k12academics.com/edu
                                                     variety of schools that could be label
   Technology                                                                               cational-technology/history
                                                     Computer-based learning (CBL).
Key advances and                                     Frequently based on constructivist and
 innovations for                                     cognitivist learning theories, these
      each                                           environments focused on teaching
decade from 1900-                                    both abstract and domain-specific
      2012                                           problem solving. Preferred
                                                     technologies were micro-worlds
                                                     (computer environments where
                                                     learners could explore and build),
                                                     simulations (computer environments
                                                     where learner can play with
                                                     parameters of dynamic systems) and
                                                     hypertext.”



                           Interactive Whiteboard    “The chalkboard got a facelift with the http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
    Strand 2:       1999
                                                     whiteboard. That got turned into a      sroom-technology/
   Technology
                                                     more interactive system that uses a
Key advances and                                        touch-sensitive white screen, a
 innovations for                                        projector, and a computer.”
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Microsoft Ordered to Split   Microsoft Corporation was ordered to
    Strand 2:       2000                                                                     http://www.guardian.co.uk/technol
                                                        split into two companies by a US
   Technology                                                                                ogy/2000/jun/07/microsoft.busines
                                                        federal judge
                                                                                             s1
Key advances and
 innovations for                                        Microsoft was accused of violated
      each                                              antitrust law

decade from 1900-                                       One company is to oversee the
      2012                                              Windows operating system and the
                                                        other company is to be in charge of all
                                                        the other Microsoft software like the
                                                        “Word” program

                           iPod                         In 2001 Apple Computers announced
    Strand 2:       2001
                                                        their portable music digital player
   Technology                                                                                     http://inventors.about.com/od/tim
                                                         The iPod was created under project       elines/a/ModernInvention.htm
Key advances and
 innovations for                                        codename Dulcimer.
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012
                           MySpace launched in 2003.     MySpace is still the perennial favorite
    Strand 2:       2003                                                                         http://www.digitaltrends.com/featu
                                                        in the USA because it attracts “young
   Technology                                                                                    res/the-history-of-social-
                                                        adult demographic with music, music
                                                                                                 networking/#ixzz23IzS8lbJ
Key advances and                                        videos, and a funky, feature-filled
 innovations for                                        environment”
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Facebook social networking   Facebook started in 2004 as a Harvard-
    Strand 2:       2004                                                                        http://www.digitaltrends.com/featu
                           site                         only exercise and open to the public in
   Technology                                                                                   res/the-history-of-social-
                                                        2006
                                                                                                networking/#ixzz23IzS8lbJ
Key advances and
 innovations for                                        Facebook was seriously big business
      each                                              and had backers such as billionaire
                                                        PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel
decade from 1900-
      2012



                           Apple iPad                   “Just like the original school slate,
    Strand 2:       2010                                                                        http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
                                                        could the iPad bring Thomas Edison’s
   Technology                                                                                   sroom-technology/
                                                        statement to life? Could the iPad make
Key advances and                                        it so ‘scholars will soon be instructed
 innovations for                                        through the eye.’”
      each

decade from 1900-
      2012
                        J.P. Morgan                       creates the United States Steel Co.,
Stand 3: Work    1901                                                                                  http://www.infoplease.com/year/1
                                                         which will become the first $1 billion
                                                                                                       901.html
    Work                                                 corporation in the world.
 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012




                        The first organ transplant in The University of Chicago Hospital
Stand 3: Work    1904                                                                                  http://www.infoplease.com/year/1
                        the U.S.                      conducts the first organ transplant in
                                                                                                       901.html
    Work                                              the U.S.
 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012




Stand 3: Work    1911   Invention of the first automobile Charles Franklin Ketterling invents the first http://about.inventors.com
                                electrical system             automobile electrical system which
    Work
                                                             implicates the expansion of business
 Business and                                                            opportunities.

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012




Stand 3: Work    1913   Patents of drug known as ecstasy Merk Chemical Company patented the drug http://about.inventors.com
                                                          known as ecstasy which indicates strong
    Work
                                                         pharmaceutical sales as a growing business
 Business and                                                            industry.

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        The League of Nations          “Held its first meeting and
Stand 3: Work    1920                                                                           http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                                                       accomplishes the rafitification of the
                                                                                                htimeline1920.html
    Work                                               Treaty of Versailles, ending the
                                                       hostilities of the first World War. Nine
 Business and
                                                       days later the United States Senate
  corporate                                            votes against joining the League.”
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        The Lincoln Memorial           “The Lincoln Memorial, located on the
Stand 3: Work    1922                                                                         http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                                                       opposite end of the National Mall from
                                                                                              htimeline1920.htm
    Work                                            the Capitol building, is dedicated
                                                    in Washington, D.C.”
 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        The Star-Spangled Banner    “The Star-Spangled Banner, by Francis
Stand 3: Work    1931                                                                       http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                                                    Scott Key, is approved by President
                                                                                            htimeline1930.html
    Work                                            Hoover and Congress as the national
                                                    anthem. The lyrics of the anthem were
 Business and
                                                    inspired during the bombing of Fort
  corporate                                         HcHenry by British ships at the head of
 philosophies                                       Baltimore harbor in September of
by decade from                                      1814.”
  1900 - 2012



                        The Civilian Conservation   “The Civilian Conservation Corps is
Stand 3: Work    1933                                                                      http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                        Corps                       authorized under the Federal
                                                                                           htimeline1950.html
    Work                                            Unemployment Relief Act. It would
                                                    provide work for two and one-half
 Business and
                                                    million men during the succeeding nine
  corporate                                         years and help construct many national
 philosophies                                       park and other projects across the
by decade from                                      United States.”
  1900 - 2012
                        The microwave oven            invented by Percy Spencer
Stand 3: Work    1946                                                                        http://www.infoplease.com/year/1
                                                                                             901.html
    Work

 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        The attack on Pearl Harbor,   “The attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii,
Stand 3: Work    1941                                                                          http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                        Hawaii                        commences at 7:55 a.m. when
                                                                                               htimeline1950.html
    Work                                              Japanese fighter planes launch a
                                                      surprise attack on United States soil,
 Business and
                                                      destroying the U.S. Pacific Fleet docked
  corporate                                           at the base.
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        The Korean War                “The Korean War begins its three year
Strand 3: Work   1950                                                                       http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                                                      conflict when troops of North Korea,
                                                                                            htimeline1950.html
 Business and                                         backed with Soviet weaponry, invade
                                                      South Korea. This act leads to U.S.
  corporate
 philosophies
                                                      involvement when two days later, the
                                                      United States Air Force and Navy are
by decade from
  1900 - 2012                                            ordered by President Truman to the
                                                         peninsula. On June 30, ground forces
                                                         and air strikes are approved against
                                                         North Korea.” .

                          Julius and Ethel Rosenberg     “Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were
Strand 3: Work   1951                                                                            http://americasbesthistory.com/ab
                                                         found guilty of conspiracy of wartime
                                                                                                         htimeline1950.html
 Business and                                            espionage and sentenced to death.
                                                         They were executed June 19, 1953.
  corporate
 philosophies
                                                         Morton Sobell was also convicted of
                                                         the crime and sentenced to thirty years
by decade from                                           in prison.”
  1900 - 2012



                          earliest work on instructional these efforts had little impact on     http://education.stateuniversity.co
Strand 3: Work   1950 -                                                                         m/pages/2495/Technology-in-
                          applications of computing      schools
                  1960                                                                          Education-SCHOOL.html
 Business and             took place
  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                          Freedom of Information Act The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
                 1966                                                                      protect/laws.php
                                                     provides individuals with access to
                                                     many types of records that are exempt
                                                     from access under the Privacy Act,
                                                     including many categories of personal
                                                    information.

                                                     The Act was amended in 1996
                                                    (Electronic Freedom of Information
                                                    Act), so that requests for information
                                                    can be made in an electronic format.



                        ARPANET, the Precursor of   ARPAnet, was created in 1969 by the
Strand 3: Work   1969                                                                     http://ecommerce.hostip.info/page
                        the Internet, Created       Advanced Research Projects Agency
                                                                                          s/614/Internet.html
 Business and                                       (ARPA) at the directive of U.S.
                                                    Department of Defense. They were
  corporate
 philosophies
                                                    looking for a way for governmental
                                                    communication in the event of nuclear
by decade from                                      war.
  1900 - 2012




Strand 3: Work   1970

 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012




                        The End of the Cold War and Growth in communications, technology
Strand 3: Work   1989                                                                     http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/l
                                                    and the growth of regional and global
 Business and               the Globalization Era       problems make knowledge of other          ist/ope/iegps/history.html
                                                        countries and the ability to
  corporate
                                                        communicate in other languages more
 philosophies
                                                        essential.
by decade from
  1900 - 2012




Strand 3: Work     1990
                                                        the ratio of computers to students has http://www.questia.com/googleSch
                                                        dropped from 1:125 in 1984 to 1:22 in olar.qst?docId=5002236621
 Business and                                           1990
  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012




                            computers for educational   After 1995, the Internet accelerated
Strand 3: Work     1990                                                                        http://www.ehow.com/info_84161
                            purposes.                   the Interest in using computers for
                                                                                                  15_technology-during-1900s-
 Business and                                           educational purposes
                                                                                                         schools.html
  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                 Lev                                    Vygotsky's theories stress the
   Strand 4                                                                                    http://www.simplypsychology.org/v
                 Vygotsky                               fundamental role of social interaction
                                                                                                         ygotsky.html
  Educational                                    in the development of cognition. He
                                                 believed strongly that community plays
   Theories
                                                 a central role in the process of "making
Strand 3: Work                                   meaning.”
 Business and

  corporate
 philosophies

by decade from
  1900 - 2012



                        “epistemology,” or the   "Education is a social process.
   Strand 4       John                                                                    http://www.iep.utm.edu/dewey/#H
                       “theory of knowledge.     Education is growth. Education is, not a
                 Dewey                                                                    2
  Educational                                    preparation for life; education is life
                                                 itself."
   Theories

Strand 3: Work                                   "The self is not something ready-made,
                                                 but something in continuous formation
 Business and
                                                 through choice of action."
  corporate
 philosophies                                    "Too rarely is the individual teacher so
                                                 free from the dictation of authoritative
by decade from
                                                 supervisor, textbook on methods,
  1900 - 2012
                                                 prescribed course of study, etc., that he
                                                 can let his mind come to close quarters
                                                 with the pupil’s mind and the subject
                                                 matter."
                                   Stage Theory of   "The principle goal of education is to
      Strand 4           Jean                                                                       http://www.piaget.org/
                                   Development)      create men who are capable of doing
                        Piaget
Educational Theories                                 new things, not simply of repeating
                       1970-1985                     what other generations have done —
  Strand 3: Work
                                                     men who are creative, inventive and
   Business and                                      discoverers"
    corporate
   philosophies

  by decade from                                     Cognitivism is a theory which attempts
                                                     to answer how and why                  www.coe.fau.edu/faculty/cafolla/course
    1900 - 2012
                                                     people learn. Jean Piaget believed     s/eme6051/cognitivism.htm
                                                     knowledge occurs in stages and grows
                                                     in complexity over time.
                           Children's Online Privacy   Congress passed the Children's Online
                  1998                                                                          https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
                           Protection Act (COPPA)      Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) to
                                                                                                protect/laws.php#coppa
                                                       protect children's personal information
                                                       from its collection and misuse by
                                                       commercial Web sites. On October 20,
                                                       1999, the Federal Trade Commission
                                                       issued a Final Rule implementing the
                                                       Act, which went into effect on April 21,
                                                       2000. COPPA requires commercial Web
                                                       sites and other online services directed
                                                       at children 12 and under, or which
                                                       collect information regarding users'
                                                       age, to provide parents with notice of
                                                       their information practices and obtain
                                                       parental consent prior to the collection
                                                       of personal information from children.
                                                       The Act further requires that such sites
                                                       provide parents with the ability to
                                                       review and correct information about
                                                       their children collected by such
                                                       services. [f

                           Constructionism             children learn best when they are in
Strand 3: Work   Seymour                                                                       http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/ite
                                                       the active role of the designer and
                  Papert                                                                       c800/finalprojects/annmariethurmo
 Business and                                          constructor. But the theory goes a step
                                                                                               nd/defconstructionism.html
                  1980                                 further. Constructionism, Papert says,
  corporate
 philosophies
                                                       adds "is the idea that this happens
                                                       especially felicitously in a context
by decade from                                         where the learner is consciously
  1900 - 2012
                                    engaged in constructing a public entity,

       Health Insurance Portability Congress created the first guarantee of
1996                                                                          https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
       and Accountability Act       a federal policy to govern the privacy of
                                                                              protect/laws.php
                                    health information in electronic form
                                    by passing the Kennedy-Kassebaum
                                    Health Insurance Portability and
                                    Accountability Act. The Act contains a
                                    section known as "Administrative
                                    Simplification," which mandates the
                                    development and adoption of
                                    standards for electronic exchanges of
                                    health information. It also requires that
                                    Congress or the Secretary of Health
                                    and Human Services develop privacy
                                    rules to govern such electronic
                                    exchanges; these rules, however, may
                                    not be in place before the electronic
                                    system is implemented. Provisions of
                                    the Act mandating the speedy
                                    development and adoption of
                                    standards for electronic exchanges of
                                    health information are troublesome
                                    given the lack of strong, enforceable
                                    laws protecting patient privacy.



       Wireless Communication and The Act required all mobile telephones
1999                                                                     https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
       Public Safety Act          created after 2000 to have the
                                               capability to map the user's location    protect/laws.php
                                               through the use of global positioning
                                               systems. The primary benefit of such a
                                               system is that it enables 9-11 operators
                                               to locate callers in distress. However,
                                               such systems also raise major privacy
                                               concerns since they allow mobile
                                               telephone users to be located at any
                                               time. The Act clarified that telephone
                                               companies' must obtain the customer's
                                               opt-in consent to collect location
                                               information in any non-emergency
                                               situation. The Act only applies to
                                               mobile telephones, and courts have
                                               not issued any ruling about other
                                               mobile devices.

                  Do-Not-Call Implementation National Do Not Call Registry
           2003                                                                         https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
                  Act of 2003                maintained by the FTC that allows
                                                                                        protect/laws.php
                                             individuals to opt out of telemarketing
                                             calls. The law applies only to residential
                                             phone lines, not businesses, and makes
                                             exceptions for callers such as political
                                             groups and charities




                  The Fair and Accurate Credit commonly known as FACTA) is
Strand 4   2003                                                                       https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
                                               designed to combat the growing
Educational Theories            Transaction Act              problem of identity theft. It allows     protect/laws.php
                                                             consumers to get a free credit report
  Strand 3: Work
                                                             from each of the three major consumer
   Business and                                              credit reporting agencies (Equifax,
    corporate
                                                             Experian, and TransUnion) every 12
   philosophies                                              months, and to place alerts on their
                                                             credit histories under certain
  by decade from
                                                             circumstances. The law also sets
    1900 - 2012
                                                             standards for the masking, sharing, and
                                                             disposal of sensitive financial data,
                                                             such as credit card numbers and Social
                                                             Security numbers. In response to
                                                             FACTA, several federal agencies crafted
                                                             joint regulations that require financial
                                                             institutions to adopt identity theft
                                                             prevention programs and take
                                                             precautionary measures when dealing
                                                             with identity theft "red flags," such as
                                                             changes of address.



                                The first teaching machine
       1934            Sydney L
                                 was invented in (1934) by
                       . Pressey
                                Sydney L. Pressey

                                Read
                                more: http://www.answers.c
                                om/topic/programmed-
                                instruction#ixzz23MU0bYIN
                                     The
2007                                       https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
       the Do-Not-Call Improvement         protect/laws.php
       Act of 2007




                                           https://www.cdt.org/privacy/guide/
                                           protect/laws.php
                            B. F. Skinner   Learning occurs when new behavior or
    Strand 4:      1938-1990                                                       http://www.cognitivedesignsolution
                                            changes in behavior are acquired as a
Education Theories           Behaviorism                                           s.com/Instruction/LearningTheory.h
                                            result of an individual's response to
                                                                                            tm#Behaviorism
   Education:                               antecedent and consequent stimuli.
Important theories                          The external environment shapes an
   of learning                              individual's behavior by presenting
and instruction by                          antecedent stimuli that prompts a
decade from 1900-                           behavior, and consequent stimuli that
       2012                                 reinforces (strengthens) the behavior.

                                            Internal processes involved in learning
                                            could not be seen directly

                                            http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.c
                                            om/Instruction/LearningTheory.htm
                            1950s that practical methods “There has been considerable            http://www.answers.com/topic/pro
    Strand 4:        1950
                            of programming were          controversy regarding the merits of     grammed-
Education Theories
                            developed.                   programmed instruction                  instruction#ixzz23MUtxLcn
   Education:
Important theories                                       Teaching machines enable students to
   of learning                                           work individually, calling for active
                                                         participation of the learner.”
and instruction by
                                                         Read
decade from 1900-
                                                         more: http://www.answers.com/topic/
       2012
                                                         programmed-
                                                         instruction#ixzz23MW5y1y9



    Strand 4:
Education Theories

   Education:
Important theories
   of learning

and instruction by
decade from 1900-
       2012




                            Robert Gagné, 1960’s         There is a scientific discipline of
    Strand 4:                                                                                    http://www.cognitivedesignsolution
                                                         instruction and a technology of
Education Theories          Cognitivism                                                          s.com/Instruction/LearningTheory.h
                                                         instructional design founded on this
                                                                                                 tm
   Education:                                            science."
Important theories
   of learning                                         "There are known instructional
                                                       strategies. The acquisition of different
and instruction by
                                                       types of knowledge and skill require
decade from 1900-
       2012
                                                       different conditions for learning."
                                                       (Gagné, Learning is a change in
                                                       knowledge stored in memory.
                                                       Information processing is governed by
                                                       an internal process — rather than
                                                       external circumstance as emphasized
                                                       by behaviorism. The process includes
                                                       selecting information (attention),
                                                       translating information (encoding), and
                                                       recalling that information when
                                                       appropriate (retrieval).


                                                       The theory is based on information
                                                       processing models that focus on the
                                                       cognitive event that happen when            http://arcmit01.uncw.edu/erg1602/Glossary.h
                              Conditions of Learning
                                                       learners are presented with a stimulus.     tml
                              Theory (1985)
                                                       Gagne’s theory is widely used in the
                                                       instructional technology field because
                                                       it can be adapted for all types of
                                                       learning environments as well as all
                                                       types of learning.

                     Jean     Stage Theory of          "The principle goal of education is to
                                                                                                  http://www.piaget.org/
                     Piaget   Development)             create men who are capable of doing
                                                       new things, not simply of repeating
                     1970-                             what other generations have done —
1985                                     men who are creative, inventive and
                                         discoverers"



                                         Cognitivism is a theory which attempts
                                         to answer how and why                  www.coe.fau.edu/faculty/cafolla/co
                                         people learn. Jean Piaget believed     urses/eme6051/cognitivism.htm
                                         knowledge occurs in stages and grows
                                         in complexity over time.




         Be sure to add the additional
  2000
         rows to reflect the remaining
         decades 1900 to present with
         2 events per decade.


  2000

         2006 – XO Laptop                The ‘One Laptop Per Child’ computer
  2010                                                                          http://edudemic.com/2011/04/clas
                                         was built so it was durable and cheap
                                                                                sroom-technology
                                         enough to sell or donate to developing
                                         countries. It’s an incredible machine
                                         that works well in sunlight, is
                                         waterproof, and much more.


  2010
                   2011


                   2011


                   2012


                   2012


                          Kodak Introduces $1 Brownie   Kodak Introduces $1 Brownie Cameras
   Strand 5        1900   Cameras                       (1900): The Brownie camera was the first   http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
                                                        cheap hand-held camera that was simple     nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
  Society and
                                                        enough for even children to use. It made
   Cultural:
                                                        photography accessible to the masses.
  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012




                          Ford Motor Company (also      “It was founded by Henry Ford and
   Strand 5        1903   known as simply Ford)         incorporated on June 16, 1903. The         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Motor
                                                        company sells automobiles and light        _Company
  Society and
                                                        commercial vehicles and is controlled by
   Cultural:
                                                        the Ford family, although they have
  Events that                                           minority ownership.”
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          The Supreme Court broke   “Standard Oil was a
   Strand 5        1911   up Standard Oil           predominant American integrated oil produ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
                                                    cing, transporting, refining, and marketing f_United_States_history
  Society and
                                                    company. Established in 1870 as a
   Cultural:
                                                    corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil
  Events that                                       refiner in the world until it was broken up
determined the                                      by the United States Supreme Court in
   thinking                                         1911.

 of each decade                                     As it grew exponentially and engaged in
from 1900 - 2012                                    business strategies, tactics and practices that
                                                    were lawful but drove many smaller
                                                    businesses under, Standard Oil became
                                                    widely criticized in the public eye, even as
                                                    it made Rockefeller the richest man in
                                                    modern history.



                          The Federal Reserve Act   “The Federal Reserve
   Strand 5        1913                             Act enacted December 23, 1913 is an Act of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Re
                                                    Congress that created and set up the Federal serve_Act
  Society and
                                                    Reserve System, the central banking system
   Cultural:
                                                    of the United States of America, and
  Events that                                       granted it the legal authority to issue
determined the                                      Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly
   thinking                                         known as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal
                                                    Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender.”
 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Personal Income Tax Introduced Personal Income Tax Introduced in U.S.       http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
    Strand 5       1913   in U.S.                        (1913): At first, income taxes were          nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                         considered a temporary tax to help raise
  Society and
                                                         money for war. The first time an income tax
   Cultural:
                                                         was enacted was in 1799 in Great Britain to
   Events that                                           help the British pay for troops and supplies
 determined the                                          to defeat the French forces led by Napoleon.
    thinking
                                                          “In the War of 1812, the U.S. first
 of each decade                                           considered enacting an income tax, but the
from 1900 - 2012                                          war ended before the tax was officially
                                                          created. Yet, during the American Civil
                                                          War, the first U.S. income tax was created,
                                                          but this one was meant only as a temporary
                                                          measure to help pay for the war. It was
                                                          repealed in 1872.”



                          World War I Begins              “World War I was an extremely bloody           http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
    Strand 5       1914                                   war, with huge losses of life and little       nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                          ground lost or won. Fought mostly by
  Society and
                                                          soldiers in trenches, World War I saw an
   Cultural:
                                                          estimated 10 million military deaths and
   Events that                                            another 20 million wounded. While many
 determined the                                           hoped that World War I would be "the war
    thinking                                              to end all wars," in actuality, the concluding
                                                          peace treaty set the stage for World War II”
      of e

each decade from
   1900 - 2012
                          Women Granted the Right to      Votes for women were first seriously         http://womenshistory.about.com/od/suff
                   1920   Vote in U.S.                    proposed in the United States in July, 1848. rage1900/a/august_26_wed.htm
                                                          In 1920 women finally won the right to
   Strand 5
                                                          vote.
  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Scopes trial                    “A trial found that the teaching of evolution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
                   1925                                   in the classroom ‘does not violate church     f_United_States_history
                                                          and state or state religion laws but instead,
                                                          merely prohibits the teaching of evolution
                                                          on the grounds of intellectual
                                                          disagreement.’”

                          The Motion Picture Production   “The Motion Picture Production Code was
   Strand 5        1930   Code                            the set of industry moral censorship
                                                          guidelines that governed the production of
  Society and
                                                          most United States motion pictures released
   Cultural:
                                                          by major studios from 1930 to 1968and
  Events that                                             abandoned it in 1968, in favor of the
determined the                                            subsequent MPAA film rating system.”
   thinking
 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012




                          Great Depression             “The Great Depression was a severe
   Strand 5        1933                                worldwide economic depression in the
                                                       decade preceding World War II. The timing
  Society and
                                                       of the Great Depression varied across
   Cultural:
                                                       nations, but in most countries it started in
  Events that                                          1930 after the passage of the United
determined the                                         States' Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill (June 17),
   thinking                                            and lasted until the late 1930s or middle
                                                       1940s. It was the longest, most widespread,
 of each decade                                        and deepest depression of the 20th century”
from 1900 - 2012



                          The Selective Training and   “This Selective Service Act required that    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_T
   Strand 5        1940   Service Act                  men between the ages of 21 and 35 register raining_and_Service_Act_of_1940
                                                       with local draft boards. Later, when the
  Society and
                                                       U.S. entered World War II, all men aged 18
   Cultural:
                                                       to 45 were made subject to military service,
  Events that                                          and all men aged 18 to 65 were required to
determined the                                         register”
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012
                              Billboard magazine published its Billboard is an international              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
       Strand 5        1940   first music popularity chart.    newsweekly magazine devoted to             f_United_States_history
                                                               the music industry, and is one of the
      Society and
                                                               oldest trade magazines in the world.
       Cultural:

      Events that
    determined the
       thinking

     of each decade
    from 1900 - 2012


                              U.S. Drops Atomic Bombs on       On August 6, 1945, the United States used a http://history1900s.about.com/od/world
       Strand 5        1945   Hiroshima and Nagasaki           massive, atomic weapon against Hiroshima, warii/a/hiroshima.htm
                                                               Japan. This atomic bomb, the equivalent of
      Society and
                                                               20,000 tons of TNT, flattened the city,
       Cultural:
                                                               killing tens of thousands of civilians. While
      Events that                                              Japan was still trying to comprehend this
    determined the                                             devastation three days later, the United
       thinking                                                States struck again, this time, on Nagasaki.

     of each decade
    from 1900 - 2012


                              World War II ends                In the European Theatre, World War II
       Strand 5        1946                                    ended in early May 1945 with the            http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php
                                                               capitulation of Nazi Germany. The “Big      ?context=va&aid=20478
      Society and
                                                               Three” on the side of the victors – Great
       Cultural:
                                                               Britain, the United States, and the Soviet
      Events that                                              Union – now faced the complex problem of
    determined the                                             the postwar reorganization of Europe.
       thinking                                                The United States had entered the war
                                                               rather late, in December 1941, and had only
     of each decade
    from 1900 - 2012                                     started to make a truly significant military
                                                         contribution to the Allied victory
                                                        over Germany with the landings
                                                         in Normandy in June 1944, less than one
                                                         year before the end of the hostilities. When
                                                         the war against Germany ended,
                                                         however, Washington sat firmly and
                                                         confidently at the table of the victors,
                                                         determined to achieve what might be called
                                                         its “war aims.”

                              First Modern Credit Card   In 1949, Frank X. McNamara thought of a
       Strand 5        1950   Introduced                 way for customers to have just one credit http://history1900s.about.com/od/1950s/
                                                         card that they could use at multiple stores. qt/creditcard.htm
      Society and
                                                         McNamara discussed the idea with two
       Cultural:
                                                         colleagues and the three pooled some
      Events that                                        money and started a new company in 1950
    determined the                                       which they called the Diners Club.
       thinking
                                                         The first Diners Club credit cards were
     of each decade                                      given out in 1950 to 200 people (most were
    from 1900 - 2012                                     friends and acquaintances of McNamara)
                                                         and accepted by 14 restaurants in New
                                                        York. The concept of the card grew and by
                                                         the end of 1950, 20,000 people were using
                                                         the Diners Club credit card. The Diners
                                                         Club credit card is considered the first
                                                         modern credit card.



                              Peace Treaty               Truman Signs Peace Treaty With Japan,          http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
       Strand 5        1951                              Officially Ending WWII                         nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
      Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012




                          Segregation Ruled Illegal in U.S. 1954 Segregation Ruled Illegal The US       http://www.historycentral.com/dates/19
   Strand 5        1954                                     Supreme Court, in the case of Brown v. the 54.html
                                                            Board of Education, ruled that segregation
  Society and
                                                            was unconstitutional. The opinion was
   Cultural:
                                                            written by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The
  Events that                                               decision was a landmark case, and
determined the                                              eventually resulted in the desegregation of
   thinking                                                 all public institutions.

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Martin Luther King Jr. Makes     King delivered it on August 28, 1963 at the http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        1963   His "I Have a Dream" Speech      Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. as nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                           part of the March on Washington for Jobs
  Society and
                                                           and Freedom. The march was a vital factor
   Cultural:
                                                           in passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  Events that                                              and the 1965 Voting Rights Act
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          U.S. Sends Troops to Vietnam   U.S. Sends Troops to Vietnam (1965): In http://history1900s.about.com/od/1960s/
   Strand 5        1965                                  response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident of qt/vietnamtroops.htm
                                                         August 2 and 4, 1964, President Lyndon B.
  Society and
                                                         Johnson, per the authority given to him by
   Cultural:
                                                         Congress in the subsequent Gulf of Tonkin
  Events that                                            Resolution, decided to escalate the Vietnam
determined the                                           Conflict by sending U.S. ground troops to
   thinking                                              Vietnam. On March 8, 1965, 3,500 U.S.
                                                         Marines landed near Da Nang in South
 of each decade                                          Vietnam; they are the first U.S. troops
from 1900 - 2012                                         arrive in Vietnam.



                          Martin Luther King Jr.         At 6:01 p.m. on April 4, 1968, civil rights http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        1968   Assassinated                   leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was hit by nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                         a sniper's bullet. King had been standing on
  Society and
                                                         the balcony in front of his room at the
   Cultural:
                                                         Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee,
  Events that                                            when, without warning, he was shot. King
determined the                                           was immediately taken to a nearby hospital
   thinking                                              but was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m.

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Kent State Shootings           On May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guardsmen http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        1970                                  were on the Kent State college campus to nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                         maintain order during a student protest
  Society and
                                                         against the Vietnam War.
   Cultural:
  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Arthur Ashe First Black Man to On July 5, 1975, Arthur Ashe became the   http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/
   Strand 5        1975   Win Wimbledon                  first black man to win Wimbledon,         07/05/july-5-1975-arthur-ashe-becomes-
                                                         defeating Jimmy Connors in a shocking     first-black-man-
  Society and
                                                         upset.
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          The Economic Recovery Tax      “Also known as the ERTA or "Kemp-Roth http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemp-
   Strand 5        1981   Act of 1981                    Tax Cut," it is a federal law enacted in     Roth_Tax_Cut
                                                         the United States in 1981. It was an act "to
  Society and
                                                         amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954
   Cultural:
                                                         to encourage economic growth through
  Events that                                            reductions in individual income tax rates.”
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012
                          The Space                       Space Shuttle Discovery is one of the        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
   Strand 5        1988   Shuttle Discovery was launched. retired orbiters of the Space Shuttle        f_United_States_history
                                                          program of NASA, the space agency of the
  Society and
                                                          United States, and was operational from its
   Cultural:
                                                          maiden flight, on August 30, 1984, until its
  Events that                                             final landing on March 9, 2011.
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                                                          “The Persian Gulf                            http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        1990                                   War codenamed Operation Desert               nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                          Storm commonly referred to as simply
  Society and
                                                          the Gulf War, was a war waged by a UN-
   Cultural:
                                                          authorized coalition force from 34 nations
  Events that             Gulf War                        led by the United States, against Iraq in
determined the                                            response to
                          Iraq invaded Kuwait.
   thinking                                               Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

 of each decade                                           The war is also known under other names,
from 1900 - 2012                                          such as the First Gulf War, Gulf War I, or
                                                          the Iraq War”



   Strand 5        1999
                                                          EgyptAir Flight 990: The first officer
  Society and                                                                                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
                                                          deliberately crashed a plane south
   Cultural:                                                                                           f_United_States_history
                                                          of Nantucket, Massachusetts, killing 217
  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          The Economic Growth and Tax “The Act made significant changes in          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_
   Strand 5        2000   Relief Reconciliation Act of several areas of the US Internal Revenue     Growth_and_Tax_Relief_Reconciliatio
                          2001 was passed              Code, including income tax rates, estate and n_Act_of_2001
  Society and
                                                       gift tax exclusions, and qualified and
   Cultural:
                                                       retirement plan rules”
  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Space Shuttle Columbia disaster Space Shuttle Columbia disaster: The Space http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shut
                   2003                                   Shuttle Columbiadisintegrated on reentry tle_Columbia_disaster
                                                          into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven
                                                          astronauts aboard.

                          Barack Obama takes the oath of He became the first African-American              http://americasbesthistory.com/abhtimel
   Strand 5        2009   office for President of the United president in the history of the nation. The   ine2000.html
                          States                             Democratic Senator from Illinois comes
  Society and
                                                             into the office on a message of Change.
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012




   Strand 5        2010

  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        2012   nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012




   Strand 5

  Society and
   Cultural:
      Events that
    determined the
       thinking

     of each decade
    from 1900 - 2012



                      
                      
                      
                       




       Strand 5

      Society and
       Cultural:

      Events that
    determined the
       thinking

     of each decade
    from 1900 - 2012


                                  Babe Ruth Makes Home-Run   http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
       Strand 5            1927   Record                     nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
      Society and
   Cultural:              BBC Founded

  Events that             The First Talking Movie, The
determined the            Jazz Singer
   thinking
                          Lindbergh Flies Solo Across the
 of each decade           Atlantic
from 1900 - 2012
                          Sacco and Venzetti Executed



                          World Trade Center Bombed         On Friday, February 26, 1993, a massive      http://www.adl.org/learn/jttf/wtcb_jttf.a
   Strand 5        1993                                     explosion occurred in the public parking     sp
                                                            garage of the World Trade Center in New
  Society and
                                                            York City. As a result of the explosion, 6
   Cultural:
                                                            persons were killed, and more than 1,000
  Events that                                               injured. The site of the blast became one of
determined the                                              the largest crime scenes in NYPD history.
   thinking                                                 Estimates showed property damage in
                                                            excess of onehalf billion dollars. The sense
 of each decade                                             of fear and panic in the city was palpable.
from 1900 - 2012                                            Indeed, many in law enforcement thought
                                                            of this investigation as the "case of the
                                                            century.

                          Channel Tunnel Opens,             On May 6, 1994, the Channel Tunnel, also
   Strand 5        1994   Connecting Britain and France     known as the Chunnel, officially opened. http://history1900s.about.com/od/1990s/
                                                            The Channel Tunnel is a set of three 31.25- qt/Channel-Tunnel-Opens.htm
  Society and
                                                            mile long tunnels that connect the island of
   Cultural:
                                                            Great Britain to the mainland of France.
  Events that                                               The Channel Tunnel, which took six years
determined the                                              and over $15 billion to construct, is
   thinking                                                 considered one of the greatest feats of
                                                            engineering of the 20th century.
 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                          Scientists Clone Sheep   Dolly, a Finn Dorset sheep, was born on       http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his
   Strand 5        1997                            July 5th, 1996, at the Roslin Institute in    135/events/dolly96/Dolly_Module.html
                                                   Edinburgh, Scotland. Her birth, not revealed
  Society and
                                                   to the public until February 3rd, 1997,
   Cultural:
                                                   sparked controversy instantly, because
  Events that                                      Dolly was the world's first mammal to be
determined the                                     cloned from an adult cell. Considered one
   thinking                                        of the most significant scientific
                                                   breakthroughs ever, Dolly's birth and
 of each decade                                    subsequent survival proved that adult cells
from 1900 - 2012                                   can reprogram themselves into a new being.
                                                   The team that created her, led by Scotsman
                                                   Ian Wilmut, hoped to create an animal
                                                   whose cells were genetically young again,
                                                   rather than prematurely adult; however,
                                                   when Dolly was reported to have been
                                                   euthanased on February 14th, 2003, nearly
                                                   six years after her birth, concern was raised
                                                   that her progressive lung disease was
                                                   caused because her cells were already old;
                                                   she also had premature arthritis. Sheep can
                                                   normally live to 11 or 12 years of age, and
                                                   lung disease is not common in younger
                                                   sheep. There was some speculation as to
                                                   whether she caught it or not from the other
                                                   sheep that she was housed with, but that
                                                   claim has been neither confirmed nor
                                                   denied.
                          Fear of Y2K Bug          While many were ready to party "like it was
   Strand 5        1999                            1999," many others predicted catastrophe at http://history1900s.about.com/od/1990s/
                                                   the end of the year from a small assumption qt/Y2K.htm
  Society and
                                                   made long ago when computers were first
   Cultural:
                                                   being programmed.
  Events that
                                                   The Y2K (Year 2000) problem existed
determined the
                                                   because most dates in computers were
   thinking
                                                   programmed to automatically assume the
 of each decade                                    date began with "19" as in "1977" and
from 1900 - 2012                                   "1988." But when the date was to turn from
                                                   December 31, 1999 to January 1, 2000, it
                                                   was prophesied that computers would be so
                                                   confused that they would shut down
                                                   completely.

                                                   Considering how much of our everyday
                                                   lives were run by computers by the end of
                                                   1999, the new year was expected to bring
                                                   serious computer repercussions. Some
                                                   doomsayers warned that the Y2K bug was
                                                   going to end civilization as we know it.



                          "ILOVEYOU" Virus Hits    Though the 1999 "Melissa" virus warned us http://history1900s.about.com/od/timeli
   Strand 5        2000   Thousands of Computers   not to open attachments, we were still    nes/tp/1930timeline.htm
                                                   unprepared for the "ILOVEYOU" virus that
  Society and
                                                   hit on May 4, 2000.
   Cultural:
                                                   It came from our friends, families, and co-
  Events that
                                                   workers. It fed our ego; we all like to be
determined the
                                                   loved.
   thinking
                                                   Just one click of the button and the virus,
 of each decade
                                                   really a worm, downloaded itself into your
from 1900 - 2012                                             computer, wiped out all of your MP3s
                                                             (music clips) and your JPGs (photographs)
                                                             and then instantaneously emailed a copy of
                                                             itself to everyone in your address book,
                                                             spreading itself faster than any other virus
                                                             to that date.

                                                             The virus was especially damaging to
                                                             networks since it just took one person to
                                                             click on the attachment in their email to
                                                             send the virus through an entire business in
                                                             seconds. In just a few days, damage from
                                                             the virus was estimated to be over $15
                                                             billion (U.S.).



                          Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a      a civil rights law that prohibits            http://nichcy.org/laws
   Strand 5        1973   civil rights law that prohibits    discrimination on the basis of disability.
                          discrimination on the basis of     Section 504 of this Act continues to play an
  Society and
                          disability. Section 504 of this    important role in education, especially for
   Cultural:
                          Act continues to play an           students with disabilities who may not
  Events that             important role in education,       qualify for special education services under
determined the            especially for students with       IDEA.
   thinking               disabilities who may not qualify
                          for special education services
 of each decade           under IDEA.
from 1900 - 2012
                   1975   IDEA—the Individuals with    IDEA was originally enacted by Congress http://nichcy.org/laws/idea
   Strand 5               Disabilities Education Act   in 1975 to ensure that children with
                                                       disabilities have the opportunity to receive a
  Society and
                                                       free appropriate public education, just like
   Cultural:
                                                       other children. The law has been revised
  Events that                                          many times over the years.
determined the
   thinking
                                                       Services for very young children, from birth
 of each decade
                                                       to the 3rd birthday (and sometimes beyond),
from 1900 - 2012
                                                       are called Early Intervention or Part C      http://nichcy.org/babies
                                                       services (so named for where they are
                                                       described in IDEA).



                                                       The education of children with disabilities
                                                       is a top national priority. Our nation’s
                                                       special education law, the Individuals with
                                                                                                                  http://nichcy.org/schoolage
                                                       Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), sets
                                                       high standards for their achievement and
                                                       guides how special help and services are
                                                       made available in schools to address their
                                                       individual needs

                                                       . IDEA is an                                  http://www.autism-society.org/living-
                                                                                                     with-autism/navigating-services/federal-
                                                       amended version of the Education for All      legislation-legal-issues.pdf
                                                       Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142),
                                                       passed in 1975.
                   1980
   Strand 5

  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                   1990
   Strand 5

  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                   2000
   Strand 5

  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                   2000
   Strand 5

  Society and
   Cultural:

  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012



                   2005   Hurricane Katrina       A hurricane devastated the            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_o
   Strand 5                                   the Louisiana, Mississippi,               f_United_States_history
                                              and Alabama coastlines killing at least
  Society and
                                              1,836 people and causing $81 billion in
   Cultural:
                                              damage.
  Events that
determined the
   thinking

 of each decade
from 1900 - 2012
                             



                             



                      2010   
     Strand 5

    Society and
     Cultural:

    Events that
  determined the
     thinking

  of each decade
 from 1900 - 2012



Strand 5              2010

Society and
Cultural:

Events that
determined the
thinking

of each decade from
1900 - 2012
Strand 6               1905   Stereoscope                      The Keystone View Company marketed
                                                               stereoscopes which are three-dimensional http://edudemic.com/2011/04/classroom
Educational                                                    viewing to schools and created images that -technology/
Legislation related                                            were meant to be used to illustrate points
to technology use in                                           made during lectures
schools



Strand 6               1907   The Morrill Acts                 Amended to add federal funding for
                                                               vocational education
Educational
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools



                       1910   National professional             “Teacher training institutions offered visual
                              organizations were established   instruction courses, and journals devoted to http://faculty.coe.uh.edu/smcneil/cuin63
                              for teachers                     visual instruction were published”             73/idhistory/before1920.html




Strand 6               1913   Edward Lee                       It describes his theory that human learning
                              Thorndike's book, Educational    involves habit formation, or connections    http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/edu
Educational                   Psychology: The Psychology of    between stimuli (or situations as Thorndike cationhistorytimeline.html
Legislation related           Learning, is published.          preferred to call them) and
to technology use in                                           responses (Connectionism)
schools
Strand 6               1913    Behaviorism and the behaviorist “John Watson coined the term
                              theory                           ‘Behaviorism’ in 1913. Behaviorism          http://www.lifecircles-
Educational                                                    assumes that behavior is observable and can inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/
Legislation related                                            be correlated with other observable events. Watson.html
to technology use in                                           There are events that precede and follow
schools                                                        behavior. Behaviorism's goal is to explain
                                                               relationships between antecedent conditions
                                                               (stimuli), behavior (responses), and
                                                               consequences (reward, punishment, or
                                                               neutral effect).

Strand 6               1920   Lusk Laws of New York, 1920- “Sen. Clayton R. Lusk led the New York
                              1923                         legislature in passing laws aimed at public-
Educational                                                school teachers. These laws required
Legislation related                                        teachers to obtain certificates of loyalty and
to technology use in                                       character from the state commissioner of
schools                                                    education. In 1923, under the leadership of
                                                           Gov. Alfred E. Smith, they were repealed”



Strand 6               1919   Wisconsin act                   “The first example in the United States of a
                                                              government policy to link service in time of http://www.tgslc.org/pdf/hea_history.pd
Educational                                                   war to an educational benefit”               f
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools
Strand 6               1930s   The New Deal                   “Funds an array of educational activities -- http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/
                                                              school construction and repairs, the hiring education/timeline
Educational                                                   of teachers, loans to school districts, and
Legislation related                                           grants to rural schools. These programs
to technology use in                                          create precedents for later permanent
schools                                                       education subsidies”



Strand 6               1939    The Office of Education        moves to the new Federal Security Agency http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/
                                                                                                       education/timeline
Educational
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools



Strand 6               1944    The Servicemen's Readjustment Enacted to pay for education costs of World
                               Act—the G.I. Bill             War II veterans. The bill is widely         http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/
Educational                                                  supported                                   education/timeline
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools



Strand 6               1946    The George Barden Act          expands vocational education subsidies
                                                                                                        http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/ae8
Educational                                                                                             .html
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools
Strand 6               1954   Brown vs. the Board of       “The 1950's saw the beginning of the
                                                                                                     http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed
                              Education                    end of school segregation. In 1954, the
Educational                                                                                          416/ae8.html
Legislation related                                        Supreme Court heard the case of
to technology use in                                       Brown vs. the Board of Education of
schools                                                    Topeka and this time ruled that it was
                                                           illegal to deny entry to a facility based
                                                           on the race.”

Strand 6               1958   The National Defense                                                   http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa
                              Education Act passed
Educational                                                provided a flood of funding in the
Legislation related
                                                           United States for audio-visual research
to technology use in
schools
                                                           under Title VII




Strand 6               1960   the Reauthorization of the    The goal is to strengthen
                                                                                                    http://www.answers.com/topic/hig
                              Higher Education Act of 1965 American colleges and universities by
Educational                                                                                         her-education-act-of-
Legislation related           (1992)                       providing financial assistance and other
                                                                                                    1965#ixzz1zzI9ieS7
to technology use in                                       resources for students pursuing
schools                                                    postsecondary and higher education



Strand 6               1964   The Civil Rights Act         “Authorizes the federal government to http://www.downsizinggovernment
                                                           aid schools and higher education      .org/education/timeline
Educational
Legislation related                                        institutions to deal with problems
to technology use in                                       related to desegregation.”
schools



Strand 6               1974   The Equal Educational           “It prohibits discrimination against
                                                                                                       http://www.answers.com/topic/equ
                              Opportunities Act (EEOA         faculty, staff and students,
Educational                                                                                            al-educational-opportunity-
Legislation related                                           including racial segregation of students
                                                                                                       act#ixzz1zz9R9jgA
to technology use in                                          and requires school district to take
schools                                                       action to overcome barriers to
                                                              students' equal participation”


Strand 6               1975   The Education for All           This act required all public          http://www.answers.com/topic/ed
                              Handicapped Children Act        schools accepting federal funds to    ucation-for-all-handicapped-
Educational
Legislation related                                           provide equal access to education and children-act#ixzz1zzH5QF6S
to technology use in                                          one free meal a day for children with
schools                                                       physical and mental disabilities



Strand 6               1984   The Carl D. Perkins             continued the affirmation of Congress http://www.answers.com/topic/hist
                              Vocational Education Act        that vocational education programs are ory-of-vocational-and-technical-
Educational
Legislation related                                           necessary to the nation's future       education#ixzz23NB2ZUBz
to technology use in
schools



Strand 6               1988                                   The "Tech Act" provided federal funds http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/
                                                              to states to develop training and     ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/atlegisla
Educational                   Technology Related
Legislation related                                           delivery systems for assistive        tion.php
                              Assistance for Individuals      technology devices and services
to technology use in
                              with Disabilities Act of 1988
schools                       (Tech Act)                    required states and territories to
                              (P.L. 100-407)                develop statewide, consumer-
                                                            responsive programs of technology-
                                                            related services for individuals with
                                                            disabilities of all ages.

                                                             defined Assistive Technology Devices
                                                            and Services and promoted the
                                                            availability and quality of AT devices
                                                            and services to all individuals, including
                                                            children.

Strand 6               1992   the Education of the Deaf Act The Education for All Handicapped
                              Amendments (1992)             Children Act (sometimes referred to
Educational
Legislation related                                         using the acronyms EAHCA or EHA, or
to technology use in                                        Public Law (PL) 94-142) was enacted by
schools                                                     the United States Congress in 1975.
                                                            This act required all public
                                                            schools accepting federal funds to
                                                            provide equal access to education and
                                                            one free meal a day for children with
                                                            physical and mental disabilities. Public
                                                            schools were required to evaluate
                                                            handicapped children and create an
                                                            educational plan with parent input that
                                                            would emulate as closely as possible
                                                            the educational experience of non-
                                                            disabled students.
Strand 6               1996   Amendment to the            the E-Rate (short for educational rate) http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED50
                              Telecommunications Act of   initiative combines features of a       4823.pdf
Educational
Legislation related           1996
                                                          distance learning program and an
to technology use in
schools
                                                          infrastructure building effort. E-Rate is
                                                          the common name for

                                                          the Universal Service Fund for Schools
                                                          and Libraries

                                                          The E-Rate program provides

                                                          discounts to libraries and schools to
                                                          help them acquire or maintain
                                                          telecommunications services.

                                                          The program is administered by the
                                                          Schools and Libraries Division (SLD) of
                                                          the Universal

                                                          Service Administrative Company, a
                                                          private, nonprofit organization.
                                                          Virtually all public and

                                                          private K-12 schools

                                                          12

                                                          are eligible to participate


Strand 6               1996                               revision of the USA's communications http://transition.fcc.gov/learnnet/
                                                          laws in more than 60 years.
Educational                   Telecommunications Act of
Legislation related           1996.                          The universal service section of this
to technology use in                                        law, Section 254, will help schools and
schools
                                                            libraries obtain access to state of the
                                                            art services and technologies at
                                                            discounted rates.

                                                            The FCC, through its decision-making-
                                                            process, shapes the policy that will
                                                            bring about this increase in access to
                                                            technology.

                                                            The Telecommunications Act of 1996
                                                            calls for a revision of the universal
                                                            service system. The revision must
                                                            expand both the base of companies
                                                            that contribute to offset
                                                            communications service rates and the
                                                            category of customers who benefit
                                                            from discounts. Schools, libraries, and
                                                            health care providers as well as
                                                            residential and rural customers will be
                                                            the primary universal service
                                                            beneficiaries.

Strand 6               1998   Assistive Technology Act of   This Tech Act amendment affirms that http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/
                              1998 (P.L. 105-394)           technology is a valuable tool that can ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/atlegisla
Educational
Legislation related                                         be used to improve the lives of         tion.php
to                                                          Americans with disabilities. It extends
                                                            the funding of the 50 states and six
technology use in
                                                            territories to develop permanent,
                                                            comprehensive, statewide programs of
schools                                                      technology-related assistance.




      Strand 6         1990   Individuals with Disabilities IDEA outlined the school district's      http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/
     Educational              Education Act, 1990 (P.L.     responsibility to provide AT to students ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/atlegisla
 Legislation related          101-476) and 1997 (P.L. 105- with disabilities.                        tion.php
to technology use in          17)
       schools




Strand 6               1991   National Literacy Act (1991)
Educational
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools

Strand 6               1992   the Education of the Deaf Act The Education for All Handicapped      http://www.answers.com/topic/ed
                              Amendments (1992)             Children Act (sometimes referred to    ucation-for-all-handicapped-
Educational
Legislation related                                         using the acronyms EAHCA or EHA, or children-act
to technology use in                                        Public Law (PL) 94-142) was enacted by
schools                                                     the United States Congress in 1975.
                                                            This act required all public
                                                            schools accepting federal funds to
                                                            provide equal access to education and
                                                            one free meal a day for children with
                                                           physical and mental disabilities. Public
                                                           schools were required to evaluate
                                                           handicapped children and create an
                                                           educational plan with parent input that
                                                           would emulate as closely as possible
                                                           the educational experience of non-
                                                           disabled students.




Strand 6               1992   the Rehabilitation Act
                              Amendments (1992)
Educational
Legislation related
to technology use in
schools

Strand 6               1991   Education Council Act         “This Act establishes: (1) a National     http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPo
                                                           Education Commission on Time and           rtal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=tr
Educational
Legislation related                                        Learning; (2) a National Writing Project   ue&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_
to technology use in                                       for teacher education in writing           0=ED341693&ERICExtSearch_Searc
schools                                                    instruction; (3) a civic education         hType_0=no&accno=ED341693
                                                           program for elementary schools; and
                                                           (4) the National Council on Education
                                                           Standards and Testing. (SLD)”

Strand 6               1993   the Rehabilitation Act and
                              Education of the Deaf Act
Educational
Legislation related           Technical Amendments
to technology use in          (1993)
schools
Strand 6               1994   Educate America Act (1994   “The Goals 2000: Educate America Act http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/iss
                                                          provides resources to states and     ues/envrnmnt/stw/sw0goals.htm
Educational
Legislation related                                       communities to ensure that all
to technology use in                                      students reach their full potential.
schools
                                                          The Act codified in law the six original
                                                          education goals concerning school
                                                          readiness, school completion, student
                                                          academic achievement, leadership in
                                                          math and science, adult literacy, and
                                                          safe and drug-free schools. It added
                                                          two new goals encouraging teacher
                                                          professional development and parental
                                                          participation.“



Strand 6               1994   the School-to-Work          “This act is designed to facilitate the http://ada.ky.gov/stw_opp_act.htm
                              Opportunities Act (1994)    creation of a universal, high quality
Educational
Legislation related                                       school-to-work transition system.
to technology use in                                      These systems are to provide all
schools                                                   students with opportunities to
                                                          participate in programs that integrate
                                                          school- and work-based learning,
                                                          vocational and academic education,
                                                          and secondary and postsecondary
                                                          education.”
Strand 6               1994   the Improving America's       of 1994 was a major part of               http://www.answers.com/topic/im
                              Schools Act (1994             the Clinton administration's efforts      proving-america
Educational
Legislation related                                         to reform education. It was signed in
                                                                                                      -s-schools-act-of-
to technology use in                                        the gymnasium of Framingham High
                                                                                                      1994#ixzz1zzFPWpoU
schools                                                     School (MA). It reauthorized
                                                            the Elementary and Secondary
                                                            Education Act of 1965.




Strand 6               2000   Federal Children’s Internet   Addresses the Internet and offensive      http://www.fcc.gov/guides/children
                              Protection Act (CIPA)         material accessibility on school and      s-internet-protection-act
Educational
Legislation related                                         library computers
to technology use in
schools

Strand 6               2000   America 2000 Excellence in Addresses the Internet and offensive         http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-
                              Education Act              material accessibility on school and         bin/bdquery/D?d102:3:./temp/~bss
Educational
Legislation related                                      library computers                            JxpJ:@@@L&summ2=m&#summar
to technology use in                                                                                  y
schools
                                                            “AMERICA 2000 Excellence in Educatio
                                                            n Act - Title I: New American Schools -
                                                            Authorizes financial assistance for
                                                            creating New American Schools
                                                            (NAS) in communities that have been
                                                            designated AMERICA 2000 Communitie
                                                            s (A2Cs)”
Strand 6               2001   'Enhancing Education        The goal is to make sure that every         http://www.burke.k12.ga.us/educat
                              Through Technology Act of   student, regardless of family income,       ion/dept/deptinfo.php?sectiondetai
Educational
Legislation related           2001' (E2T2)                ethnicity, geographic location, gender,     lid=16599&PHPSESSID=15ac02acc1
to technology use in                                      or disability is technologically literate   5fe1bfd6774ff78b1e3594
schools                                                   by eighth grade.

Strand 6               2002   No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Reauthorization of the Elementary and http://www.learningpt.org/pdfs/qk
                                                          Secondary Education Act               ey3.pdf
Educational
Legislation related
                                                           emphasizes leveraging the power of
to technology use in
schools
                                                          technology in all areas of K-12
                                                                                                      http://www.neirtec.org/products/t
                                                          education
                                                                                                      echbriefs/index_html.asp
                                                          The "No Child Left Behind" law requires
                                                          states to give students in grades 3-8 an
                                                          annual test in reading and math. In 10 http://www.answers.com/topic/no-
                                                          years, all students are to test as       child-left-behind#ixzz1zzEbaGii
                                                          "proficient"




Strand 6               2004   the Individuals with        “Promotes accountability for results, http://www.ideapartnership.org/in
                              Disabilities Education      parent involvement, uses proven        dex.php?option=com_content&vie
Educational
Legislation related                                       practices and materials, provides more w=section&id=23&Itemid=77
                              Improvement Act of 2004     flexibility, and reduces paperwork
to technology use in
schools                       (IDEA 2004)                 burdens for teachers, states and local
                                                          school districts”
Strand 6               2007   America Competes Act         In the spring and summer of 2007,       http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R
                                                           some of the major STEM education        L33434.pdf
Educational
Legislation related                                        legislative proposals were combined
to technology use in
schools
                                                           “The provisions of The America
                                                                                                    http://www.answers.com/topic/am
                                                           COMPETES Act of 2007 covered a wide
                                                                                                    erica-competes-act
                                                           range of activities of a great number of
                                                           federal agencies and offices and in
                                                           many places, the Act mandates that
                                                           each agency cooperate with its partner
                                                           agencies and offices, and it calls
                                                           attention to the importance of high-
                                                           risk, high-reward research in areas of
                                                           critical national need.”




Strand 6               2009   The American Recovery and    Allocated $650 million to educational     http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED50482
                              Reinvestment Act, widely     Technology. Funding has been designated 3.pdf
Educational                   known as the 2009 economic   for 21st century classrooms and other new
Legislation related           stimulus                     technologies
to technology use in
schools

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:5/19/2013
language:English
pages:71
yaofenji yaofenji
About