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Motivation

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					Motivation

                Presentation
                    By
                RTI, Jammu




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          Session Overview
     In dealing with employees, an intangible factor of
will or freedom of choice is introduced and employees
can increase or decrease their productivity as they
choose. This human quality gives rise to the need for
positive motivation. An employee’s performance can be
defined as being determined by the interaction between
ability and motivation:
     Performance=Ability x Motivation
     The first(Ability) determines what he can do, the
second (Motivation)determines what he will do.
Therefore motivation is the key element in
management of employees .It is of utmost importance.
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        Learning Objective
By the end of this session ,the learner
 will be able to understand the need for
 motivating employees to perform to
 the best of their ability and various
 methods which supervisors should use
 for keeping the employees positively
 motivated.

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             Basic Concepts
• Motivation is the consequence of an interaction
  between the individual and the situation.
  People who are “motivated” exert a greater
  effort to perform than those who are ‘not
  motivated’.
• Motivation is the willingness to do something.
  It is conditioned by this action’s ability to
  satisfy some need for the individual

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     Motivational process
Unsatisfied need

Tension

Drives

Search behaviour

Goal achievement

Need satisfaction

Reduction of tension



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            Definition
Motivation is a process which begins
with a physiological or psychological
need or deficiency which triggers
behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a
goal or an incentive.


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       Types of Motives

• Primary Motives

• General Motives

• Secondary Motives
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           Primary Motives
•   Hunger
•   Thirst
•   Clothing
•   Sleep
•   Maternal concern

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           General Motives
• Motives which can not be termed primary
  or secondary
• Primary needs try to reduce the tension or
  stimulation whereas the general need
  induces the individual to enhance the
  amount of stimulation.
• Also called stimulus motives-Love ,concern
  and affection.

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       Secondary Motives

• Learned drives become secondary
  motives
• Includes
Curiosity
Manipulation

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      Achievement drive

The desire of an individual to
perform in terms of a particular
standard of excellence or the desire
to be successful in competitive
situations.

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Specific characteristics of a high
            achiever
• Takes moderate risks.
• Prefers immediate feedback
• Derives satisfaction on the successful
  accomplishment of a task
• Has total concentration or
  preoccupation with the assigned task

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      Theories of Motivation

Some important theories:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Mcclelland’s Achievement Motivation
 Theory
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory
Expectancy Theory

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    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
              Theory
     Works on the assumption that the
  behaviour of individuals at a particular
  moment is usually determined by their
  strongest need.
 Based on hypothesis that within every
  human being there exists a hierarchy of five
  needs.

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    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
          Theory(contd)
Five needs:
 1. Physiological : Basic needs of hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and
    other body needs.
   2.     Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional
    harm
   3.    Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
   4.     Esteem: Need for both self esteem(self respect, autonomy and
    achievement) and external esteem (status, recognition and attention)
   5.     Self-actualization the drive to become what one is capable of
    becoming: includes growth, achieving one’s potential, self fulfillment.


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Mcclelland’s Achievement Motivation
              Theory

 Based on recognition of three needs in
 work-place situations:
 Need for achievement
 Need for affiliation
 Need for power

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Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
            theory
 Based on the conclusion that people have
 two different categories of needs:
•o    Hygiene factors
•o     Motivating factors



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       Expectancy Theory
This theory argues that the strength of
a tendency to act in a certain way
depends on the strength of an
expectation that the act will be
followed by a given outcome and on
the attractiveness of the outcome to the
individual. It includes three variables:

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          Expectancy Theory

• 1.      Attractiveness: the importance that
  the individual places on the potential
  outcome or reward that can be achieved on
  the job. This considers the unsatisfied needs
  of the individual.
• 2.      Performance-reward linkage: the
  degree to which the individual believes that
  performing at a particular level will lead to
  the attainment of each job outcome
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          Expectancy Theory

• 3.     Effort –performance linkage: the
  perceived probability by the individual that
  exerting a given amount of effort will lead
  to performance.




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   MBO approach to Motivation
• System of management that emphasizes on a
  particular set of goals that are tangible,
  verifiable and measurable.
• It is the method by which managers and
  employees jointly set goals for work
  performance and personal development,
  periodically evaluate the employee’s progress
  towards achieving these goals and integrating
  of individual, team, departmental and
  organizational goals.
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      Management by Objective
             process
•   Goal setting
•   Subordinate participation
•   Implementation
•   Performance appraisal and
    feedback

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Motivation programmes for
        employees
                  Monetary
                  Incentives
                 (Not so relevant
                  for Government
                  employees)

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Motivation programmes for
        employees


                 Non Financial
                  Motivation
                  Programmes

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   Non Financial Motivation
        Programmes
• Employee recognition programmes
• Employee involvement
  programmes
• Employee participation
• Job enrichment and job excitement
• Delegation
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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
                 Reward risk
                  taking instead
                  of risk
                  avoiding


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How to convert risk avoiders into
          risk takers?
Teach people that intelligent errors
 are part of the cost of progress.
Use yourself as an example.
Celebrate both successes and
 setbacks.
Encourage smart risks, not foolish
 chances
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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
                       Reward
                       creativity
                       instead of
                       mindless
                       conformity

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  How to create a climate to
   encourage new ideas?
• Tolerate failure
• Create a relaxed informal work
  environment
• Encourage competition

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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
                  • Reward
                    decisive
                    action instead
                    of paralysis
                    by analysis

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 Helpful tips for taking effective
            decisions
• Write down the decision you have to make
  as clearly and simply as you can and set a
  deadline for making it
• If you need to further analyse alternatives,
  use the balance-sheet approach
• Obtain the best information you can within
  the time-limits.
• Take action, or reward those who do
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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
              • Reward
                smart work
                instead of
                busy work

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    How to convert actors into
           producers?
• Make sure to have the right person
  for the job
• Define each job’s limits.
• Beware of proceduritis
• If people have finished their work, let
  them go home

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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
                       Reward
                       simplification
                       instead of
                       needless
                       complication

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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
                       Reward quietly
                       effective
                       behaviour
                       instead of
                       squeaking
                       joints
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    How to encourage effective
             behaviour
• Seek quiet employees and
  resolve to spend time
  encouraging and rewarding
  them.
• Keep alert for squeaking joints
  and do not oil them
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        Qualities of dependable
               employees
      They are rarely, if ever, absent.
       They work well under pressure
       They consistently turn out high-quality work on
       time
       They do not constantly pester others for advice and
       guidance.
  •   They are so quiet and unassuming that one hardly
      knows they are there except for their good work.
       They produce many more answers than problems.

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Strategies for Motivating
      subordinates
               Reward
               working
               together
               instead of
               working
               against
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     How to build good teams?
Create self managed work teams and ensure
 that:
 Each team is assigned a significant piece of work
 Work environment is arranged to foster plenty of
  communication and interaction between members
  of the team
 Jobs should be made interdependent


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                  Remember
      Six important words are “ I admit I made a
    mistake”
      Five important words are” You did a good
    job”
      Four important words are “ What is your
    opinion?”
      Three important words are “Let’s work
    together.”
      Two most important words are “ Thank you”
      Single most important word is ”WE”.
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Thank you

         Be a good
          motivator


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