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					                 †e³vkx mywdev`: GKwU ch©v‡jvPbv
                                                                       W. bvRgyj Avnmvb KwjgDjøvn 1
                                                                        W. G.‡K.Gg. wiqvRyj nvmvb 2
                                                                                  Rvjvj DwÏb iægx 3

f~wgKv
Bmjv‡gi wØZxq e„nËg m¤cÖ`vqwU nj wkqv| wkqv‡`i g‡Z, wek¦ bex nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) Gi cwievi I
Avn‡j-evBZ Gi gv‡SB Cgvg‡Zi mKj `vwqZ¡ Ac©b Kiv n‡q‡Q| Cgv‡gi mv‡_ Avjøvni Ava¨vwZ¡K m¤úK©
we`¨gvb| ‡mKvi‡Y Zviv Avjøvni evYxi cÖPviK I gvby‡li ivR‰bwZK cwiPvjbvKvix| wkqv‡`i g‡Z, nhiZ
Avjx (iv.) n‡jb Giƒc cÖ_g Cgvg| wkqv cš’vmg~n Aej¤^b K‡i †hme gZev` ev ZwiKvi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q Zb¥‡a¨
Av‡jfx, Kyevi&Bq¨v, b~ieK&kx, I‡f‡qmx, wKwRjevmx, nvgv`vbx Ges dv‡Zgx I †e³vkx ZwiKv Ab¨Zg| GQvov
wmwiqvq WªyR I AvjvIqvBUm&‡`i †`Lv hvq, hviv wkqv Abymvix| †e³vkxivI (Bektashi) Giƒc GKwU mywd
ZwiKv| GB ZwiKvi D‡b¥l N‡U ·qv`k kZ‡K ZrKvjxb Ava¨vZ¦ev`x cÖL¨vZ mvaK nvRx †e³vk †fjx ev
Iqvjxi w`K-wb‡`k©bvq| wZwb Bmjvgx, L„óxq, wkqv, mybœx I mywd Z‡Ë¡i mswgkªY NwU‡q †h Abb¨ avivi Rb¥
†`b, †mwU cieZx©Kv‡j Zvui bv‡gB cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i| cvkvcvwk, GB bZzb ZwiKvq wZwb wbR¯^ wKQz ixwZ-
bxwZ, AvPvi-Abyôvb Pvjy K‡ib hvi d‡j Ab¨vb¨ ZwiKv ‡_‡K GwU ¯^vZš¿¨ AR©b K‡i| Gi cÖwZdjb Avgiv
AZx‡Z Imgvbxq Lwjdv‡`i Dci †`L‡Z cvB| cÖK„Zc‡ÿ Imgvbxq mzjZvb‡`i gva¨‡gB G ZwiKvi wkÿvmg~n
M„nxZ I jvwjZ-cvwjZ n†qwQj| weMZ kZvãxi w`‡K bRi w`‡j Avgiv Zv‡`i cÖfve-cÖwZcwË Abyfe Ki‡Z
cvwi †mLvbKvi we`¨gvb Ab¨vb¨ mywd aviv¸‡jvi gv‡S †hgb ivwdÕqv, Kvw`ixqv, mv`xÕm, †ZbvwRm, †gjvwgm,
¸‡jwbm, K¨vj‡fwUm, wmbvBm, †gf‡jwf I bK&kew›`‡`i wewfbœ kvLvq| GQvov eZ©gvb Avj‡ewbqv I K‡mv‡fv
cÖf„wZ A‡j ‡h mywd ZwiKvmgzn cÖmvi jvf K‡i‡Q, Zv‡`i Dci Gi cÖfve †`Lv hvq| e¯‘Zt, †mmgq mgMÖ
ejKvb GjvKv Ry‡oB Zv‡`i Dcw¯’wZ weivRgvb| hv mywbœ m¤úª`vq Abym„Z mywd avivmg~n †_‡K m¤ú~Y© wfbœiƒ‡c
cÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj| Ab¨w`‡K, wØZxq wek¦hy‡×vËi mg‡q Avj‡ewbqv †_‡K †e³vkx AbzivMx evev †i·‡Re
wbh©vwZZ I wbe©vwmZ n‡q Av‡gwiKvq AvkÖq †bb| †mLv‡b wZwb 1954 mv‡j, †WUª‡qU A½iv‡R¨i Ô†UBjiÕ
bvgK ¯’v‡b cÖ_g Avj‡ebxqÑAv‡gwiKvb †e³vkx †ZwK ev cÖv_©bvM„n ¯’vcb K‡ib I ZwiKvwU‡K AvšÍR©vwZK
gÛ‡j cwiwPZ I cwie¨vß K‡i †Zv‡jb| hv‡nvK, eZ©gvb cÖe‡Ü mywdev‡`i mvaviY cwiwPwZ, nvwR †e³vk
Iqvjxi `k©b I gigxev`, ‡e³vkx mywdev‡`i ˆewkó¨, ‡e³vkx mywd ZwiKvi D™¢e I weKvk, ‡e³vkx wPšÍv‡PZbv
I Abykxjb, ‡e³vkxev‡`i Aa¨vZ¥ ¯Íi, Ab¨vb¨ ZwiKvi Ici †e³vkxev‡`i cÖfve Ges m‡e©vcwi †e³vkx
ZwiKvi g~j¨vqb Kivi cÖqvm Pvjv‡bv n‡q‡Q|

mywdev‡`i mvaviY cwiwPwZ

Bmjv‡g gigxev`‡K mywdev` ejv nq| cÖK„Zc‡ÿ GwU †Kvb gZev` bq eis agx©q wPšÍvi GKwU we‡kl c×wZ|
Avjøvni wbKU mvwe©K AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi cÖeYZv n‡Z GwUi D™¢e| Bmjv‡gi Ab¨vb¨ ÔgZÕ mg~‡ni g‡Zv mywdev`I
†KviAvb I nv`x‡mi Dci wfwË K‡i MwVZ| mywdev` n‡”Q Avjøvni †cÖg I a¨v‡bi Dci wbf©i K‡i M‡o DVv
GK ai‡bi wPšÍb I Abyf~wZ| Avjøvni wbKU gvby‡li e¨w³MZ Avkv-AvKv•Lv, cÖZ¨ÿ Av‡e`b-wb‡e`b Ges Zvi
cÖwZ Mfxi Abyf~wZB gb¯ÍvwË¡Kfv‡e mywdev‡`i g~j myi I †PZbv| mywdev`xiv Bmjv‡gi g~j Abykvmbmg~n †g‡b
P‡jb| Aek¨ Zviv mKj †ÿ‡Î wkqv-mybœx‡`i g‡Zv wbqgKvbyb ‡g‡b P‡jb bv| G‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡`i Cgvg, ¸iæ ev
gyiwk` Z_v †bZv‡K AbymiY Kiv‡KB Zviv cÖvavb¨ w`‡q _v‡Kb| GB Cgvg ev †bZv RbM‡Yi Øviv wbev©wPZ bb
eis Zvuiv Avjøvn KZ…©K AbyMÖncÖvß GKRb kvmK I wkÿK| wZwb Bmjv‡gi K‡Vvi †hŠw³K I eyw×e„wËK

1
  cÖ‡dmi, ‡jvK cÖkvmb wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv|
2
  Aa¨vcK (ivóªweÁvb), wewmGm mvaviY wkÿv|
3
  b¨vkbvj fjvw›Uqvi, Rvwbcc|
                                                       1
w`K¸‡jv‡K ¯^Mx©q Áv‡bi gva¨‡g gvby‡li Kv‡Q mnR‡eva¨ K‡i Zz‡j a‡ib| mywdiv Bmjvg‡K eySvi †Póv K‡ib
Ava¨vZ¡ ev inm¨gq Dcv‡q hv‡Z e¨w³i mv‡_ mªóvi mivmwi m¤úK© ¯’vwcZ nq| Avjøvn †h GKgvÎ mËv, Zvi
mgKÿ Avi †Kvb mËv †bB - GwU cÖ‡Z¨K gymjgvbB AeMZ| wKš‘ mywdiv Zv ïay wek¦v‡mi ch©v‡q mxwgZ bv
†i‡L PzovšÍ cwibwZi w`‡K wb‡q hvb| GwU Áv‡bi †mB w`‡Ki cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i hv ü`q †_‡K ü`‡q cwievwnZ
nq| G n‡”Q Abyf~wZ I a¨v‡bi Dci wbf©ikxj cÖZ¨ÿ I ¯^ÁvRvZ Ávb ev Mfxi Abya¨v‡b wbgMœ GKRb e¨w³
gvby‡li AbycÖvwYZ gyn~‡Z© AwR©Z GKcÖKvi Ávb| Mfxi a¨vbgMœ Ae¯’vq GKRb mywd mvaK G Ava¨vwZ¥K †R¨vwZ
jvf K‡ib| GB †R¨vwZi mvnv‡h¨ wZwb m‡Z¨i AšÍ©wbwnZ Zvrch© Ae‡jvKb K‡ib| e¨w³MZ AwfÁZv Ges
AvZ¥vbykxj‡bi gva¨‡gB GB ¯Í‡i †cŠQv‡bv m¤¢e| mywdev‡`i †mŠag~j †KviAvb I nvw`m ØvivI mgw_©Z| Avjøvn
e‡jb : Òejyb (Zv‡`i‡K) †Zvgiv hw` Avjøvn‡K fvjevm, Avgv‡K AbymiY Ki, Avjøvn †Zvgv‡`i
fvjevm‡eb|Ó (3 : 30) ; Òhviv wek¦vm K‡i, Avjøvni cÖwZ i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i AwZwi³ fvjevmv|Ó (2 : 165) ;
bex (mv.) e‡jb, Ò‡h fvjev‡m bv Zvi Cgvb †bB|Ó; Òhv‡K †m fvjev‡m, gvbyl Zvi mv‡_B Av‡Q|Ó ZvB
Avjøvni ivm~j, mvnvex, Zv‡eqx, Zv‡e-Zv‡eqxb‡`i ci ci mywd‡`i Ae¯’vb|

mywd k‡ãi DrcwË wb‡q A‡bK gZwe‡iva i‡q‡Q| Avnj-Avj-myd&dv ev Avmnve-B- myd&dv kãwU bex (mv.)-
Gi mgq gw`bvi gmwR` msjMœ Ae¯’vbiZ msmvi wbwj©ß e¨w³eM©‡K eySv‡Z e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv e‡j A‡b‡K g‡b
K‡ib| 4 Avevi Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡Z, Ômvdd AvDqvjÕ mvjv‡Z `Ûvqgvb gywgbM‡Yi cÖ_g KvZvi A‡_© kãUv
e¨eüZ| wKsev mywdqv (we‡kvwaZ) cÖf„wZ A‡_© kãwU e¨envi n‡q‡Q| A‡b‡Ki g‡Z, mywd kãwU G‡m‡Q mvdv
(cweÎZv) n‡Z| Avevi A‡b‡Ki g‡Z, mvd (c`ex) n‡Z mywd k‡ãi DrcwË n‡q‡Q| Avevi Kv‡iv g‡Z, Ômy&bœvnÕ
n‡Z mywd k‡ãi DrcwË N‡U‡Q| Z‡e AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z, mywd kãwU ÔmydÕ n‡Z G‡m‡Q, hvi A_©- ckg ev
ck‡gi ‰Zix Rvgv Kvco, K¤^j, †cvlvK cÖf„wZ| H mg‡q hviv ckgx †cvkvK cwiavb Ki‡Zb Zv‡`i‡K
mvaviY g‡b Kiv nZ| GQvovI mywd‡`i RxebaviY cªwµqv wQj LyeB mvaviY| Zviv ˆelwqK welq-Avkq mg~n
‡_‡K m¤ú~Y© wew”Qbœ wQ‡jb, ZvB Zv‡`i mywd ejv nq|

mywdev`x‡`i g‡a¨ `ywU aviv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| cÖ_g avivi mywdiv cÖavbZ Hkx mËvi Dcjw× welq wb‡qB RwoZ
_v‡Kb Ges wb‡R‡`i‡K Avn‡j-Avj-nv° (m‡Z¨i Abymvix) e‡j AwfwnZ K‡ib| Avjøvni †cÖg I a¨v‡b Zvuiv
wb‡R‡`i‡K DrmM© K‡ib| Avi wØZxq avivi mywdMY wewfbœ Af¨šÍixY I ewntkw³i cÖfv‡e cÖ_‡gv³ fveavivi
mv‡_ GK ai‡bi giwg `k©‡bi mswgkÖY NUv‡bvi ‡Póv K‡ib hv ‰ewk‡ó¨i w`K w`‡q me©‡Lv`vev`x| GB avivi
mywd mvaKMY Zuv‡`i wkÿvi g‡a¨ wewfbœ we‡`kx Ges A‰bmjvwgK Dcv`v‡bi mswgkªY NUvb| ‡Mvouvcš’x‡`i
(Orthodox) gZvbyhvqx Bmjvg ‡_‡KB mywdev‡`i DrcwË N‡U‡Q| cÖ_gw`‡K †KejgvÎ Bw›`ªq msh‡gi Dci
wfwË K‡i mywdev` MwVZ nq| Ab¨vb¨‡`i g‡Z, wnRix wØZxq kZvãxi ci ‡_‡K wLªó, †eŠ×, Zvwš¿K, ‰Rb, be¨-
†cø‡Uvev` Ges Ab¨vb¨ `vk©wb‡Ki wPšÍvaviv ‡_‡K Gi D™¢e N‡U| 5

gwnDwÏb Bebyj Avivex (g„Zy¨ 638 wnRwi: 1240 wLª.) †¯ú‡bi GKRb weL¨vZ mywd mvaK| Zvui g‡a¨ cÖ_g
me©‡k¦iev` myk„•Lj avivq cÖKvk jvf K‡i| ·qv`k kZvãx‡Z GB cÖeYZvwU evqwh` †ev¯Í&vwgi g‡a¨ †`Lv
†M‡jI Bebyj AvivexB c~Y©v½ me©‡k¦iev`x gZev` cÖPvi K‡ib| Zuvi gZev` ÔIqvn`vZ-Avj-DRy`Õ bv‡g
cwiwPZ| cieZ©x‡Z cÖ‡Z¨K mywd mvaKB †Kvb bv †Kvbfv‡e Bebyj Avivexi Øviv cÖfvweZ n‡q‡Qb| cvi‡m¨i
†gŠjvbv RvjvjzwÏb iæwgI (1202-1270 wLªóvã) Zvui Øviv Mfxifv‡e cÖfvevwš^Z n‡qwQ‡jb| †gŠjvbv iæwgi
iwPZ ÒgmbweÓ we‡k¦i giwg BwZnv‡mi GK Abe`¨ m„wó| ZvQvovI cvi‡m¨i cieZ©x mywd‡`i g‡a¨ BivwK,
mvwe¯Ívwi, Kvkvwb, Avj wRwj IRvwg cÖgyL Ab¨Zg|




4
  Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, A History of Sufism in India, Volume-1, New Delhi: Munshiram
Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2003, P. 21.
5
  nvwjg, †gvt Avãyj. gymwjg `k©b: †PZbv I cÖevn, 1998, evsjv GKv‡Wwg, XvKv, c„. 87-112|
                                                2
mywdev‡`i g~j wbhv©m Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq mËvi GKZ¡ ÔIqvnv`vZ Avj DRy`Õ Z‡Ë¡ A_v©r me RvqMvq Avjøvn
Av‡Qb, cÖ‡Z¨KwU e¯ÍyB Avjøvn| mywdev‡`i g‡Z G wbhv©m †Kv‡bv A‰bmjvwgK e¨vcvi bq, eis ‡mwU Avjøvni
Avj-nK¡ (mZ¨ mËv) bvg †_‡K D™y¢Z| AvjøvnB GKgvÎ cigmËv Ges Zvi mgKÿ Avi †Kvb mËv †bB| mKj
mywd mva‡Ki jÿ¨ n‡”Q mªóvi g‡a¨ wb‡R‡K wejxb K‡i †`qv| KviY, AšÍ‡ii AšÍt¯’j †_‡K Zvu‡`i wek¦vm:
AvjøvnB n‡”Qb GKgvÎ cÖK…Z mËv, Aewkó me n‡”Q ZvuiB g~Z© cÖKvk gvÎ| cybivq, †cÖg n‡”Q mywdev‡`i g~j
m~i| fw³ I †cÖ‡gi Wvbvq P‡o mywdMY mËvi m‡ev©”P wkL‡i Av‡ivn‡Yi ‡Póv K‡ib| wbwðZfv‡eB, GB †cÖg
weï× I LvwU, wbt¯^v_© I ¯^v_©k~b¨| 6 GRb¨ mywdiv mei, wRK&i, ZvIqv°zj (fimv ev wbfi©Zv) Zvqv‡¾&vn
(ci‡jŠwKK jÿ¨ w¯’i Kiv), ÿgv, `qv, gvqv, `vbkxjZv, mnbkxjZv, J`vh©¨ cÖf„wZ ¸Y AvqË¡ K‡ib| 7

‡e³vkx mywdev`

‡e³vkxiv n‡jb GKw`‡K K‡Vvi Zcm¨vKvix, Avjøvn I ‡cÖ‡gi c‡_i Abymvix, Ab¨w`‡K cy‡ivwnZZš¿, fÛvgx I
†Muvovgx we‡ivax GKwU ZwiKv hv mve©Rbxb åvZ…Z¡ I bvix‡`i mgAwaKv‡i wek¦vmx| ‡mBmv‡_, Zvuiv cvwievwiK
†mŠnv`¨© bó K‡i Giƒc Mwn©Z Kv‡RiI ‡Nviwe‡ivax| ‡e³vkx‡`i BwZnvm h‡_ó DrmyK¨Õc~Y©, †hgb- Lªxôvb‡`i
Avwe©fv‡ei ciciB Zv †ivgvb mvgªv‡Ri mv‡_ wg‡k hvq, †Zgwb †e³vkx‡`i D™¢‡ei ciciB Zv ZzwK©
mvgªvR¨ev‡`i mv‡_ Rwo‡q c‡o| GKBfv‡e whïL„ó †hiƒc Bû`x RvZxqZvev‡`i Pig kÎæ‡Z cwibZ n‡q
c‡owQ‡jb, †e³vk IqvjxI †Zgwbfv‡e †mjRyK we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡b memgq †mv”Pvi wQ‡jb| 8

nvRx ‡e³vk Iqvjx ev †fwj (1209-1271) wQ‡jb Abb¨ ‰ewk‡ó¨i AwaKvix GKRb mywd, ågY wccvmy Zc¯^x,
`i‡ek I K…”QeªZx| wZwb cvi‡m¨i (eZ©gvb Bivb) wbmvcy‡i 1209 mv‡j Rb¥ MÖnY K‡ib| 9 W.nvwg` AjMvi I
cÖ‡dmi G. †Mvjwcbv©wj Gi g‡Z I Zuvi Rxeb DcvL¨vb Abyhvqx, nvRx †e³v‡ki Rb¥ DËi-c~e©vÂjxq Bivb I
cwðg AvdMvwb¯Ív‡bi ga¨eZ©x ‡Lvivmvb kn‡i| 10 †e³vk wQ‡jb mywd Avn‡g` Bqvmvexi Abymvix whwb 1166
mv‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| Kw_Z Av‡Q, Zuvi Ava¨vwZ¡K ¸iæi wb‡`©k Abyhvqx 1281 mv‡j wZwb Zuvi wbR f~wg †Q‡o
evBRv›UvBb Avbv‡Zvwjqvq P‡j Av‡mb| H mgq †gv½jiv †mjRyK mvjZvbvZ `Lj K‡i Zv‡`i †kl wPýUzKz
gy‡Q †`q| wZwb Bivb †_‡K BivK, AvdMvwb¯Ívb Ny‡i Zzi‡¯‹ G‡m Kv¤úv‡Wvwmqvi ÔwKiwkqviÕ MÖv‡g Avkªq †bb
Ges ÔmyjyKzKviv‡nvKÕ G ¯’vqx nb| GwU wQj evBRv›UvBb mg‡q cjxq (†m›U cj) `k©b PP©vi †K›`ª| ‡m mgq
Avbv‡Zvwjqv wQj ‡gv½j‡`i wbqš¿‡Y, †mLv‡b mvgvwRK-A_©‰bwZK msKU, ivR‰bwZK ÿgZv MÖn‡Yi Rb¨
cÖwZ‡hvwMZv PjwQj| H mgq wZwb †mLv‡b Zuvi `k©b cÖPvi ïiæ K‡ib| Zuvi mvg¨ev`x I gvbeZvev`x `k©b H
mg‡qi L„óvb a‡g©i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †K›`ª Kv¤úv‡Wvwmqv ch©šÍ cÖmvi jvf K‡i| 11 A‡bK m~Îg‡Z, wZwb wQ‡jb nhiZ
gynv¤§` (mv.) Gi eks™¢~Z wkqv‡`i mßg Bgvg gymv Avj-KvwR‡gi eskai, hvi gva¨‡g bex Kwig (mv.) Gi
mv‡_ Zuvi m¤úK© cÖgvwYZ nq|


6
  †gvt Avãyj nvwjg, gymwjg `k©b: †PZbv I cÖevn, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv, 1998, c„. 87-112|
7
   Imtiaz Ahmed, Sufis & Sufism: A closer look at the journey of Sufis to Bangladesh, Middle
East Institute, Singapore, July 2010, P. 6-8.
8
   Anthony Weir, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, http://www.beyond-the-
pale.co.uk/albanian4.htm, retrieved on 6 March, 2012.
9
  http://books.google.ca/books?id=apq1Go2OzoC&pg=PA143&lpg=PA143&dq=haji+bektash
+vali+persian&source=bl&ots=YsCl5O7Qxq&sig=EDVf_qSBeigey67acxoD27qA0&hl=en&
ei=ADqjTtPYEKbr0gHbt8imBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=CDcQ6
AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
10
    M.H. Syed, Biographical Encyclopedia of Islam, V-8, Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd., New
Delhi, 2007, P. 21.
11
    The Bektashi Order of Dervishes,
http://web.archive.org/web/20020606024537/http://www.stanford.edu/~percin/Bektashi.html,
retrieved on 6 March, 2012.
                                                 3
nvRx †e³vk Zuvi ÔgvKvjvZÕ MÖ‡š’ mywd ZwiKv (‡e³vkx) m¤úwK©Z mKj wkÿv I ZË¡-Dcv‡Ëi eY©bv K‡ib|
wZwb Zuvi c~eeZx© weL¨vZ mvaK Avn‡g` Bqvmvwe, BqvmvwqAvn&, evev ivm~jzjøvn Bwjqvm †Lvivmvwb, ûiæwd g‡Zi
RbK Avjx-Avj-Avjv I Kvjv›`wiqv‡`i Øviv cÖfvweZ wQ‡jb| Zuvi cÖPvwiZ Z‡Ë¡ G¸‡jvi cÖfve †`Lv hvq| 12
wZwb wQ‡jb LyeB DuPz gv‡ci GKRb mywd I mK‡ji kª×vi cvÎ| Zuvi bv‡gi mv‡_ hy³ i‡q‡Q ÔIwjÕ I ÔnvRxÕ
kãeÜ, hvi A_© h_vµ‡g- Avjøvni eÜz, I ÔThe Pilgrim Saint’| hvi d‡j wZwb mK‡ji wbKU mgvbfv‡e
mgv`„Z| GQvov Zuvi wKQz A‡jŠwKK Kv‡Ri d‡j gvby‡li g‡b wZwb GK cig mËviƒ‡c M„nxZ nb, †hgb:
†`qvj‡K †Nvovq iƒcvšÍi Kiv, mvc‡K Pvey‡K cwibZ Kiv I GKB mv‡_ nwiY I wmsn‡K enb Kiv, hv Zvi
giwg in‡m¨i cwiPvqK| GKB mv‡_ wZwb wQ‡jb †mjRyK (mybœx) mgªvU‡`i kvm‡bi †Nvi we‡ivax| Gmgq wZwb
evev Bwjqv‡mi (g„Zz¨- 1240 wLª.) †bZ…‡Z¡ mvgªvR¨ev` we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡b cÖZ¨ÿfv‡e AskMÖnY K‡ib|

†e³vkxev‡`i g~jbxwZ

‡e³vkxiv Zv‡`i gZev‡`i g~j wfwË wn‡m‡e cweÎ †KviAvb I nv`xm‡K MÖnY K‡ib| G‡ÿ‡Î wkqv gZvbyhvqx
Avj ‡KviAv‡bi †h `yB cÖKv‡ii A_© Av‡Q- (K) Rv‡nix ev ¯úó I (L) ev‡Zbx ev M~p/A¯úó, Zb¥‡a¨ Zviv
evn¨ A‡_©i †P‡q M~p A_©‡K ‡ewk cÖvavb¨ †`b| †e³vkxiv g‡b K‡ib, G mKj M~p Avqv‡Zi gva¨‡gB wek¦RMr
I gvbevZ¥v‡K e¨vL¨v Kiv m¤¢e| G‡Z †h `k©b wbwnZ Av‡Q ‡mwUB gvbyl‡K Ava¨vwZ¡K cybR©‡b¥ wb‡q hvq, hvi
d‡j gvbyl iƒcjvf K‡i GK ¯’vqx mËvq| Avi G mKj Ava¨vwZ¡K w`Kwb‡`©kbv whwb cÖ`vb K‡ib wZwb n‡jb
Zv‡`i Bgvg ev †bZv, Zv‡K ÔevevÕ e‡j m‡¤^vab Kiv nq| whwb kwiqZ, ZwiKZ, nwKKZ I gvwidZ m¤ú‡K©
mwVK wb‡`©kbv cª`vb K‡ib| †Kviv‡bi e¨vL¨vi Rb¨ ZvivB Dchy³ cvÎ, Zviv cig m‡Z¨i Drm Ges Zv‡`i
ØvivB gvbyl mÜvb †c‡Z cv‡i h_v_© w`M&`k©b I PyovšÍ gyw³i| Zviv m¤ú~Y© wb¯úvc I wb¯‹jyl Ges †m Kvi‡Y
gvby‡li kZ©nxb AvbyM‡Z¨i Drm I cvÎ|

‡e³vkxiv cweÎ ‡KviAvb I nv`xm kixd‡K h_vh_ m¤§vb cÖ`©kb K‡ib| †mLvb ‡_‡K †Kvbiƒc AvB‡bi
cwieZ©b ev cwiea©b n‡q‡Q e‡j wek¦vm K‡ib bv| G¸‡jv wPišÍb I k¦vkZ e‡j we‡ePbv K‡ib| Zviv gynv¤§`
(mv.) †K kÖ×v K‡ib hv Zuvi cwievi ev Avn‡j-evBq¨vZ ch©šÍ ewa©Z| †h‡nZz ‡KviAv‡b G m¤ú©‡K we¯ÍvwiZ ejv
n‡q‡Q, †hgb- ÔAvwg ZZÿY ch©šÍ Zv‡`i cyi¯‹…Z Kie bv hZÿY bv Zviv Avgvi cwievi‡K fvjevm‡e
(42:23)Õ| Acic‡ÿ ivm~j‡K (mv.) wR‡Ám Kiv n‡jv, G cwiev‡i Kviv Kviv AšÍ©f~³? ivm~j (mv.) ej‡jb-
Zviv nj: dvwZgv, Avjx, nvmvb I †nvmvBb| ev¯Íe m¤§Z KviY I ‡hŠw³K Ava¨vwZ¡K gyw³‡Z wek¦vm K‡i,
G‡ÿ‡Î ivm~‡ji (mv.) KZ…©K wb‡`©wkZ Ôme©Î ¯ªóv‡K †LuvR KivÕ‡K g~j wfwË e‡j eY©bv K‡ib| bvgvR covi
Dci Zviv ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc K‡ib, Z‡e Zv ‡hb ïaygvÎ †jvK ‡`Lv‡bv ev AbyKi†Yi gv‡SB mxgve× bv nq| Zv‡`i
`„wó‡KvY †_‡K, mwVKfv‡e I cwic~Y© bvgvR Av`vq bv Ki‡j Ava¨vwZ¡K DrKl© jvf Kiv hvq bv| 13 GMy‡jv
e¨wZ‡i‡K Ab¨vb¨ bxwZ¸‡jv njt

6 wU ÔAvnKvgÕ ev ûKzg:
(K) e`vb¨Zv, (L) we`¨v, (M) mZ¨, (N) cweÎ AvBb, (O) AvZ¥m©gcY, I (P) a¨vb|

6 wU ÔAviKvbÕ ev KvVv‡gv/¯Í¤¢:
(K) weÁvb, (L) webgªZv, (M) mš‘wó, (N) K„ZÁZv, (O) Avjøvn‡K ¯§iY, I (P) Aemi MªnY Kiv|

6 wU ÔwebvÕ ev wbgv©Y:
(K) AbzZvc, (L) AvZ¥m©gcY, (M) m†šÍvl, (N) AvbzMZ¨, (O) Ava¨vwZ¥KZv, I (P) eR©b|

12
   M.H. Syed, Biographical Encyclopedia of Islam, , V-8, Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd., New
Delhi, 2007, P. 22.
13
   The Basic Principles of the Bektashi Way, www.basic-principles.htm, retrieved on 6 March
2012.
                                                  4
6 wU ÔûKzgÕ:
(K) we`¨v, (L) e`vb¨Zv, (M) Ava¨vwZ¥K Ávb AR©b, (N) mšÍwó, (O) cªwZdjb, I (P)wek¦vm |

6 wU ÔAvmevZÕ:
(K) e`vb¨Zv, (L) mªóvi ¸YMvb Kiv, (M) cvc Kvh© †_‡K weiZ _vKv, (N) Bw›`ªq‡K mshZ Kiv, (O) Avjøvn‡K
fq Kiv, I (P) AvZ¥v‡K cªdzjø ivLv| 14


nvRx †e³v‡ki gigxev` msµvšÍ NUbv mg~n

nvRx †e³vk m¤úwK©Z eû A‡jŠwKK NUbvi eY©bv i‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv Zuvi `k©b ZË¡ I gigxev‡`i aviK-evnK iƒ‡c
KvR K‡i‡Q| Kw_K Av‡Q, A‡jŠwKK kw³i gva¨‡g wZwb mvim wKsev KeyZ‡ii AvKv‡i †e³vkx cÖv_©bv Abyôv‡b
Avbv‡Zvwjqvq nvwRi n‡Zb| G mvi‡mi cÖwZwe¤^ wn‡m‡e eZ©gv‡b ÔmxgvÕ AbyôvbwU D`&hvwcZ nq, hv 12 Rb
hyeZx bvixi b„‡Z¨i gva¨‡g m¤úbœ nq, Giv c~e©eZx© 12 Rb Bgv‡gi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i| G‡K Avevi Ô†µb wmgvnÕ
ev ÔZze©bv †mgvwnÕ I e‡j| Zuvi Av‡iKwU A‡jŠwKK ¸Y wQj, wZwb wms‡n cwiYZ n‡q ce©Zv‡ivnY Ki‡Zb|
‡ejv‡qZbvgv Abymv‡i wfbœiƒc aviY K‡i c‡i wZwb g‡½vj wn‡m‡e cybiæwÌZ n‡Zb| wZwb `ywf©ÿ jvNe
Ki‡Zb| wZwb he †_‡K Mg Drcv`b K‡ib, Avevi Zv †_‡K je‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv c~iY K‡ib| ‡ejv‡qZ
bvgvbymv‡i hLb wZwb cÖv_©bv Ki‡Z PvB‡Zb ZLb Zuvi mKj Abymvixmn wZwb ce©‡Z P‡j †h‡Zb| ‡m ce©Z‡K
eZ©gv‡b ÔwniKv `vMxÕ ejv nq, hv Zyi‡¯‹i nvRx †e³vk kni n‡Z 15 wK.wg. `~‡i Aew¯’Z| ce©‡Z Gmgq
`i‡ekiv Av¸b cÖR¡jb K‡ib, 40 evi Gi Av‡kcv‡k PµvKv‡i †Nv‡ib| GK`v †gvnMÖ¯’ Ae¯’vq nvRx †e³vk
Zuvi cwiwnZ Avj‡Ljøv (KvwW©Mvb) Av¸‡b Qz‡o ‡g‡iwQ‡jb| cieZx©Kv‡j GB cvnvowU ÔwniKv `vwM KvwW©MvbÕ
bv‡g cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i| Av¸b wb‡f hvIqvi ci `i‡ekiv Gi QvB¸‡jv AvKv‡k Qwo‡q †`b hv‡Z H f~wgi
De©iZv e„w× cvq| Avi, ÔRywbcviÕ MvQ ‡e³vkx `i‡ek‡`i Kv‡Q LyeB cweÎ, KviY Gi gva¨‡g gvby‡li
†gvnMÖ¯’Zv †K‡U hvq|

nvRx †e³vk Dc‡`k ‡`b †h, Kv‡iv ü`q †hb †f‡½ bv hvq, KviY wek¦vmx‡`i ü`q Kvev N‡ii gZ| KvevNi
†hiƒc cweÎ, gvby‡li ü`qI †Zgwb cweÎ| Avevi ü`q Avjøvni evm¯’vb ¯^iƒc, hvi gv‡S †Kvb c`©v †bB| nvRx
†e³vk gvbyl‡K eY©bv K‡ib Gfv‡e: mªóv Av`g m„wó Ki‡Qb 4 e¯‘ ‡_‡K Ges Zv‡K 4 fv‡M wef³ K‡i‡Qb|
GB cÖ‡Z¨KwU fv‡Mi 4 wU wfbœ wfbœ wek¦vm, B”Qv I e¨envi i‡q‡Q| cÖ_gZ - cweÎ gvbyl, Zviv ïay cÖv_©bv K‡i
I Ab¨vq B”Qvi Kv‡Q wb‡R‡`i mgc©Y K‡i bv| wØZxqZ- Rvwn` (Zvcm) †kªYx, Zviv w`b ivZ ïay mªóvi wbKU
cÖv_©bv K‡i| Zviv cÖwZwbqZ Avkv I f‡qi ga¨ w`‡q AwZµg K‡i| Z„ZxqZ- Ávbx ‡jvK, Zviv cvwbi gZ
cweÎ, cwi¯‹vi I cwi”Qbœ| Zviv a‡g©i GKwbó Abymvix| PZy_© †kªYxfy³ n‡jv gywne Z_v †cÖwgK, Giv nj
m‡Z¨i Abymvix| Zviv †hfv‡e wRwbm¸‡jv ey‡S I e¨vL¨v K‡i, Ab¨iv †mfv‡e cv‡ibv|

hLb †KD e‡j, †n Ávbx! Avgv‡`i mZ¨ wek¦v‡mi mÜvb w`b| nvRx †e³vk e‡jb- wek¦v‡mi cÖ_g ¯ÍiwU nj
ÔKv‡jgvq kvnv`vrÕ Z_v ¯ªóvi GKZ¡ev`| G‡ÿ‡Î cÖkœ, mªóvi bvg wK? kqZvb †K? Zvi g‡Z, mªóvi g~j wbh©vmwU
nj Cgvb, Avi kqZvb nj KyKg©| wek¦vm nj- Ávb, Avi GUvB cÖK…Z mËv| Ab¨fv‡e, wek¦vm nj mËv Avi Ávb
nj iÿvKeP| Aci c‡ÿ kqZvb nj †Pvi, hw` iÿvKeP P‡j hvq Zvn‡j kqZvb Pzwi K‡i I gvbyl‡K åóZvq
wb‡ÿc K‡i|
‡e³vkx mywd ZwiKvi D™¢e I weKvk



14
  The Bektashi Order of Dervishes,
http://web.archive.org/web/20020606024537/http://www.stanford.edu/~percin/Bektashi.html, retrieved
on 6 March 2012.
                                                  5
†e³vkx nj GKwU mywd ZwiKv| ‡e³vkx‡`i D™¢e N‡U ga¨ Gwkqvq, c‡i Zviv ejKvb A‡j Qwo‡q c‡ob|
wKse`šÍx Zzj¨ nvRx †e³vk Iqvjx wQ‡jb GB g‡Zi ¯^cœ`ªóv I cÖwZôvZv| 15 †e³vkx Z‡Ë¡i cÖwZôvZv, nvRx
†e³vk Iqvjx 1256 mv‡j GB ZwiKvi cÖPvi ïiæ K‡ib| 16 GKB eQi †e³vkx cÖv_©bvM„n iƒ‡c †ZwK MwVZ nq|
eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ †h iƒcwU †e³vkx ZwiKvq †`Lv hvq Zv cÖwZôv K‡ib evev evwjg myjZvb (g„Zz¨- 1516 Lªx.)|
†e³vkx Abymvixiv Zv‡K Ôcxi-B-mvbxÕ ev ÔwØZxq wcZvÕ e‡j m‡¤§vab K‡ib| Imgvbxq kvmbvg‡j †e³vkx
ZwiKvi cÖmvi N‡U Avbv‡Zvwjqv ‡_‡K mgMÖ ejKvb A‡j| G mgq Bmjvg cÖPv‡i †e³vkx w`w` I evevMY
D‡jøL‡hvM¨ Ae`vb iv‡Lb| cieZx©Kv‡j GB ZwiKv Imgvbxq ˆmb¨`j ÔRvwbwmwiiÕ AvbyôvwbK gZiƒ‡c mve¨¯Í
nq mgªvU cÖ_g gyiv` KZ…©K 14 kZ‡K| Imgvbxq kvmbvg‡j eû myjZv‡bi c„ô‡cvlKZvq GB ZwiKv µgvš^‡q
Avj‡ewbqvq RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡i Ges †mLv‡bI cÖv_©bv M„niƒ‡c †ZwK ¯’vcb ïiæ nq|

ga¨ Gwkqvq †Kë, nvb, g‡½vj I ZvwK©k †MvÎmg~‡ni evievi AvMgb-cybtAvMgb, GKB mv‡_ fviZxq I
‰PwbK wPšÍv-†PZbvi Avwef©ve N‡U| Gmgq Kv‡jB cwðgv D`vicwš’ Lªxóvb giwgev`x Ava¨vwZ¡K mywd-mvaK,
`vk©wbK‡`i I AvMgb N‡U| Aciw`‡K mbœ¨vmev`x (monasticism) I Lªxwóq giwgmvaK‡`i cvkvcvwk
AvdMvbx cÖfv‡e Ges cieZx©Kv‡j cÖvPxb MÖxK `k©‡bi cÖfv‡e Avbv‡Zvwjqvq eû mywd ZwiKvi c_Pjv ïiæ nq|
Zb¥‡a¨ ‡e³vkx Ab¨Zg| 17 †e³vkxiv nj L„÷xq I cvðvZ¨ Dcv`v‡bi mswgkª‡Y MwVZ GKwU Dc`j| GiKg
mv`„k¨ Avgiv Lyu‡R cvB wkLÕ‡`i g‡a¨, hviv wn›`y I gymjgvb‡`i wewfbœ Dc`v‡bi wgkª‡Y m„ó| G‡`i gZwUi
mv‡_ L„óvb‡`i eû aviYv I wek¦vm RwoZ| GQvovI Gi g‡a¨ cwðg Gwkqv gvBbi I Kzw`©¯Ív‡bi ÔwKwRjevmÕ I
hvhveixq †jvKR aviYv I wewfbœ MÖvgxY `j Z_v Av‡jfx, ZvL&ZvwRm‡`i wek¦vm mg~nI RwoZ|

15 kZK †_‡K †e³vkx ZwiKvi c~Y© weKvk NU‡Z ïiæ K‡i| Zv‡`i G wPšÍvwU we¯Í…wZ jvf K‡i‡Q mvay fw³ Z_v
mbœ¨vmev‡`i gva¨‡g| Gi Dcv`vbmg~n Avgiv ZzwK©, cÖvK-ZzwK© mg‡qi evBRv›UvBb mvgªv‡R¨ I L„ó-c~e©
Avbv‡Zvwjqvq †`L‡Z cvB hv GB ZwiKv‡K GKwU me©e¨vcx msMV‡b iƒc`vb K‡i| Z‡e GwU myk„sLj I c~Y©v½
†e³vkx ZwiKvq iƒc jvf K‡i evwjg myjZv‡bi gva¨‡g| †e³vkx‡`i me‡P‡q ‡ekx cÖmvi N‡U Imgvbxq
mgªv‡R¨| †e³vkx ÔevevÕMY ZLb Ô†RwbmvwiÕ ˆmb¨`‡ji hvRKiƒ‡c KvR Ki‡Zb| ‡m mgq GwjU †_‡K ïiæ
K‡i mvaviY ˆmwbK ch©šÍ †e³vkx ZwiKv we¯Í…wZ jvf K‡i| gyjZ wecyj msL¨vq †Rwbmvwi‡`i kÖxe„w×i mv‡_
mv‡_ Zv‡`iI weKvk N‡U| Avbv‡Zvwjqvi me©Î Zv‡`i Ô†ZwKÕ †`Lv hvq| GQvov, ejKvb A‡j Z_v
†gwm‡Wvwbqv, emwbqv I nv‡R©‡Mvwfbv, gw›Uwb‡MÖv, K‡mv‡fv I B¯Ív¤^y‡jI G‡`i †ZwK ¯’vwcZ nq| Imgvbxq
kvmbvg‡jB †e³vkx †ZwK wgki I Biv‡K cÖmvi jvf K‡i| 18

1826 mv‡j mgªvU wØZxq gvngy` KZ©©„K Rvwbmvwi †¯‹vqv‡Wi wejywßi mv‡_ mv‡_ †e³vkx‡`i Kvh©µgI eÜ
‡NvlYv Kiv nq| d‡j †e³vkx †ZwK mg~n eÜ n‡q hvq| G‡`i wb‡`©k cÖ`vbKvix `i‡ek‡`i‡K wbe©vm‡b
cvVv‡bv nq| ÔZvbwRgvZÕ Avg‡j Giv Avevi nviv‡bv ‡MŠie cybyiæ×vi K‡ib| wKš‘ †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj AvZvZzK©
KZ…©K 1923 mv‡j Zzi‡¯‹ cÖRvZš¿ cÖwZwôZ n‡j †mLv‡b we`¨gvb mKj mywd ZwiKv wbwl× Kiv nq| d‡j
†e³vkx †ZwK¸‡jv Avev‡iv eÜ n‡q hvq| Gmgq †e³vkxMY Avj‡ewbqvq P‡j Av‡mb Ges Gi ivRavwb
wZivbvq Zv‡`i cÖavb †ZwK ¯’vcb K‡ib| wesk kZ‡Ki gvSvgvwS BD‡iv‡c mwnsmZvi `vgvgv †e‡R DV‡j I


15
   Albanians and Their Culture: A Study Of Their Defining Character And Uniqueness, A
Thesis, Susan A. Mcclear, December 1, 2001.
16
   First Albanian Bektashi Monastery (CJ) (2004), Research conducted by The University of
Michigan-Dearborn Pluralism Project. www.Pluralism.org, retrieved on 6 March 2012.
17
   The Bektashi Order of Dervishes
http://web.archive.org/web/20020606024537/http://www.stanford.edu/~percin/Bektashi.html,
retrieved on 6 March 2012.
18
   M.H. Syed, Biographical Encyclopedia of Islam, V. 8, Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd., New
Delhi, 2007, P. 22.
                                                6
Zxeª A_©‰bwZK msKU ‡`Lv w`‡j †mLvb †_‡K eû †e³vkx Av‡gwiKvq P‡j Av‡mb| Zv‡`i gva¨‡g ax‡i ax‡i
GB ZwiKv gvwK©b hy³iv‡óª cÖmvi jvf K‡i|

‡e³vkx gZev‡`i D™¢e I weKvk m¤ú‡K© Avj‡ebxq‡`i wfbœgZ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| ÒAvj‡ebxq‡`i aviYv g‡Z,
13 kZ‡Ki †kl w`‡K `i‡ek mvwi mvBj‡UKzi gva¨‡g Ô‡Kvidz‡ZÕ †e³vkxev` me©cÖ_g D™y¢Z nq| wZwb ‡m
mgq 7wU Ô‡ZwKÕ ¯’vcb K‡ib| hvi g‡a¨ GKwUi Ae¯’vb wQj ÔKziæRvÕ ce©‡Z| Kw_Z Av‡Q, †mLv‡b wZwb GKwU
WªvMb nZ¨v K‡ib| 19 Aciw`‡K †R, †¯úbmvi wUªwgsnvg Zvi eB‡q D‡jøL K‡ib Ò†e³vkx msMVbwU 15 kZ‡Ki
c~‡e© weKvk jvf K‡iwb, cieZ©x‡Z †lvok kZ‡Ki †klfv‡M †Rwbmvwi ˆmb¨`‡ji mv‡_ mv‡_ weKvwkZ nq hv
mgªvU cÖ_g gyiv` KZ©„K MwVZ n‡qwQj| Gi d‡j GKw`‡K Zviv Zv‡`i GB bZzb ev wfbœ ag©gZwUi Rb¨ Ac‡ii
Avµg‡Yi wkKvi n‡Zb bv|Ó 20 Giv bvix-cyiæ‡li GK‡Î ‡Lvjv‡gjvfv‡e mw¤§j‡bi Rb¨ cÖwmw× AR©b K‡ib|

‡e³vkx‡`i Ici wbh©vZb: wbe©vmb I cybt¯’vcb

1808 Lªxóv‡ã myjZvb Z…Zxq †mwj‡gi AvZ¥xq wØZxq gvngy` wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnb K‡ib| ‡mmgq wZwb Rvwbmvwi
‰mb¨`j‡K Imgvbxq mvgªv‡R¨i Rb¨ ÿwZKviK e‡j wPwýZ K‡ib, †mB mv‡_ †e³vkx ZwiKv‡KI ûgwK e‡j
fv‡eb| ‡mKvi‡Y wZwb G‡`i Dci cÖZ¨ÿ wbh©vZ‡bi wb‡`©k †`b| Gi djkÖæwZ‡Z Rvwbmvwi ˆmb¨ I
†e³vkx‡`i wbqš¿‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ Lwb ‡_‡K †h jeY D‡Ëvjb Kiv n‡Zv Zv eÜ K‡i †`qv nq| D‡jøL¨ †h, Zv‡`i
gva¨‡g †h jeY D‡Ëvjb Kiv n‡Zv †m jeY‡K ÔnvwR ‡e³vkÕ jeY ejv nZ| cieZ©xKv‡j †e³vkx‡`i mKj
m¤úwË ev‡Rqvß Kiv nq, Ges wKQz bKk&ew›`‡`i Kv‡Q n¯ÍvšÍi Kiv nq| ‡hgb- B¯Ív¤^y‡ji ÔMR‡UwKÕ ‡ZwK
bKk&ew܇`i w`‡q ‡`qv nq| aviYv Kiv nq, Gmgq myjZvb gvngy` cÖvq 70 nvRvi †e³vkx Abymvix‡K nZ¨v
K‡ib, Avi Ab¨iv hviv RxweZ wQ‡jb †mLvb †_‡K cvwj‡q Ab¨Î P‡j hvb| ‡h‡nZz †e³vkxiv cÖPwjZ ag©gZ
n‡Z wKwÂr Avjv`v gZvej¤^x †m‡nZz †Mvuov gymjgvb (mybœx I A-mbœ¨vmx) ‡gvjøviv A‡bKUv Drmv‡ni mv‡_
†mmgq G‡`i Dci AK_¨ wbh©vZb Pvjvq|

18 kZ‡K †e³vkx‡`i D`vi wPšÍv aviv¸‡jv d«v‡Ýi `vk©wbK Ôwd«g¨mbÕ Gi mv‡_ hy³ nq| Giv wQj GKB
Rv‡Zi ev Abyiƒc gvby‡li g‡a¨ mngwg©Zv cÖKv‡ki aviK-evnK| G mgq Zyi‡¯‹i eû L¨vZbvgv ivR‰bwZK
e¨w³eM© wd«g¨mb Gi mv‡_ RwoZ wQ‡jb, hvi d‡j d«vÝ I Bs‡iR‡`i eû cÖv_©bv M„n ev wgjbvqZb Gmgq
‡mLv‡b ¯’vwcZ nq| 19 kZ‡Ki †kl w`‡K G‡`i Abymvixi msL¨v e„w× ‡c‡Z _v‡K, we‡kl K‡i myjZvb Ave`yj
nvwg‡`i we‡`ªvnx Abymvix‡`i g‡a¨, hviv ÔZiæY ZzwK© RyevÕ e‡j cwiwPZ| G avivi mv‡_ ci¯úi mggb¯‹ åvZ…
msN wn‡m‡e ‡e³vkx ZwiKvI cybt¯’vwcZ nq|

1925 mv‡j Zyi‡¯‹ hLb mKj cÖKv‡ii mywd gZev` wbwl× Kiv nq ZLb †e³vkxiv Avj‡ewbqvq ¯’vbvšÍwiZ
nq| cieZ©x‡Z 1967 mv‡j hLb †mLv‡bI Zv‡`i wbwl× Kiv nq ZLb Zviv †mLvb †_‡K cybivq Zzi‡¯‹i
wewfbœ ¯’v‡b I ejKvb A‡j AvkÖq †bq, Ges c‡i Av‡gwiKvq P‡j hvq| ‡e³vkx‡`i cÖwZ hLb wewfbœfv‡e
wbh©vZb Pj‡Z _v‡K ZLb Giv bKk&e›`x‡`i mv‡_ wg‡k wM‡q wb‡R‡`i Aw¯ÍZ¡ iÿv K‡ib| AvZvZzK© KZ©„K ZzwK©
cÖRvZš¿ cÖwZôv jv‡fi ci Zv‡`i Dci wbh©vZb ïiæ nq Ges †e³vkx Abymvix‡`i B¯Ív¤^yj †_‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c
Zvwo‡q †`qv nq| GKBmv‡_ Zzi¯‹‡K BD‡iv‡ci c~Y© gymwjg Aay¨wlZ †`kiƒ‡c †NvlYv Kiv nq| 20 eQi
AvZ¥‡Mvcb _vKvi ci †e³vkxMY bKk&ew›`‡`i QÙ‡e‡k cybivq B¯Ív¤^y‡j wd‡i Av‡m| Kvgvj AvZvZz©‡Ki
kvmbKv‡j Zviv KL‡bvB †e³vkx e‡j wb‡R‡`i cwiPq w`‡Z cv‡iwb| wKš‘ Zviv m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c nvwi‡qI hvqwb|
eis bK&ke›`x‡`i gv‡S †eu‡P wQj| Z…Zxq ev‡ii gZ †e³vkxiv AvZ¥cÖKvk K‡i Zzi¯‹‡K cÖRvZš¿ †NvlYv Kivi
50 eQi ci, Z‡e Gevi gv·©xq I †jwjbxq QÙvei‡Y|


19
  Pettifer, Blue Guide: Albania. New York: WW Norton, 1994, P. 72.
20
  Trimingham, J. Spencer. The Sufi Orders in Islam. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.
1998, P. 80-83.
                                                7
wb‡b¥ ‡e³vkx †bZ…e„‡›`i GKwU mswÿß ZvwjKv Zz‡j aiv nj, hviv GB gZev` cÖmv‡i f~wgKv †i‡L‡Qb I
w`w`evev ev cÖavb wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qbt

             ‡bZvi bvg        Ae¯’vb                              mgqKvj
cxi nvRx †e³vk Iqvjx          cÖwZôvZv          1256-1271 Lªxóvã
Evwjg myjZvb wØZxq cxi        wØZxq wcZv        1501-1516 Lªxóvã
Mvwjn& wbqvwR w`w`evev        cÖ_g w`w`evev     1930-1942 Lªxóvã
Avjx †iRv w`w`evev            w`¦Zxq w`w`evev   Aí wKQzw`b|
Lvbevi Avjx c„¯Ív w`w`evev    Z…Zxq w`w`evev    1943-1944 Lªxóvã
Rvdi mvw`K w`w`evev           PZz_© w`w`evev    ‡deªæqvix 1945-1946 Lªxóvã
AveŸvm wnj&gx w`w`evev        cÂg w`w`evev      1946-1947 Lªxóvã
Avn&gv` wgd&Zvi w`w`evev      lô w`w`evev       1947-? Lªxóvã
dvn&gx w`w`evev               mßg w`w`evev      ?-1967 Lªxóvã
w`w`evev wikv` evi`x          Aóg w`w`evev      1996- GwcÖj, 2011 Lªxóvã
GWgÛ eviwngvR w`w`evev        beg w`w`evev      Ryb, 2011 †_‡K eZ©gvb| 21

‡e³vkx wPšÍv‡PZbv I Abykxjb

Abvb¨ mywd avivi gZ ‡e³vkxivI Bmjv‡gi eûwea wbqg Kvbzb ¸‡jv ‡g‡b P‡jb| ‡e³vkx‡`i ‡gŠwjK I ¯^Zš¿
wPšÍv‡PZbv weKv‡k Abb¨ f~wgKv iv‡Lb evwjg myjZvb| Z‡e nvRx †e³vk Iqvjxi mgqKv‡jB, A_v©r 13 kZ‡K
Avjx web Avey Zvwje Zv‡`i Ava¨vwZ¥K ‡cÖiYvi g~j ¯Í¤¢iƒ‡c we‡ewPZ nb| wkqv m¤cÖ`v‡qi wek¦vm¸‡jv Giv
†g‡b P‡jb, †hgb- Avn‡j evBq¨v‡Zi BgvgZ, Bm&gvn, ZvIqvm&myj, Bgvg gvn`x cÖf„wZ| GQvovI Zviv
Kvievjvi hy‡× knx` Bgvg ûmvBb‡K ¯§iY K‡ib| ZwiKvwU 16 kZ‡K wkqv‡`i `„pfv‡e Av‡iv wKQz Dcv`vb
aviY K‡i, †hgb- nhiZ Avjxi (iv.) cÖwZ kª×vÁvcb, whwb wQ‡jb Bmjv‡gi PZz_© Lwjdv| Zviv wek¦vm K‡ib
gznv¤§` (mv.) n‡jb ¯^Mx©q Av‡jvi Drm, Avi nhiZ Avjx (iv.) n‡jb ¯^Mx©q Áv‡bi `iRv| nhiZ gznv¤§` (mv.)
n‡jb KziAv‡bi e³v ev bvwZK-B-wimvjv, Aciw`‡K nhiZ Avjx (iv.) n‡jb KziAv‡bi mvwne-B-wimvjv|
nhiZ Avjx‡K (iv.) Zviv ¯^Mx©q Avqbv Ges ev‡Zbx ev M~p Avqv‡Zi e¨vL¨vKvix iƒ‡c eY©bv K‡ib| Zv‡`i g‡Z,
nhiZ Avjx (iv.) ïay mgvR cwiPvjbvKvixB bb eis ¯^Mx©q ¸ß weav‡bi e¨vL¨vKvix I A_© Abyave‡b mÿg|
nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) I nhiZ Avjx (iv.) Df‡qi K_v I KvR nj gvbe m¤úª`v‡qi c_cÖ`k©K ¯^iƒc| A_©vr
†e³vkxiv Avjøvn cvK, nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) I nhiZ Avjx (iv.) GB wZb Rb‡K GKwÎZ K‡i GKK mËviƒ‡c
eY©bv K‡ib Ges wÎ-‡Z¡i m~Pbv NUvb| nhiZ gynv¤§` (m.) I nhiZ Avjx (iv.) Gi g‡a¨ Zviv †Kvb we‡f`
K‡ib bv, G‡`i‡K GKB mËv g‡b K‡ib| †e³vkx‡`i Abzôvbvw`, Zv‡`i mwPÎ PviæKjv, wKsev ag©ZvwË¡K
wel‡qi me©Î GB aviYvwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡Z ‡`Lv hvq| 22 evR© (BIRGE) e†jb " Following the above
described belief in God as the one Reality there are in the mind of the Bektashis special
manifestations of this Reality in Muhammad and Ali". The identification of these three, in fact, is
so close that it amounts to a doctrine of Trinity; Hak or Reality and Muhammad and Ali."

‡e³vkx ZwiKvq e¨vcK Ôm‡ek¦©iev`xÕ cÖeYZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| ‡e³vkx‡`i wek¦v‡mi GB wfwËwU nj ÔIqvn`vZ-
Avj-DRy`Õ A_©vr me RvqMvq Avjøvn Av‡Qb, cÖ‡Z¨KwU e¯‘B Avjøvn| GwU ‡Kvb A‰bmjvwgK wewa bq, eis Zv
Avjøvni Avj-nK¡ (mZ¨ mËv) bvg ‡_‡K D™¢~Z| G wewai cÖ‡YZv wQ‡jb `vk©wbK Bebzj Avivex| GB m‡e©k¦iev`x
cÖebZv aviYKvix ZwiKvwU ax‡i ax‡i Zzi¯‹ I Avj‡ewbqvi cÖvq me©ÎB we¯Ívi jvf K‡i| GKB mv‡_, G‡`i
wek¦v‡mi wKQy Dcv`v‡b Ôme©cÖvYÕ ev‡`i Aw¯^Z¡ ‡`Lv hvq †hgb-ce©Z P~ovi gv‡S Ck¦‡ii mÜvb, †auvqv ev ¸nvi

21
     Thomas Schmidt, Europe's Last Dervishes, Berliner Zeitung, August 14th, 1999.
22
     Birge, Hohn Kingsley, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, London, 1937, P. 217.
                                                   8
gv‡S mªóvi mÜvb Kiv| cÖK…Z A‡_© †e³vkx evev‡`i wkÿv¸‡jv g~jZ mvg¨, gvbeZv, J`vh¨© I cÖZ¨ÿ `qv
cÖ`k©‡bi Dci ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc K‡i|

‡e³vkx‡`i g‡Z, nK¡ (†Lv`v), nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.), I nhiZ Avjx (iv.) GB wZb Rb GKwÎZ n‡q GKwU
m‡Z¨i cÖKvk NUvb| †mwU nj ÔnvKxKZÕ| GQvovI Zviv wek¦vm K‡ib Hk¦wiK cÖÁvi Drm nj AvKj Avi M~p
Ávb‡K ejv nq ÔwnKgvnÕ - G¸‡jv jv‡fi Rb¨B AvK‡ji cÖ‡qvRb| GiB cÖKvk NUv‡bv nq ÔIqvn`vZzj-
DRy‡`Õi gva¨‡g| Bgvg nhiZ Avjxi (iv.) cÖwZ ALÛ fw³kª×v QvovI ‡e³vkxMY wkqv m¤úª`v‡qi 12 Rb
Bgv‡gi cÖwZ wek¦vm ¯’vcb K‡i| Zv‡`i cÖLi wek¦vm, hw`I Bgvgiv †Kvbiƒc ¯^Mx©q cÖZ¨v‡`k jvf K‡ib bv,
Z_vwc Zv‡`i wbweo m¤úK© Av‡Q mªóvi mv‡_| hvi gva¨‡g mªóv Zv‡`i wb‡`©kbv †`b I †m Abyhvqx Bgvgiv
gvbyl‡K cwiPvjbv K‡ib| Ab¨vb¨ hviv bvevjK (gvQzg-B-cvK) Ae¯’vq gviv †M‡Qb Zv‡`i‡K kÖ×v Kiv Riæix|
GKB mv‡_ Bgvg‡`iI wb®úvc ev gvQyg nevi K_v ¯^xKvi Kiv `iKvi, Ges wkqv‡`i 7g Bgvg Rvdi mvw`‡Ki
ÔgvRnv‡eÕi Abymvix e‡j `vex K‡ib| 23

†e³vkxiv agx©q AwfÁZvi Dci AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb K‡i, wKš‘ Zv †Kvbfv‡eB gvby‡li mv‡_ ¯^Mx©q mËvi
c„_KxKiY‡K eySvq bv -hv Avgiv mybœx A‡_v©W· I Bû`x ag©g‡ZI †`L‡Z cvB| GQvov GwU mÁvi gva¨‡g cÖvß
in‡m¨i Dci AZ¨waK ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb K‡i, hv bwóK L„ôvb m¤cÖ`v‡qi mv‡_ wg‡j hvq| †e³vkxiv, ÔKvwikgvÕ,
Z_v ¯^Mx©q AbyMÖn cÖf„wZi Dci wek¦vm ¯’vcb K‡i| ‡mB mv‡_ Zviv g‡b K‡i ¯^Mx©q K…cv ‡Kvb gva¨g QvovB
jvf Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GLv‡b Bgvg, †nv¾v ev hvRK‡`i †Kvb f~wgKv †bB| agx©q wkÿv I fv‡ei Av`vb
cÖ`v‡bi ga¨ w`‡q GKRb e¨w³ cÖÁvevb n‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e G‡ÿ‡Î Hk¦wiK K…cv eo f~wgKv iv‡L bv - G `„wó‡Z
Zv‡`i mv‡_ †cw›U‡Kvóvj kvLv I wKQz †eŠ× `vk©wbK m¤cÖ`v‡qi mv‡_ wgj Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq|

†e³vkxiv Zv‡`i evB‡i Ab¨vb¨ ZwiKvi mywd mvaKM‡Yi cÖwZ m¤§vb I kª×v cÖ`k©b K‡ib, †hgb- Avj-
Mv¾vjx, RvjvjyÏxb iægx cÖg~L D‡jøL‡hvM¨| †e³vkx‡`i g‡Z, mgMÖ RM‡Zi fvj-g›`, mywd mvaK‡`i Øviv
wbqwš¿Z nq| Z‡e mKj mvaKB GKB †kªYxf~³ bb, whwb G‡`i g‡a¨ me©‡kªó Zv‡K ejv nq ÔKyZzeÕ| nvRx
†e³vk †fjx G‡`i Ab¨Zg| GQvov Ab¨vb¨ e¨w³eM© ‡hgb- evwjg mzjZvb, ev hviv G ZwiKvi cÖmv‡i f~wgKv
‡i‡LwQ‡jb, ‡hgb- mvwi mvj‡UK, mviwmg Avjx w`w`, Ave`zj g~mv, KvqMvmzm mzjZvb cÖg~L‡K Zv‡`i wbqwgZ
cÖv_©bv Abyôv‡b ¯§iY Kiv nq| G‡`i mKj mva‡Ki cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©‡bi D`vniY wn‡m‡e, ‡e³vkx ZwiKvi
AbymvixMY cÖwZwU Ô†ZwKÕ ev cÖv_©bvj‡qi cv‡k GKwU mgvwa¯Í¤¢ ¯’vcb K‡i ‡i‡L‡Q| G mKj ¯’vb‡K `qvjv‡fi
¯’vb, evivKvn ev ïf iƒ‡c we‡ePbv Kiv nq| †e³vkx f³iv G¸‡jv cªwZwbqZ cÖ`wÿY K‡i|

‡e³vkx ZwiKvq gyiwk` ¯ÍiwU †`Lv hvq| Zv‡`i g‡Z, wZwb n‡jb ÔBbmvb-B-Kv‡gjÕ ev ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© gvbyl| G
chv©‡q Avmvi Rb¨ Zviv wbw`©ó µg AbymiY K‡ib, G¸‡jv nj - AvwkK> gywne> `i‡ek> evev> w`w`>
w`w`evev| ‡nv¾v ev Bgvg n‡jb gmwR‡`i cÖavb, Gi c‡ii Ae¯’vq Av‡Qb Ôgydw&ZÕ Ges me‡k‡l ÔLwjdvÕ|
Bgvg †_‡K ÔevevÕ nIqv m¤¢e hw` †m AweevwnZ _v‡K, Avi hw` †m gyiwk` n‡Z Pvq Zvn‡j Zv‡K wbw`©ó wKQz
mv¤cÖv`vwqK I e¨w³MZ K‡Vvi wbqg AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| wZwb B”Qv Ki‡j Ô‡ZwKiÕ cÖavb n‡Z cv‡ib| wKsev
wb‡RI Ô†ZwKÕ cÖwZôv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Zv‡`i agx©q AvPvi Abyôvb¸‡jv wkqv‡`i KvQ †_‡K cvIqv ev Zv‡`i
AbyKi‡Y cvwjZ nq| GQvovI G‡`i gv‡S Lªxôxq I eû c¨vMvb Dcv`vb †`Lv hvq|

‡e³vkx‡`i agx©q Abykxj‡b Av`wk©K Bmjv‡gi mv‡_ wKQz e¨wZµg cwijwÿZ nq| †hgb bvgvR ev ‡ivRv
Av`vq bv Kiv| GQvov mybœx m¤úª`v‡qi mv‡_ G‡`i we¯Íi dvivK jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| Z`ycwi Giv Bmjvgx AvB‡bi
(kixqv) cªwZ gvÎvwZwi³ kª×v cÖ`k©b K‡i bv| Giv kixqv‡K mËvi gv‡S cÖ‡e‡ki Øviiƒ‡c †g‡b P‡j| Z_vwc
Zv‡`i g‡Z ˆ`bw›`b Rxeb PPv©q kixqv AZxe ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| †e³vkx f³iv evwn¨K AvPvi Abyôvb¸‡jv‡K †Zgb
†ewk ¸iæZ¡ ‡`q bv| Zv‡`i g‡Z, gvby‡li Rxe‡b G¸‡jvi ¸iæZ¡ LyeB m~² I ÿxY| djkÖæwZ‡Z Zviv mybœx‡`i

23
     The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol-2, Chicago, USA, 2002. P. 1162.
                                                9
gZ bvgvR, †ivRv, ev ‰`bw›`b cÖv_©bvq wek¦vmx bq| Zviv †ivRv cvjb K‡i, Z‡e GKUz wfbœ cÖwµqvq| igRv‡b
†ivRv ivLvi cwie‡Z© gn&iig gv‡mi 10 w`b Bgvg û‡m‡bi Kvievjvi cÖvšÍ‡i knx` nIqvi NUbv‡K ¯^iY K‡i
we‡kl ai‡bi ‡ivhveªZ cvjb K‡i| 24 †e³vkxMY AvZ¥vi ¯’vbvšÍi (Migration of Soul), czbiæÌvb
(†Zbvmzn&) I mªóvi gvbz‡li AvKvi (†Zmvwjn&) aviY Kivi cÖwZ wek¦vm ¯’vcb K‡i| Zv‡`i g‡Z, Giƒc GKRb
ÔgvRnviÕ n‡jb nhiZ Avjx (iv.)| hvi gv‡S m¤ú~Y© ¯^Mx©q ‡R¨vwZi weKvk N‡U‡Q| 25

‡e³vkxiv wewfbœ Abyôv‡bi gva¨‡g Bgvg ûmvB‡bi kvnv`vr evwl©Kx cvjb K‡i I GKB mv‡_ 12 Rb Bgv‡gi
cÖwZ kª×vÁvcb K‡i| Gme Abyôv‡b `i‡ekMY Ô†UKÕ ev Uzwc cwiavb K‡ib| evev I w`w`‡`i cwiavbK…Z
†UK‡K Ôûmvqwb †UKÕ e‡j| G‡Z 4wU wKsev 12 wU c¨vuP _v‡K, G¸‡jvi gva¨‡g h_vµ‡g- 4 wU cÖ‡ekØvi‡K
wb‡`©k K‡i- kixqvn&, ZixKvn&, gvwidvn& I nvwKKvn&| GwU Avevi 4 ai‡bi †jvK‡KI wb‡`©k K‡i - Avwe`,
Rvwn`, Avwid I gywne| Ab¨w`‡K 12wU c¨vuP Øviv 12 Rb Bgv‡gi iæcK Dcw¯’wZ eySv‡bv nq| Gmgq evev I
`i‡ekMY GK cÖKv‡ii †bK‡jm cwiavb K‡ib GwU‡K ÔZmwjg-B-ZvRÕ e‡j| GLv‡bI 12wU LvuR KvUv _v‡K
hØviv 12 Rb Bgvg‡K ¯§iY Kiv nq|

‡e³vkx‡`i g~j agx©q Abyôvb‡K ejv nq ÔwbqvRÕ| GwU ÔAvBb-B-‡PgÕ Drm‡ei gva¨‡g cvwjZ nq| 26 G mgq
†kvfvhvÎvi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq, Ges Gi †bZ…Z¡ _v‡Kb GKRb Ôgyiwk`Õ| Zviv GB Drm‡ei ZvwË¡K w`K¸‡jv
KziAvb †_‡K msM„nxZ e‡j `vex K‡ib| GB DrmewU mvaviYZ e„n¯úwZevi iv‡Z AbywôZ nq, ïaygvÎ hviv G
ZwiKvq ‡hvM w`‡q‡Qb ZvivB GLv‡b Dcw¯’Z _vK‡Z cv‡ib| G mgq evevMY f³‡`i Ava¨vwZ¡K KiæYv el©Y
K‡ib| GQvov Zv‡`i Drm‡ei gv‡S i‡q‡Q ÔgvZvgÕ I ÔmyjZvb bI‡ivRÕ| gvZvg AbyôvbwU Bgvg û‡m‡bi
g„Zz¨‡K †K›`ª K‡i cvwjZ nq| Gi AvÿwiK A_© wcªqRb we‡qvM| Acic‡ÿ Bgvg nhiZ Avjxi (iv.)
Rb¥w`b‡K †K›`ª K‡i ÔbI‡ivRÕ Drme Kiv nq| Gmgq †gl RevB K‡i †fv‡Ri e¨e¯’v Kiv nq| ‡e³vkxMY
Zv‡`i cÖv_©bvi mgq fw³g~jK msMx‡Zi Av‡qvRb K‡ib| 27 msMx‡Zi gva¨‡g Ck¦i I †me‡Ki gv‡S fvjevmvi
m„wó nq| Gmgq wkqv, mybœx, Lªóvb A_v©r A‡e³vkx mKj‡K ¯^vMZ Rvbv‡bv nq Abyôv‡b AskMÖn‡Yi Rb¨|
†MR‡Uwc I kvn&Kzjy‡Z me‡P‡q eo Abyôvb cvwjZ nq|

‡e³vkxMY Ab¨vb¨ mywd‡`i gZ cÖvZ¨wnK Rxeb cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î Lye †ewk ¸iæZ¡ †`q bv| ejKvb A‡ji
†e³vkx‡`i g‡a¨ Lªxóxq Av`‡j Ôcvc ¯^xKviÕ I Ômw¤§wjZ ‡fv‡RiÕ Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| 28 A_©vr †e³vkx
AbymvixMY eQ‡i GKevi Zv‡`i Ava¨vwZ¡K ¸iæi wbKU cvcöj‡bi Rb¨ ¯^xKv‡ivw³g~jK Abyôvb K‡i| cvc
¯^xKvi c~e©K ÿgv-`qv-gyw³i G cÖv_©bv Abyôvb‡K ÔgvMwdivZ-B-RybyeÕ ejv nq| GQvov bvix-cyiæl wbwe©‡k‡l
GKB mv‡_ g`¨cvb I bv‡Pi fw³g~jK Abyôv‡b Ask †bq| Zviv Zv‡`i bvix‡`i gyLgÛj †X‡K ivLvi Rb¨
†bKve ev c`v© e¨envi Ki‡Z e‡j bv| GgbwK A¨vj‡Kvnj cvb KivI ‡`vlbxq e‡j g‡b K‡i bv| GQvov, Zviv
wbqwgZ/AvbyôvwbK cÖv_©bvi Dci †Zgb †Rvi †`q bv| G‡ÿ‡Î Zviv AšÍ‡ii cÖv_©bv‡K me©v‡MÖ ¯’vb †`q| Zviv
mve©RbxbZvq wek¦vmx| d‡j †h ‡KD Zv‡`i wek¦v‡m `xwÿZ n‡Z cv‡i| 29



24
   Trix, Frances. Spiritual Discourse: Learning with an Islamic Master, University of Pennsylvania Press,
Philadelphia, 1993, P. 34.
25
   Irene Melikoff, Hadji Bektach: UN Mythe Et Ses Avatars: Genese Et Evolution Du Soufisme
Populaire En Turquie (Islamic History and Civilization. Studies and Texts) 1998, P. 112.
26
   Ibid, P. 138.
27
   InYour Pocket. ―The Bektashi Sect: Bektashi Events.                  ‖ 1995
                                                                        –2010.
http://www.inyourpocket.com/albania/tirana/The-Bektashi-sect-70140f?more=1, retrieved on
28
   dRjyi ingvb, Bmjvg, 2q ms¯‹ib wkKv‡Mv wek¦we`¨vjq, 1979|
29
   Albert Doja, Confraternal Religion: From Liberation Theology To Political Reversal,
University OF Limerick, History AND Anthropology, 2003 Vol. 14 (4), PP. 349–381.
                                                   10
‡e³vkxiv Rbm¤§y‡L †Kvb cÖv_©bv mgv‡ek K‡i bv| Zv‡`i AvPvi Abyôvb¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ †MvcbxqZvi mv‡_ cvwjZ
nq, Ges cviZc‡ÿ †jvKPÿzi AšÍiv‡j Av`vq Kivi †Póv Kiv nq| hvi d‡j mK‡jiB G‡`i wel‡q Rvbvi
AvMÖn †`Lv hvq| 30 Zyi‡¯‹ we`¨gvb Ab¨vb¨ mywd ZwiKv n‡Z GwU m¤ú~Y© wfbœ, †hgb - †gf‡jwf ev NyYvq©gvb
`i‡ek m¤úª`vq ev ivdx ev AvZ©bv`Kvix `i‡ek msN| Z‡e Zv‡`i G mKj †Mvcb Kvh©Kjvc A‡bKUvB ag© I
ˆbwZKZv weiæ×| GKRb weL¨vZ ZzwK© †jLK BqvKze Kv`ix e‡jb, G¸‡jv m¤ú~Y© a‡g©i Ace¨envi Ges Gi
c~Y©g~j¨vqb cÖ‡qvRb| GQvov, †gwjK‡di g‡Z, †e³vkx‡`i ag©xq AvPvi µxqvÕq †hgb- wmgv b„Z¨ Abyôv‡b
Ôkvgvbev‡`iÕ (Shamanism) cÖfve †`Lv hvq| 31

†e³vkx‡`i Ab¨ GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Abyôvb nj Ôgynv‡eZÕ| hvi gva¨‡g ¯§iY ev wgj‡bi Rb¨ Ô†bwdmÕ cvV Kiv
nq, G‡ÿ‡Î Zviv KziAvb ev nv`xm cv‡Vi cwie‡Z© †e³vkx‡`i wjwLZ ¯ÍeK I KweZv¸‡jv cvV K‡i| GB
Abyôv‡bi ga¨ w`‡q GKRb f³ Zvi Ôgyiwk`Õ‡K jvf K‡i I Zvi mv‡_ wg‡k hvq| †e³vkxiv GB Ô†bwdmÕ
Abyôvb‡K gyiwk‡`i mv‡_ †mZze܇bi GKgvÎ gva¨g g‡b K‡i| GQvov KweZvi ga¨ w`‡q fve wewbg‡qi Dci
Zviv ¸iæZ¡ †`q| HwZnvwmKfv‡e †e³vkxiv bvix I cyi‡li mg-gh©v`vq wek¦vmx| ZwiKv m„wói cÖvi‡¤¢B GwU hLb
ga¨ Abv‡Zvwjqvq wQj †m mgqB GB fvebvi cÖPjb N‡U| Zv‡`i Gai‡bi Kvh©Kjv‡ci d‡j Ab¨vb¨
gymjgvb‡`i KvQ †_‡K eû frmbv jvf K‡i, Z`ycwi Zviv G `„wófw½i †Kvb cwieZ©b NUvqwb| G‡ÿ‡Î
D`vnib ¯^iƒc ejv hvq- †WUª‡q‡U gwnjv Zvwje I gyiwk` †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| †e³vkxiv Zv‡`i Abzkxjb mg~n
†Mvuovfv‡e cvjb K‡i bv| G‡ÿ‡Î Zviv †KviAvb I nvw`‡mi M~p A‡_i© Ici †Rvi †`q| Z‡e Zv‡`i
†KviAvb-nvw`m e¨wZZ Ab¨ †Kvb wjwLZ `wjj †bB|
†e³vkxg‡Z Ava¨v‡Z¡i ¯Íi web¨vm
mªóvi ˆbKU¨ jv‡fi Rb¨ f³ Abymvix‡`i‡K wKQz ¯Íi AwZµg Ki‡Z nq, hvi gva¨‡g Zviv cÖK…Z mËv‡K
Dcjwä Ki‡Z cv‡i| †e³vkx Ava¨vZ¡ cÖwµqvi m~Pbv nq †cÖ‡gi gva¨‡g| GB ¯Í‡ii Abymvix‡`i ejv nq
ÔAvwkK’| †e³vkx cz‡ivwnZ avivq me©wbb¥ ¯Íi GwU| cieZ©x‡Z agx©q cÖ_vq ev (hv‡K Zviv ÔbvwQc’ ev cÖwµqv/
cÖvi¤¢ / Iniciation e‡j) wµqvKjv‡ci gva¨‡g †m ÔgywneÕ ¯Í‡i DbœxZ nq| GLv‡b ‡m LzeB mZK©Zvi mv‡_ wKQz
wKQz AvPvi-wµqvq AskMÖnY K‡i, ‡h¸‡jv †e³vkx Ôgq`v‡bÕ cvwjZ nq, G gq`vbwU gzjZ ÔAvBb-B-‡PgÕ
Abyôv‡bi Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv nq| G ¯ÍiwU‡Z `xN© ev ¯^í mg‡qi Rb¨ Ae¯’vb Ki‡Z nq| G mgq evev hw` g‡b
K‡ib wZwb h_vh_ Ava¨vwZ¡KZv AR©b K‡i‡Qb, Z‡e Zv‡K Abyôv‡bi gva¨‡g cieZ©x ¯Í‡i DbœxZ K‡i ‡`b|
A_v©r gywne ¯Í‡i wKQzw`b Ae¯’v‡bi ci wZwb evev KZ…©K Ô`i‡ek’ g‡bvbxZ nb| H mgq `i‡ekiv,
ÔgzmviwÏwjKÕ ev AweevwnZ wKsev ÔgzZvwn&wjKÕ ev weevwnZ RxebvPvi ‡e‡Q wb‡Z cv‡ib| G chv©‡q `i‡ek‡`i
Kvb duzwo‡q ‡`qv nq, ‡m mgq ‡_‡K Zviv GK ai‡Yi Kv‡bi `zj cwiavb K‡i, G‡K Ôgb&&M&zRÕ e‡j| Imgvbxq
Avg‡j G KvRwU kzaz nvRx †e³vk †ZwK, ˆmq` Avjx mzjZvb (†Wwg‡UvKv/Mªxm) ev Kvievjv (BivK) †ZwK‡Z
Abykxjb Kiv nZ| 19 kZ‡Ki †klfv‡M B¯Ív¤^y‡ji kvnKzjz †ZwKwU GB avivq mv‡_ hy³ nq| 1925 mv†j
Zyi‡¯‹i mKj †ZwK eÜ n‡q †M‡j World Bektashi Community Avj‡ewbqvi wZivbvq G Abyôvb Pvjy
K‡i| `i‡e‡ki Dc‡ii ¯ÍiwU nj Ôevev’| wZwb GKwU †ZwKi Ava¨vwZ¡K cÖavbiƒ‡c Ô†ZwK’ cwiPvjbv K‡ib|
evevi Dc‡i Av‡iv GKwU kxl©¯’vbxq c` i‡q‡Q †mwU nj Ôniwjwd evevÕ ev `v`v Z_v ÔwcZvgn| 19 kZ‡Ki ci
n‡Z w`w` evev ¯Íi‡K c„_K K‡i kxl© ¯’v‡b wb‡q hvIqv nq| G‡`i g‡a¨ whwb me‡P‡q e‡qvt‡R¨ô wZwb nb
Ôw`w`evev ev cÖwcZvgn, d‡j me©Rb kª‡×q| whwb me©G we`¨gvb mKj †ZwKi cÖavb, wZwb Hk¦wiK wb‡`k©bv
cÖ`v‡bi ‡hvM¨ e‡j we‡ewPZ nb| †e³vkx Ava¨vZ¡ ¯Í‡ii m‡ev©”P c` GwU| wZwb eviRb (12) niwjwd evevi
(mgv‡e‡k) HK¨g‡Zi wfwI‡Z wbev©wPZ nb| 32 HwZn¨MZfv‡e GB w`w`evev‡`i cÖ_g I cÖavb n‡jb-nvRx

30
   eviR. Rb wKsm‡j, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, London, 1937.
31
   Irene Melikoff, Hadji Bektach: UN Mythe Et Ses Avatars : Genese Et Evolution Du
Soufisme Populaire En Turquie (Islamic History and Civilization. Studies and Texts), 1998,
P.112.
32
   Huseyin Abiva, Bektashi Thought & Practice,
                                                 11
†e³vk Iqvjx (1209-1271 Lªx.)| Zvi gvRviwU ga¨ Avbv‡Zvwjqvq Aew¯’Z| GB nvRx †e³vk Iqvjx
Ô†ZwK/`iMvn& ev wciCfxÕ †_‡K mKj †ZwK cwiPvjbv Kiv nq|




                                                                                 w`w` evev

           6                                                 newjwd evev/`v`v


           5
                                                      evev
           4
                                            `i‡ek
           3
                                 gywne
           2      AvwkK

           1

           0
                w`w` evev   newjwK evev-   evev     `i‡ek      gywne            AvwkK
                               `v`v




†e³vkx Abzmvix‡`i weev‡ni †ÿ‡Î wkw_jZv Av‡Q, Z‡e w`w`M‡Yi we‡q Kiv wb‡la| Z‡e Imgvbxq kvmbvg‡j
evev wKsev `i‡ekMY †KDB we‡q Ki‡Zb bv| G‡ÿ‡Î Zviv nvRx ‡e³vk Iqvjx‡K AbzmiY Ki‡Zb, ‡h‡nZz
wZwb we‡q K‡ibwb, mzZivs ZvivI we‡q Ki‡Zb bv|

†e³vkx AvPvi-Abyôvb cvjbwewa I †cvkvK

cÖvPxb mgq †_‡KB †h †Kvb ¯§iY Abyôv‡bi mgq †e³vkxMY GKwU cÖZxKx †cvkvK e¨envi K‡i _v‡Kb|
Zv‡`i g‡Z, GB cÖvPxbZg c×wZi D™¢veK n‡jb nhiZ Av`g (Av.), Avi mKj cqM¤^iMY Gi aviK-evnK|
nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) GB †cvkv‡Ki aviYv jvf K‡ib nhiZ wReªvBj (Av.) Gi wbKU †_‡K, hLb wZwb cweÎ
wgiv‡R Mgb K‡iwQ‡jb| hv ch©vqµ‡g nhiZ Avjxi (iv.) wbKU Av‡m cweÎ AvgvbZ iƒ‡c| cieZ©xKv‡j GwU
Bgvg nvmvb-û‡mBb Ges Ab¨vb¨ Bgvg‡`i c_cwiµgvq eû c‡i Ôcxi nvRx †e³v‡kÕi wbKU Av‡m| wZwb GwU
ag©xq Abyôv‡bi mgq e¨envi Ki‡Zb| †e³vkx‡`i Abykxjb Abyhvqx GB ce©vw`i †cvkvK¸‡jv wPi¯’vqx I
AcwieZ©bxq, hv myk„sLjfv‡e †e³vkxMY iÿv K‡i Avm‡Qb| cÖavbZ †Kvb Dcjÿ ev Abyôvbvw`‡Z e¨eüZ
†cvkvK¸‡jv MwVZ nq wb‡gœv³ Dcv‡q: (K) ZvuR- hv gv_vq e¨envi Kiv nq (L) wLoKvn- MvDb ev Rvgv (M)
wKgvi- †KvgieÜbx|



http://bektashiorder.com/thought-and-practice, retrieved on 6 March 2012.
                                                    12
(K) ZvuR

ZuvR 4wU ckwg e‡¯¿i mgš^‡q †mjvB Kiv _v‡K, GUv‡K cÖ‡ekØvi ejv nq| G 4wU Avevi 12wU wks ev `uvZ
w`‡q we× Kiv, G¸‡jv‡K ÔwZiKvÕ ejv nq| G 4wU cÖ‡ek Øvi nj - kwiqZ, ZwiKZ, gvwidZ, nvwKKZ| 12wU
wRwbm Bgv‡gi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i Ges 12wU wRwbm cwinvi Ki‡Z e‡j| G¸‡jv n‡jv:

(1) Ab¨vqc~e©K GB †cvkvK cwiavb †_‡K weiZ _vKv,
(2) cvc Kiv †_‡K weiZ _vKv I mwVK c‡_i w`‡K avweZ nIqv,
(3) mKj cÖKvi Bw›`ªq cvc n‡Z weiZ _vKv,
(4) Avjøvn&‡K ¯§iY Kiv I we¯§iYkxj bv nIqv,
(5) D”PvKv•Lx bv nIqv,
(6) Ab¨‡K fq cvIqv n‡Z weiZ _vKv I Avjøvn&‡K fq Kiv,
(7) RM‡Zi gvqvq bv Rov‡bv,
(8) cïi gZ fÿY bv Kiv,
(9) wb‡R‡K msea©b ev e„w× bv Kiv,
(10) ‰ah©¨ I b¨vqcivqY nIqv,
(11) Zvovû‡ov bv Kiv I ‰ah©¨ Aej¤^b Kiv, I
(12) `ytL-`~`©kvq KvD‡K ch©ewmZ bv Kiv|

(L) wLoKvn

GwU nj GKcÖKvi Rvgv hv Mjv †_‡K cv‡qi ‡Mvovwj ch©šÍ we¯Í…Z| Gi gva¨‡g mKj cÖKvi AcweÎZv‡K
(†hgb- AvÿwiK A‡_© †cvkv‡Ki gqjv, i~cKv‡_© Lvivc) Acmvi‡Yi wb‡`©kbv ‡`qv nq| GKB mv‡_ mv`v
†cvlv‡Ki gva¨‡g Iô m¤^Übxq ev evPwbK cweÎZv eySv‡bv nq| G Rb¨B cÖK„Z hvRKMY mv`v Kvco e¨envi
K‡ib hvi gva¨‡g gb I AvZ¥vi ïåZv eySv‡bv nq| G‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡`i g‡Z, GwU nj nhiZ Av`g (Av.) Gi
†cvkvK| hvi gva¨‡g m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cvc cw¼jZv I KjylZv gy³ nIqv‡K wb‡`©k K‡i| GQvov cieZ©xKv‡j
wgÕiv‡R ivm~j‡K (mv.) GB †cvkvK cÖ`vb Kiv nq, hv wZwb cieZ©x‡Z nhiZ Avjx‡K (iv.) Dcnvi †`b| ‡mB
avivevwnKZvq wLoKvn nvRx †e³v‡ki Kv‡Q G‡m Dcw¯’Z nq|

wLoKvn&‡ZI 4wU Ask _v‡K h_vµ‡g K. m¤§yLfvM, L. †cQb fvM, M. Wvb I, N. evg|

    (1) G‡ÿ‡Î mvg‡bi AskwU Ck¦i‡K wb‡`©k K‡i- Ava¨vwZ¡K ¸iæiƒ‡c|
    (2) †cQ‡bi AskwU †kl w`em‡K wb‡`©k K‡i|
    (3) Wvb cvkwU Ava¨vwZ¡K j‡ÿ¨ †cuŠQvi Rb¨ mKj Kvh©µg I DrmM©‡K wb‡`©k K‡i|
    (4) evg cvkwU ü`q‡K eySvq|
    (5) evB‡ii AskwU cwi‡aq e¨w³i gnvbyfeZ¡‡K cÖKvk K‡i Avi Af¨šÍixY AskwU Zvi wewfbœ ¸‡Yi cÖKvk
        K‡i, hv Ab¨vb¨‡`i cvc¸‡jv †X‡K iv‡L|




(M) †Kgvi

GUv nj ck‡gi ‰Zwi GK cÖKvi eÜbx hv †Kvgi euvavi Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq| GwU Zviv nhiZ Avjx (iv.) KZ©„K
cÖvß nb hLb nhiZ Avjx (iv.) cÖ_g evi 17 Rb wek¦vmx‡K GKwÎZ K‡ib I Abyôv‡bi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i †eu‡a
w`‡qwQ‡jb| Giv n‡jb Bgvg nvmvb, ûmvBb, mvjgvb dviwm, Av¤§vi Be‡b Bqvwmi, Avey R¡i wMdvix, wgKv`v`


                                               13
Be‡b AvImv`, gvwjK Avj AvkvZvi I Lvbevi-B-Avjx myjZvb cÖg~L| †e³vkx gZvbyhvqx, Gi Øviv Ava¨vwZ¡K
¸iæi mv‡_ f‡³i †h `„p eÜb Zv‡K wb‡`©k Kiv nq| 33

‡e³vkx †ZwK

‡ZwK nj- †e³vkx‡`i cÖv_©bvi RvqMv| G¸‡jv MÖvg I kni †f‡` wfbœ wfbœ AvK…wZi nq| †jvKvj‡q †h
†ZwK¸‡jv Av‡Q Zv g~jZ cv_‡ii ‰Zwi, Zv‡Z 1wU m`i `iRv _v‡K| ‡ZwK‡Z ‡e³vkx †bZv‡`i gvRvi ev
mgvwa¯Í¤¢ ev gq`vb Cfx Av‡Q| `i‡ek‡`i (gwnjv I cyiæl‡`i Rb¨ Avjv`v Avjv`v) _vKvi Rb¨ ‡QvÆ KzwUi ev
GK‡gK Cfx I cÖkvmwbK feb Av‡Q| ZvQvov Lvevi Ni ev Avk Cfx I †gngvb Cfx _v‡K| bvbvwea wRwbmcÎ
Øviv mgvwa cÖv½Y mvRv‡bv _v‡K, †hgb - HwZnvwmK Qwe, K¨vwjIMÖvwd‡Z wjwLZ `wjjvw`, fv®‹h© cÖf…wZ| 34
‡e³vkx‡`i g‡Z, Zv‡`i cÖ_g †ZwKwU evev `~ev©jx KZ©„K MwVZ n‡qwQj Avj‡ewbqvi A`~‡i MÖx‡mi †_mvwj‡Z|
‡mLvb ‡_‡K †e³vkx evYxmg~n `wÿY ejKv‡bi Avj‡ewbqv Aay¨wlZ †jvK‡`i gv‡S cÖmvwiZ nq| ZvQvovI
iægvwj evevi †bZ„‡Z¦ †U‡U&vfvq (‡gwm‡Wvwbqv) GKwU †ZwK cÖwZwôZ nq hv cieZx©Kv‡j evi‡Kvfv, cÖxR©‡ib, I
MvRv‡Kvfvq cÖmvwiZ nq| Avj‡ewbqvq me©cÖ_g 17 kZ‡K Amxg evev KZ…©K wMwRiK÷vi-G ‡ZwK MwVZ nq|
cieZx© mg‡q kvgxgv evev KZ…©K K~R©v kn‡i, Rvwd Beªvwng evev KZ©„K Gjevmv‡b †e³vkx †ZwK ‰Zwi nq| 35
eZ©gv‡b †e³vkxiv eû †ZwK cwiPvjbv K‡ib, G‡`i cÖavb †ZwKwU nj ÔKª„wR_mvÕ| `wÿY Avj‡ewbqvi RbMY
G‡`i Øviv AwaK gvÎvq cÖfvweZ| GQvov K‡mv‡fv I †gwm‡Wvwbqvq wKQz †ZwK I Abymvix‡`i ‡`Lv hvq|
‡gwm‡Wvwbqvq Zv‡`i GKwU †ZwK nj nvivevwZ evev ‡ZwK (‡U‡Uv‡fvq)| evev Zvwni Gwgwbi (1941-2006)
g„Zy¨i ci Avj‡ewbqvq w`w`wjK Gi ‡`Lvïbv K‡ib I GWgÛ eviwngvR‡K Gi cªavb wbhy³ Kiv nq, wZwb
eZ©gv‡b K…ªwRm_v †ZwKi cÖavb| Ab¨w`‡K, Km‡fv‡Z Zv‡`i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †ZwKwU MvRv‡Kvfvq Aew¯’Z, Gi †bZ…‡Z¡
Av‡Qb gywgb jvgv| Av‡gwiKvi †WUª‡q‡U Zv‡`i †ZwK Av‡Q| GLv‡b Zv‡`i Abymvix‡`i cÖv_©bvi Rb¨ wekvj
wgjbvqZb Av‡Q| Ab¨vb¨ wRwb‡mi g‡a¨ Av‡Q cvVvMvi, mfvM„n, wekvj ivbœv Ni, evev‡`i M„n, AwZw_ Kÿ
cªf…wZ| 1996 mv‡j evev †iKª‡R‡ei ¯§iYv‡_© Zvi Ke‡ii Dci GKwU mgvwa‡mŠa wbwg©Z nq| G mKj †ZwKi
D‡Ïk¨ gvbyl‡K Ava¨vwZ¡K MšÍ‡e¨ †cŠu‡Q †`qv, ¯^Mx©q K…cv-AbyMÖn jv‡f mvnvh¨ Kiv, m‡e©vcwi ¯ªóvi mv‡_ wgwjZ
K‡i †`qv| Avj‡ewbqv Ry‡o 6 kZvwaK gmwR‡`i cvkvcvwk cÖvq 80 wUi AwaK †e³vkx †ZwK Av‡Q| wZivbvq
Zv‡`i ‡h †ZwKwU †nW‡Kvqv©Uvi wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq Zv LyeB wekvj AvK…wZi| hv kn‡ii †K‡›`ª Aew¯’Z I
`k©bv_x©‡`i Rb¨ Db¥y³|

ZzwK©‡`i Dci †e³vkxev‡`i cÖfve

ZzwK© fvlvfvwl Rb‡Mvôx mg~‡ni gv‡S Bmjvg cÖmv‡i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡Lb nvRx †e³vk| G ZwiKvwU gymwjg
m¤úª`v‡qi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© kvLv| ÔKvivwnwjqv‡iiÕ Bmjvg MÖn‡Yi ci †_‡KB †g‡mvc‡Uwgqvq Bmjv‡gi m¤cÖmviY
ïiæ nq| `i‡ek I ewYK m¤cÖ`v‡qi gva¨‡g GB bZzb wek¦v‡mi cÖmvi N‡U| kû‡i ag©‡eËv‡`i ‡P‡q ågY
wccvmy `i‡ekiv G‡ÿ‡Î †ewk mdj wQ‡jb, KviY Zviv ¯’vbxq fvlvq K_v ej‡Z cvi‡Zb| Zv‡`i gva¨‡gB
mywdev‡`i cÖmvi N‡U| Ôdzqv` ‡Kvciæ‡jiÕ g‡Z, G mgq †e³vkx gZwU Avbv‡Zvwjqvq MÖvgxY †e³vkx iƒ‡c
cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i| Ab¨ K_vq, Avbv‡Zvwjqvi Bmjvg ‡e³vkx‡`i gva¨‡g cwibZ iƒc cwiMÖn K‡i|

nvRx †e³v‡ki Dci ÔevexÕ ZwiKvi (evev BmnvK) cÖfve †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| †e³vkx åvZ…Z¡‡ev‡ai g‡a¨
ÔnvjøvwRqvbÕ ˆewkó¨ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| GQvov Zv‡`i Dci Ôûiæwd‡`iÕ cÖfveI †`Lv hvq, hv‡`i wkÿv¸‡jv Iì
†U÷v‡g›U †_‡K wbm„Z| Zv‡`i åvZ…Z¡‡eva wek¦vmwU cÖKvwkZ nq Zzi‡¯‹i weL¨vZ Kwe BDbym Ggwii csw³‡Z,
whwb †e³v‡ki AvMg‡bi c~‡e© gviv hvb|

33
   www.bektashi-ceremonial-garb.html, retrieved on 6 March 2012.
34
   Bektashi.net. Nirmala, Tirath Singh. ―A Nirmala among Bektashis. 21 February 2007.
http://www.bektashi.net/tekkes-gjirokaster.html, Retrieved on 6 March 2012.
35
   Selim Kalicani, Bektashizmi si sekt mistik Islam, Albania, P.186-188.
                                                   14
Let us all be friends for ever,
Let us take and make life easy.
Let us be lovers and loved ones-
Nobody owns the earth.

†e³vkx‡`i mvZ Rb weL¨vZ Kwei g‡a¨ GK Rb n‡jb Ôbv‡mgxÕ| Zvui gva¨‡g Avbv‡Zvwjqvq ‡e³vkx fveavivi
cÖfve Qwo‡q c‡o| Gi Drcw˯’j Avbv‡Zvwjqv ‡_‡K G‡`i cÖmvi N‡U ejKvb A‡j| mvwimvj‡UKzi gva†g
Zv‡`i cÖfve-cÖwZcwË Avbv‡Zwjqv n‡Z iæ‡gwjqv ch©šÍ we¯Ívi jvf K‡i| Avi nvRx †e³vk ZzwK© ms¯‹…wZ‡K
iÿbv‡eÿ‡Yi KvRwU K‡ib| G‡`i me‡P‡q eo Ae`vb nj GwU Bmjvg c~e© I cieZx ZywK© ms¯‹…wZi g‡a¨
†mZzeÜb ¯’vcb K‡i| G e¨vcv‡i nvRx †e³vk g~L¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| Zuvi `k©b ZywK© ms¯‹…wZi iÿbv‡eÿ‡Y
I `„pKi‡Y ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Avn‡g` Bqvmvwe I †e³vkx `i‡ekMY GB MVb cÖwµqvq Ae`vb
iv‡Lb| G‡ÿ‡Î †h welqwU me‡P‡q †ewk †MvPixf~Z nq Zv nj, Zv‡`i iPbvq ZzwK© fvlvi mvewjj e¨envi I
ZzwK© fvlvi m¤úªmvi‡b Zv‡`i AMªbx f~wgKv| GQvov, †e³vkx Abymvixiv Zv‡`i cÖv_©bv Kv‡R ZzwK© fvlv e¨envi
K‡ib, hv ZzwK© Kv‡e¨ dz‡U DV‡Z †`Lv hvq| Zv‡`i G e¨enviwU wQj Ggb GK mg‡q hLb †mB RvqMvq Aviwe
I dviwm fvlv GK”QÎ cÖvavb¨ we¯Ívi K‡i wQj| †e³vkx `i‡ek‡`i iwPZ M`¨-c`¨ mg~n ZywK© mvwnZ¨‡K mg„×
K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i G Amvgvb¨ f~wgKvi K…ZÁZv ¯^iƒc wKQzw`b c~‡e© 180 Rb †e³vkx Kwei 3000 Kwc eB Qv‡c
ZzwK© miKvi| 36 ZvB ejv hvq, ZzwK© fvlv, mvwnZ¨ I ms¯‹…wZ‡Z †e³vkx‡`i Ae`vb Amvgvb¨|

Avj‡ebxq‡`i Dci †e³vkx ZwiKvi cÖfve

L„ôxq 2q kZ‡K (Bwjwiqv) eZ©gvb Avj‡ewbqv L„ôvb Aa¨ywlZ GjvKv wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ jvf K‡i| 732 mv‡j
†cvc 2q RR© KÝ›Uvw›U‡bvcj cÖ_g Avj‡ebxqvb PvP© MVb K‡ib| GB PvP© c‡i Bóvb© A‡_v©WKª Pv‡P© cwibZ
nq| 1054 mv‡j cÖvP¨ I cÖZx‡P¨i g‡a¨ ‡h wkÕRg nq hvi d‡j Avj‡ebxqvb Pv‡P©I dvUj a‡i| `wÿY
Avj‡ewbqv KÝ›Uvw›U‡bvc‡ji cÖfve ej‡qB †_‡K hvq Avi DËi Avj‡ewbqv †iv‡gi mv‡_ hy³ nq| 15 kZ‡K
Zzi‡¯‹ Bmjv‡gi cÖ_g Avwef©ve N‡U| Gmgq ZzwK© mgªvUiv †ivgvb K¨_wjK‡`i AvZs‡Ki †Pv‡L †`‡Lb Ges
Zv‡`i Dci D”P Ki avh© K‡ib| d‡j A‡b‡K Bmjvg MÖn‡Y eva¨ nq| Avi Ab¨iv Avj‡ewbqv †Q‡o P‡j hvq|
GQvov wKQz K¨v_wjK evn¨Z gymwjg nq Ki cÖ`vb †_‡K ‡invB cvIqvi Rb¨, wKš‘y †fZ‡i †fZ‡i Zviv wbRag©
Abykxjb Ki‡Z _v‡K| 1967 mv‡j mKj cÖKvi ag©PPv© cy‡ivcywi wb‡la Kivi c~‡e© Avj‡ewbqvq 75% wQj
gymjgvb, 15% A‡_v©WKª L„óvb, 10% †ivgvb K¨v‡_vwjK| gymwjg‡`i g‡a¨ Avevi 85% nvbvwd Avi 15%
†e³vkx wQj| Z‡e G‡`i msL¨v Av‡iv †ewk e‡j aviYv Kiv nq| ‡h‡nZz ‡e³vkx ZwiKvwU m¤ú~Y© KzgvieªZ
AbymiY K‡i _v‡K, ‡mRb¨ m¤¢eZ G‡`i cwievi¸‡jv MYbv Kiv nqwb|

g~jZ kû‡i Avj‡ebxqiv m¤ú~Y© gymwjg| GQvov ga¨ I DËi c~ev©ÂjI cy‡ivcwiB gymwjg Aay¨wlZ| Avi DËi-
cwð‡gi my‡`i kniwU K¨v_wjK, Avi wewfbœ MÖvg I kn‡i Qwo‡q wQwU‡q Av‡Q A‡_©vWKªiv| KwgDwbó kvm‡bi
c~‡e© Avj‡ewbqvq 30wU ‡e³vkx Ô‡ZwKÕ wQj| Avj‡ewbqvi RvZxqZvev`x Av‡›`vj‡bi eû ‡bZv ‡e³vkx ZwiKv
fy³ wQ‡jb, Giv ejKv‡b evg avivi ÔeY©vwj ag©g‡ZÕi m„wó K‡ib|

1826 mv‡ji ci eû †e³vkx evev I `i‡ekMY ejKvb MÖvgv‡j P‡j hvb †hLv‡b Imgvbxq miKv‡ii †cŠuQv‡bv
m¤¢e bq| G mgq `wÿY Avj‡ewbqvq G‡`i mwµq cybiæÌvb N‡U| Zv‡`i mvg¨‡eva I ¯’vbxq ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_
GKvZ¡Zv GK ai‡bi †dvK ev ‡jvKR ag©-K‡g©i Rb¥ ‡`q, d‡j GwU `ªæZ Mªxm I †gwm‡Wvwbqvq Qwo‡q c‡o|
GQvov, wKwRjevm m¤cÖ`v‡qi Abymvixiv `ªæZ I mn‡RB †e³vkx mvay‡`i mv‡_ wg‡k hvq Ges G‡`i AbyKi‡Y
Abykxjb ïiæ K‡i| Ab¨vb¨ ¯’v‡bi gv‡S, ga¨ ejKvb A‡j ¸jevevi †bZ…‡Z¡ emwbqv-nv‡R©wMwfbv I nv‡½ixi
ey`v‡c‡ó Ges GMv‡ii ‡bZ…‡Z¡ †PK wicvewjK, ‡ej‡MÖW I evbRvjyKvq Ô‡ZwKÕ cÖwZwôZ nq|

36
     Sadettin Nüzhet, Bektaşi Şairleri, Istanbul, 1930.
                                                 15
cieZ©x‡Z 1929 mv‡j wZivbvq ‡e³vkx‡`i cÖavb †K›`ª ¯’vwcZ nq| Gi c~‡e© 1922 mv‡j Avj‡ebxq Ô‡ZwKÕ
n‡Z GKwU `j Avs¼vivq mywcÖg ‡e³v‡ki mv‡_ †`Lv K‡ib| cieZx©‡Z 1929 mv‡j GwU GKwU ¯^vaxb gymwjg
ZwiKv iæ‡c KvR Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡i| gy‡mvwjwb KZ…©K 1930 mv‡j Avj‡ewbqv `L‡ji c~‡e© ÔwKs RMÕ Gi Dci
GB ZwiKvi cÖfve †`Lv hvq| Avj‡ewbqvq Av‡bvqvi ‡nv¾vi kvmbvax‡b G‡j ‡e³vkxiv cybivq AZ¨vPvwiZ
n‡Z _v‡K Ges A‡bK evev‡K †Rvi c~e©K K„wl I Ab¨vb¨ kªgmva¨ Kv‡R wb‡qvM Kiv nq| GB †ZwK¸‡jv
KwgDwb÷ kvmbvg‡j KviLvbv I d¨v±wi‡Z iƒcvšÍwiZ Kiv nq| Gmg‡q evev †i·‡R‡ei †bZ…‡Z¡ 1944 mv‡j
Av‡gwiKvq cÖ_g ‡e³vkx Ô‡ZwKÕ cªwZwôZ nq|

†e³vkx I Ab¨vb¨ ZwiKvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨

Av‡jfx cwiev‡i Rb¥ wb‡j Z‡eB GKR‡bi c‡ÿ Av‡jfx nIqv m¤¢e| wKš‘ †h †KDB †e³vkx ZwiKvq `xÿv
wb‡Z cv‡i| Giv mve©RwbbZvq wek¦vmx| HwZn¨MZfv‡eB †e³vkxiv kû‡i I wkwÿZ, Aci c‡ÿ Av‡jfxiv MÖv‡g
evm K‡i| 37

Bmjvg G‡Kk¦iev`x ag© †hLv‡b mªóv Qvov Avi †Kvb gvey` bvB Ges nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) Zvi ivm~j| wKš‘
wkqviv (Ges we‡klfv‡e ‡e³vkx‡`i cÖwZwôZ Bmjv‡gi mv‡_ ïiæ †_‡KB Zv‡`i weev` i‡q‡Q) cÖwZwôZ i‡q‡Q
GK ai‡bi wÎ-aviYvi Dci †mLv‡b Avjøvn m‡ev©”P mËv, nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) I nhiZ Avjx (iv.) Zvi mv‡_
hy³| nhiZ Avjx (iv.) wQ‡jb ivm~‡ji RvgvZv I cª_g mvwii gymwjg‡`i g‡a¨ GKRb Ges wkqviv Zvi cÖwZ
ˆewkó¨ Av‡ivc K‡i †h wZwb †KviAv‡bi Ava¨vwZ¡K †evaMg¨Zv D`&NvUb K‡i‡Qb| †e³vkxiv nhiZ Avjx‡K
(iv.) GKRb gnvmvaK wnmv‡e m¤§vwbZ K‡i‡Q| †hvM¨Zvq wZwb nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) Gi hrmvgvb¨ bx‡P A_ev
Zvi cÖwZmg| ‡e³vkxiv cÖPwjZ BmjvwgK wbqgbxwZ¸‡jv †hgb- g`¨cvb wKsev k~K‡ii gvsm LvIqv ‡_‡K
weiZ _vKv, gwnjv‡`i c`©v Kiv Ges g°vi w`‡K gyL K‡i cÖv_©bv Kivi Dci Kg ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc K‡i‡Qb| Zviv
wek¦vm K‡i †h, m‡e©v”P mËv n‡jb ¯^Mx©q mËv, mKj w¯’i Rxeb Ges AvZ¥v hv wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ e¨w³‡Z
Ae¯’vb K‡i, Gi Rb¨ †e³vkx‡`i Øviv ¯^M©xq mËvi cvÎ wn‡m‡e mKj cÖv_©bv¸‡jv cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K|

‡e³vwk‡`i GKwU g~j ˆewkó¨ nj fw³Kvix Z_v f³ I cÖf~i g‡a¨ Ava¨vwZ¥K HK¨ ¯’vcb Kiv| GB Kv‡R
wb‡qvwRZ wkÿK gyiwk` Avi wkl¨ Zvwje ev QvÎ wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Zv‡`i †ZwK¸‡jv cwiPvjbv K‡ib ÔevevÕ|
wZwb cyiæl ev gwnjv n‡Z cv‡ib| Zv‡`i gh©v`v hvRK‡`i gZB mgvb| D‡jøL¨ ‡h, evev ej‡Z Avj‡ewbqvq
`v`v‡K ezSvq Avi Zzi‡¯‹ wcZv‡K wb‡`©k K‡i, Z‡e ‡e³vkxiv ‡bZv A‡_© GwU e¨envi K‡ib|



‡e³vkx‡`i mv‡_ Ab¨vb¨ m¤cÖ`v‡qi cv_©K¨

cv_©‡K¨i welq              mybœx               wkqv                  †e³vkx
Abymvix‡`i WvKv nq         mybœx bv‡g          wkqv bv‡g             †e³vkx bv‡g
bv‡gi A_©                  mybœ‡Zi c_/HwZn¨    Avjxi `j/ `j 38      ‡e³vk Gi `j
eZ©gvb Abymvix             940 wgwjqb/90%      120 wgwjqb/10%       cªvq 1 wgwjqb/.25%
Abymvix‡`i Ae¯’vb          mviv gymwjg we‡k¦   Bivb, BivK, B‡q‡gb   Zzi¯‹,Avj‡ewbqv,ejKvb


37
   John L. Esposito, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World. Vol. 2, Oxford
University Press, NY-1995, P. 214. Also in Turkish Alevis Today by John Shindeldecker,
38
   Niyazi Öktem, Religion in Turkey, Brigham Young University Law Review, 06/06/2002. P. 372-
373.
                                                16
cv_©‡K¨i welq           mybœx                   wkqv                     †e³vkx
                                                                        AÂj, Av‡gwiKv|
Dc-`j                   bvB, Z‡e 4wU gvhnve     12 cš’x, 7 cš’x,        bvB |
                        Av‡Q|                   hv‡qw`
D™¢e                    632 mv‡j, ag©ZvwË¡K     632-650 Lªxóvã,         1256 mv‡j nvRx
                        weKvk ïiæ 10 kZ‡K       680 mv‡j nhiZ           †e³v‡ki gva¨‡g|
                                                Avjxi (iv.) cyÎ Bgvg
                                                ûmvB‡bi kvnv`vr
                                                ei‡Yi gva¨‡g|
nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.)      g‡bvbqb †`b bvB|        Avjx web Avey Zvwje,    Av‡Q|
Gi DËivwaKvi                                    ivmyj (mv.) KZ…©K
                                                g‡bvbxZ|
kvm‡Ki ¸Yvejx           ivm~j (mv.) Gi          ivm~j (mv.) Gi cwievi   wkqv‡`i gZB |
                        †Mv‡Îi, c‡i †h †Kv‡bv   ev Avnv‡j evBZ Gi
                        ¸Y m¤úbœ e¨w³i|         †fZi mxgve×|
mZ¨ DËivwaKvix          nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:),    Avjx web Avey Zvwje,    Avnv‡j evBZMY|
                        Av‡qkvi wcZv            ivmyj (mv.) KZ…©K
                                                g‡bvbxZ|
eZ©gvb †bZv             Bgvg                    gyR&Zvwn`               w`w`evev
Bgv‡gi Ae¯’vb           gvby‡li †bZv            AåvšÍ, whwb KziAv‡bi    wkqv‡`i gZB |
                                                M~p A_© Rv‡bb|
Bgvg gvnw`              fwel¨‡Z Avm‡eb|         G‡m‡Qb I †Mvcb          G‡m‡Qb I †Mvcb
                                                Av‡Qb, Z‡e              Av‡Qb|
                                                gzR&Zvwn‡`i gva¨‡g
                                                KziAvb e¨vL¨v K‡ib|
Kzivb Qvov Ab¨          BRgv I wKqvm            AåvšÍ Bgvg              AåvšÍ Bgvg I
KZ…©cÿ                                                                  w`w`evev|
ZvwKqv                  ‡ÿÎ we‡k‡l Kiv          me©`v Kiv hv‡e|         me©`v Kiv hv‡e|
                        hv‡e|
ÿY¯’vqx ev gyZv weevn   bexi (mv.) mgq wQj,     GL‡bv Kiv hv‡e|         GL‡bv Kiv hv‡e|
                        eZ©gv‡b wbwl×|
cweÎ ¯’vb               g°v, gw`bv, I           g°v, gw`bv,              g°v, gw`bv,
                        †RiæRv‡jg|              †RiæRv‡jg, bvhvd, I     †RiæRv‡jg, Kvievjv
                                                Kvievjv|                †ZwK, I mgvwa¯’j|
ag©xq Drme              C`-Dj-wdZi, C`-         C`-Dj-wdZi, C`-         C`-Dj-wdZi, C`-Dj-
                        Dj-Avhnv|               Dj-Avhnv, Avïiv|        Avhnv, Avïiv I
                                                                        bI‡ivR |
Drm : www.religion.facts.com, retrieved on 6 March 2012.


                                                 17
19 kZK cieZx©Kv‡j †e³vkx‡`i Ae¯’vb

19 kZK cieZ©xKv‡j †e³vkxMY wewfbœ mgm¨vi gy‡LvgyLx nb| A‡bK †e³vkx †ZwK eÜ n‡q hvq| Avevi wKQz
wKQz Ô‡ZwKÕ mybœx‡`i Kv‡Q w`‡q †`qv nq| ÔZvbwRwgqvZÕ mg‡q wKQz †ZwK cybyiæ×vi Kiv nq, wKš‘ 1925 mv‡j
cybivq mKj mywd ZwiKv wbwl× Kiv nq| Zzi‡¯‹ Giƒc Ae¯’v Pj‡Z _vK‡j †e³vkxMY Avj‡ewbqvq P‡j
Av‡mb Ges †mLv‡b cÖavb Ô‡ZwKÕ ¯’vcb K‡ib| wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ci Zviv cybivq Av‡bvqvi †nv¾v KZ…©K
wbh©vwZZ n‡Z _vK‡j ‡mLvb †_‡K ejKv‡bi Ab¨Î P‡j hvb|

evev †i·‡Re weKwi (18 AvM÷, 1901 Ñ 10 AvM÷, 1995 Lªx.) †m mgq Av‡bvqvi †nv¾vi GKRb
mgv‡jvPK wQ‡jb| wZwb Avj‡ewbqv †Q‡o Pvi eQi BZvwj‡Z kiYv_©x wkwe‡i KvUvb| cieZxKv‡j wZwb wgm‡ii
Kvq¸mym n‡q 1953 mv‡j Av‡gwiKvq cvwo Rgvb Ges 1954 mv‡j wgwkMvb A½iv‡R¨ cÖ_g Avj‡ebxq-
Av‡gwiKvb †ZwK ¯’vcb K‡ib| cieZx© 45 eQi †mLv‡b wZwb †e³vkx mgvR wewbg©v‡Y KvR K‡ib| †e³vkx
Z‡Ë¡i Dci wZwb Islamic mysticism and Bektashism bv‡g GKwU eB iPbv K‡ib| wZwb Kvievjvi
NUbvi Dci wjwLZ gnvKv‡e¨i Ônvw`KvZ-B-kynv`vÕi Abyev` K‡ib| GQvov, wZwb Zeri Bektashsmi bv‡g
GKwU mvwnZ¨ mvgwqKx cÖKvk K‡ib| Zvi g‡a¨ mKj cÖKvi Ava¨vwZ¡K ¸Yvejxi mw¤§jb N‡UwQj e‡j wZwb
mybœx, †e³vkx, L„ôvb, Avj‡ebxq wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡ji wbKU mgvbfv‡e mgv`„Z wQ‡jb|

Avjx Zzevwi evev, whwb ÔgvD›U Z‡gvwiÕi cÖavb wQ‡jb Zvi eB‡q Historija E Bektashinjvet D†jøL K‡ib,
Rvwbmvwi ˆmb¨`‡ji wejywßi ci 1826 mv‡j Zv‡`i msL¨v wQj 73,70,000 Gi g‡a¨ 7 wgwjqb
Avbv‡Zvwbqvq, 100,000 Avj‡ewbqvi, Avi evwK 1,200,000 B¯Ív¤^y‡j Ae¯’vbiZ wQ‡jb| GQvov BivK, µxU,
†gwm‡Wvwbqv I Ab¨vb¨ ejKvb A‡jI Zviv Qwo‡q wQwU‡q wQ‡jb| Z‡e eZ©gv‡b mviv we‡k¦ †e³vkx
Abymvix‡`i msL¨v cÖvq 7 wgwjqb e‡j aviYv Kiv nq|


g~j¨vqb

‡e³vkx ZwiKv Imgvbxq mvgªv‡R¨ e¨vcKfv‡e cÖmvi jvf K‡i| 13 kZ‡K Avbv‡Zvwjqvq G‡`i D™¢e N‡UwQj
nvRx †e³vk Iqvjxi gva¨‡g 39| Avi evwjg myjZv‡bi gva¨‡g GB ZwiKvi cÖf~Z weKvk mvwaZ nq| wZwb
1501 mv‡j GB `i‡ek ZwiKvi cÖavb g‡bvbxZ n‡qwQ‡jb| evwjg myjZv‡bi gva¨‡gB Avbv‡Zvwjqvq me©cÖ_g
G ZwiKvq K…”QZv Aej¤^bKvix †kªYxi cvkvcvwk weevwnZ †kªYxi c_Pjv ïiæ nq| Ab¨ A‡bK mwyd ZwiKvi gZ
Zv‡`i D™¢e mybœx‡`i †_‡K, Z‡e 16 kZ‡K GwU eû wkqv Dcv`vb aviY K‡i| 40 G cÖm‡½ wUªwgsnvg e‡jb:
"The Bektashiyya claimed to be a Sunni order, though in fact very unorthodox and having so
strong a reverence for the House of 'Ali that it might well be called a Shi'a order". 41

ejKvb A‡j Bmjvg cÖmv‡i †e³vkx ZwiKv AMªMY¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| G A‡j †hgb `wÿY Avj‡ewbqv,
DËi Mªxm, eyj‡Mwiqv, †gwm‡Wvwbqv I K‡mv‡fv‡Z Zv‡`i AvcÖvY ‡Póvq ax‡i ax‡i Bmjv‡gi wfwË ¯’vwcZ nq|
Avj‡ewbqvq Imgvbxq cieZx© mg‡q Giv wb‡R‡`i mybœx‡`i †_‡K GKwU c„_K m¤úª`vi iƒ‡c wPwýZ Ki‡Z mÿg
nq I ejKvb I Zrcvk¦©eZx© Ab¨vb¨ A‡j GKwU e¨wZµgx aviv wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡`i cÖmvi NUvq| æThe



39
     Frances Trix, The Sufi journey of Baba Rexheb, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, P.
1.
40
  The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol-2, Chicago, USA, 2002, P. 55-56.
41
  Trimingham, J. Spencer. The Sufi Orders in Islam. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.
1998, P. 80.
                                                18
Bektashi, unlike the other Sufi orders in the Balkans, though officially Sunni, are to be regarded
as essentially Shiite”. 42

eZ©gv‡b Zv‡`i‡K Zyi‡¯‹ †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| ZvQvov, ejKvb A‡ji Avj‡ewbqv Ges DËi Av‡gwiKvq cvwo
Rgv‡bv Avj‡ebxq‡`i g‡a¨ GB ZwiKvi AZ¨vwaK cÖPjb jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ci G‡`i Dc‡i
wbhv©Zb †b‡g Avm‡j †mwU BD‡iv‡ci evB‡i Qwo‡q c‡o| 1967 mv‡j Av‡bvqvi †nv¾v mKj mywd AvPvi-
Abyôvb I Ô‡ZwKÕ/`iMvn&/cªv_©bvjqÕ eÜ K‡i w`‡j Zviv Av‡gwiKvq Zv‡`i Kvh©µ‡gi m¤cÖmviY ïiæ K‡i|
Avj‡ewbqv G mgq wb‡R‡`i‡K c~Y© bvw¯ÍK ‡`k e‡j ‡NvlYv K‡i| 1990 mv‡j agx©q ixwZbxwZ cvj‡bi Dci
wb‡lavÁv cªZ¨vnv‡ii ci GwU ‡mLv‡b cybtcÖwZôv jvf K‡i| eZ©gv‡b G‡`i cÖavb †ZwKwU (cxiCfx)
Avj‡ewbqvi wZivbvq Aew¯’Z| Gi cÖav‡bi c`wU AjsK…Z K‡i Av‡Qb GWgÛ eviwngvR ms†ÿ‡c evev gwÛ
(Ryb- 2011), whwb nvRx wikv` eviw`nx w`w`evevÕi (1935-2011) ¯’jvwfwl³ nb| eZ©gv‡b 20% Avj‡ebxq
wb‡R‡`i Ô†e³vkxÕ e‡j cwiPq w`‡q _v‡K| Avj‡ebxq QvovI Zzi‡¯‹i wewfbœ ¯’vb †hgb- B¯Ív¤^yj, Avs¼viv,
BR&gxi cÖf„wZ ¯’v‡b G‡`i †`Lv hvq| GQvov nv‡½ix, wgmi, DËi Av‡gwiKv‡ZI (†WUª‡qU) G‡`i wKQz msL¨K
‡e³vkx‡`i †`Lv †g‡j|

‡e³vkx wkÿvi g~j Drm n‡jb Ava¨vwZ¡K ¸iæ ev gyiwk`| Ava¨vwZ¥K ¸iæi gva¨g Qvov Kv‡iv c‡ÿB AvwZ¥K
DrKl© jvf m¤¢e bq, †Kbbv Zvi gva¨‡gB ag©xq µxqvKjvc I m„wóKZ©vi AbyMÖn cÖv_©bv Kiv hvq| †e³vkxiv
kvwšÍ jvf ev Kv‡iv mc‡ÿ AbyMÖn jv‡fi Rb¨ ga¨¯’Zv ev AbyhvPbvq wek¦vmx (intercession)| G wek¦vmwU,
A‡_v©W· gymjgvb‡`i †_‡K m¤ú~Y© e¨wZµg hv Zv‡`i cÖv_wgK mg‡qi Ava¨vwZ¥K mvaK‡`i gv‡SI we`¨gvb
wQj| 43

mybœx gymjgvb‡`i †_‡K Zv‡`i Aci GKwU e¨wZµgx wek¦vm nj nhiZ Avjxi (iv.) cÖwZ gvÎvwZwi³
kª×vÁvcb| G‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡`i wkqv m¤cÖ`v‡qi Abyiƒc fvev nq| Z`ycwi A‡bK ag©ZvwË¡K welq¸‡jv wkqv‡`i
†_‡K wfbœ, Zviv Ava¨vwZ¡K ev giwg c_‡K †ekx ¸iæZ¡ †`q| Aciw`‡K nhiZ gynv¤§` (m.) I nhiZ Avjx
(iv.) m¤ú‡K© Zv‡`i †h aviYv †mwUI m¤ú~Y© e¨wZµg †hgb- nhiZ Avjx (iv.) I nhiZ gynv¤§`‡K (mv.) Zviv
GKB mËv wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡i, Z`zcwi Zviv nhiZ Avjx‡K (iv.) †ewk cÖvavb¨ †`q I †mŠRb¨ cÖ`k©b K‡i| Z‡e
Zviv Avjøvni evYxi GK‡Z¡ wek¦vmx I Zvi in‡m¨i wewfbœZvq wek¦vmx| 44

nhiZ Avjx‡K (iv.) †K›`ª K‡i Zviv `y‡Uv evwl©K Abyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb K‡i| GKwU nj ÔAvïivÕ, hv Avjxi cyÎ
Bgvg ûmvB‡bi Kvievjvq knx` nevi NUbv‡K ¯§iY K‡i cvwjZ nq| AciwU nj ÔbI‡ivRÕ hv m~‡h©i welye‡iLv
AwZµ‡gi mgq hLb w`b-ivwÎ mgvb nq A_©vr emšÍ Kv‡j, G w`bwU‡Z Zviv nhiZ Avjxi (iv.) Rb¥w`b
wn‡m‡e Drm‡ei Av‡qvRb K‡i|

GQvov, †e³vkx‡`i ‡ek wKQz Abykxjb Ab¨ ZwiKv¸‡jv n‡Z wfbœ gvÎv G‡b †`q, †hgb-`xÿveiY Abyôvb| 45
GwU m¤ú~Y© e¨w³MZ GKwU Abyôvb, GLv‡b †gvgevwZ, †fovi Pvgov I mywgó cvbxq e¨eüZ nq| G ZwiKvi
cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨‡KB Rxe‡b GKevi `xÿv MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| G mgq b…Z¨vbyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| b…Z¨vbyôv‡bi
jÿYxq w`KwU nj †h, gwnjviv †Kvbiƒc c`©v e¨wZZB cziæl‡`i mv‡_ GK‡Î GLv‡b Dcw¯’Z nq, mvaviYZ


42
   Norris, H.T. Islam in the Balkans. Religion and Society between Europe and
the Arab World, London: Hurst & Company, 1993, P. 89.
43
   John L. Esposito, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World, Vol-2, Oxford
University Press, NY-1995, P. 213.
44
   The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol-2, Chicago, USA, 2002, P. 55-56.
45
   Sufis in the Muslim World, June 2004 version, www.MuslimHope.com, retrieved on 6
March 2012.
                                               19
Bmjvgx mgv‡Ri Ab¨Î GwU †`Lv hvq bv| Avevi †e³vkx m¤cÖ`v‡qi cÖ‡Z¨K bi-bvixi Rb¨ G AbyôvbwU Aek¨
cvjbxq| Zv‡`i Aci GKwU Abykxjb nj, mg‡eZfv‡e Bk¦‡ii cÖksmv¯z‘wZ Kiv- hv Ava¨vwZ¡K csw³
(Ô‡bwdmÕ) Ave„wËi gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ nq| G mgq Lvevi I cvbxq h_vh_ ag©xq ixwZ Abyhvqx weZiY Kiv nq|
Zv‡`i Ab¨ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ˆewkó nj Bmjv‡gi †gŠwjK wKQz ixwZ-bxwZi cÖwZ J`vwmb¨, †hgb- ‡e³vkxMY cuvP
Iqv‡³i cwie‡Z© `yB Iqv³ bvgvR c‡o _v‡Kb| 46 wKsev ‡ivRv cvj‡b Abxnv, Z‡e Avïivi c~‡e©i `k w`b
Zviv GK ai‡bi we‡kl †ivRveªZ cvjb K‡i, G mgq cÖ‡Z¨K mܨvq Zviv D”P¯^‡i 16 kZ‡Ki GKRb ZzwK©
Kwe ÔdzRywjÕi iwPZ, nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) Gi `~`k©v‡K ‡K›`ª K‡i I knx`‡`i ¯§iY K‡i wjwLZ GK wfbœ
fveavivi KweZv cvV K‡i|

‡e³vkx‡`i m¤ú~Y© BwZnvm Ry‡oB G ÔA‰bwZKÕ ev ÔAb¨vqg~jKÕ Kg©Kv‡Ûi Rb¨ mybœx‡`i Øviv Zviv mgv‡jvwPZ
n‡q‡Q| †hgb- ag©xq Abykxj‡b wX‡jwg ev ‡Lvj‡gjvfv‡e gwnjv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i mv‡_ GK‡Î Abyôv‡b Dcw¯’Z
Kiv, be¨Zvwš¿Kfv‡e nhiZ Avjx‡K (iv.) nhiZ gynv¤§` (mv.) Gi D‡aŸ© ¯’vb †`qv ev Zuvi mgch©v‡q g‡b Kiv
BZ¨vw`| Avevi Zv‡`i `yÕRb‡K Avjøvni mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv|

G mKj mgv‡jvPbv m‡Ë¡I G ZwiKvwU Imgvbxq mvgªv‡R¨ we‡klZ kniv‡j cÖmvi jvf K‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î
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†jvK‡`i Kv‡Q G‡`i RbwcÖq K‡i †Zv‡j, d‡j eû Lªxóxq g‡Zi Abzmvix Bmjvg MÖnY K‡i| "Bektashism
in its peculiar Albanian form undermined all factions and opposites, mixed pagan,
Christian and Muslim elements, and stood for mystic unity, intellectual honesty, and
universal tolerance". 47

GQvov, †e³vkx‡`i Rvwbmvwi ˆmb¨‡`i mv‡_ GK we‡kl m¤úK© wQj, Zv‡`i A‡b‡KiB wcZvgvZv wQ‡jb Lªxóvb|
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Zv‡`i eû gZv`k© Rvwbmvwi‡`i †fZi msµwgZ nq| KviY, †e³vkxiv hvRK wn‡m‡e me©Î G‡`i mv‡_ ågb
Ki‡Zb I mym¤úK© eRvq ivL‡Zb| ‡bv‡qj e‡jb- "No doubt it (the Janissary Corps) had a
special appeal to soldiers who had been brought up as Christian children, given that



46
   John L. Esposito, New The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World, Vol-2, Oxford
University Press York-1995, P. 213.
47
   Ward, Philip. Albania: A Travel Guide. Cambridge: The Oleander Press, 1983, P. 103.
48
   John L. Esposito, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World. Vol. 2, Oxford
University Press, NY, 1995, P. 213.
                                                20
Bektashi adherents would drink wine and ignore the fast of Ramadan, and that their
version of Muslim theology included a quasi-trinitarian doctrine". 49

cieZ©xKv‡j eû †e³vkx Ô‡ZwKÕ aŸsm I Zv‡`i †bZv ev `i‡ek‡`i wbhv©Zb Kiv nq I wbe©vm‡b cvVv‡bv nq|
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Zuvi ZwiKvq ZzwK© ms¯‹…wZi eû cÖfve †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq|




49
  Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo A Short History. New York: New York University Press, 1998, P.
135.
                                                21
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MÖš’cwÄ

      1. Arberry, A.J. Sufism: an Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: Allen and
         Unwin, 1950.
      2. Amin,     Hussein   Abdul    waheed.     Islam    for   Today.    No   date.
         http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.html
      3. Birge, John Kingsley, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, London, 1937.



50
     ZzwK© mvs¯‹…wZK dD‡Ûkb, ms¯‹…wZwelqK gš¿Yvjq, Zzi毋|
                                                        22
4. Doja, Albert. Confraternal Religion: From Liberation Theology To Political
    Reversal, University OF Limerick, History AND Anthropology, 2003 Vol. 14
    (4), PP. 349–381.
5. E.J. BRILL, The Encyclopedia of Islam, V-1, Leiden, 1979, Netherland.
6. Encyclopædia Britannica. ―Bektashi, 2010. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-
    9015166
7. nvwjg, †gvt Avãyj. gymwjg `k©b: †PZbv I cÖevn, 1998, evsjv GKv‡Wwg, XvKv|
8. Irene Melikoff, Hadji Bektach : UN Mythe Et Ses Avatars : Genese Et
    Evolution Du Soufisme Populaire En Turquie (Islamic History and Civilization.
    Studies and Texts, 1998.
9. Imtiaz Ahmed, Sufis & Sufism: A closer look at the journey of Sufis to
    Bangladesh, Middle East Institute, Singapore, July 2010.
10. John L. Esposito, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World. Vol-2,
    Oxford University Press, NY-1995.
11. Küçük, Hülya. The Role of the Bektashis in Turkey's National Struggle,
    Jaargang 2, number 1, Publication date: May 2002 (440 pp.)
12. Khan, Masood Ali & S. Ram (Ed), Encyclopedia of Sufism, 2003, New Delhi,
    P:1-13
13. In        Your         Pocket.       ―The          Bektashi        Sect.      1995–2010.
    http://www.inyourpocket.com/albania/tirana/The-Bektashi-sect-70140f?more=1
14. Justice, Phyllis G. Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia.
    ―Bektash Wali, Haji [p. 113].                                            ‖ 2 0 0 4 . S an ta B arb ara, C A :
                                                                             -CLIO, Inc.
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    Christian               Influences.             13             October                2008.
    http://www.worldmayor.com/worldmayor_2004/tirana_history.html
16. Mcclear, Susan A. Albanians And Their Culture: A Study Of Their Defining
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18. Pettifer, Blue Guide: Albania. New York: WW Norton, 1994.
19. ingvb, dRjyi. Bmjvg, 2q ms¯‹iY wkKv‡Mv wek¦we`¨vjq, 1979|
20. Ramsaur, Earnest. The Bektashi Dervishes and Young Turks, The Muslim
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25. Vargmal. ―Religion in Albania (or the Lack Thereof): 2.3 Places of Worship.
    2000–2010. http://varg mal.org !dan 1628


                                             23
                       wk‡í Kíbv I mgMÖZv
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                                          24
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Kíbve„wËi KvR n‡jv wbZ¨ bZzb iƒc D™¢veb K‡i g‡bi iƒc †`qvi Z…òv †gUv‡bv| wkíxiv
wb‡R‡`i Kíbvq eû wewPÎ iƒc D™¢veb K‡ib-ev¯Íe Aev¯ÍeZvi wPšÍv bv K‡i ev mZ¨wg_¨v
hvPvB bv K‡i , Awfbe iƒc m„wó KivB Zv‡`i KvR| Kwe ,fv¯‹i ,wPÎKi ,myiKvi Ñ Giv mevB
Kíbv RM‡Zi gvbyl| Zuv‡`i m„wó Db¥v`bvi m„wó | G n‡jv wkím„wó mg¦‡Ü Kíbvev`x‡`i g~j
aviYv| m½x‡Zi ÔK‡¤úvwRkbÕ welqwU wkíxi KíbviB ewn©cÖKvk Ges †kÖvZvI †h †m m½xZ
ï‡b Avb›` jvf K‡ib ZvI Kíbvi gva¨‡gB |iex›`ªbv_ G cÖm‡½ ivgvqY iPbvq evj¥xwK m¤^‡Ü
†mB Kíbvi cÖm½B G‡b‡Qb : ÔKwe.Ze g‡bvf’wg iv‡gi Rb¥¯’vb, A‡hva¨vi †P‡q mZ¨ †R‡bv|Õ
GB weï× Kíbvi RMrB wkíxi Kv‡Q m„wói Avfvm Av‡b|

1.4 wkí Kíbvi m„wóÑ cÖvPxb I ga¨hy‡M Ggb aviYv _vK‡jI Zv GLbKvi g‡Zv ¯úó wQj bv|
†cø‡Uv I A¨vwi÷Uj wkí‡K ÔAbyKiYÕ ej‡jI Zuviv wkí‡K c‡ivÿfv‡e m„Rbkxj Kíbvi cÖfve
e‡j g‡b K‡i‡Qb|Gwi÷Uj e‡j‡Qb , ÔKwei KvR bq hv N‡U‡Q Zv eY©bv Kiv wKšÍ hv NU‡Z
cv‡i Zv ejvÕ A_v©r wkí wbQK ev¯Í‡ei AbyKiY bq, Zv n‡e m¤¢ve¨ Av`k©vwqZ iƒc| Avi GB
Av`k©vwqZ iƒc †h Kíbvi Avkªqx n‡e †m K_v mn‡RB †evSv hvq|cÖm½µ‡g Gwi÷Uj BwZnvm
I Kve¨wk‡íi cv_©K¨ m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z wM‡q e‡j‡Qb : GKwU Avgv‡`i Rvbvq hv N‡U‡Q Ges
Ab¨wU hv NU‡Z cv‡i|Ôhv NU‡Z cv‡iÕÑ Gi g‡a¨ Kíbvi f~wgKv A‡bK †ekx|Av‡iKRb wMÖK
`vk©wbK wd‡jvm‡UªUvm whwb `„pZvi m‡½ wk‡í Kíbv‡K ¯^xK…wZ †`b Ges e‡jb AbyKiY Kíbv
A‡cÿv Av‡iv `ÿ KvwiMi| KviY AbyKiY iƒc †`q hv †`‡L‡Q Zvi wKšÍ Kíbv GwM‡q hvq hv
†`‡L wb Zvi w`‡K | Kv›U ,†kwjs wf‡Kv cÖgyL `vk©wbK Kíbv wb‡q K_v e‡j‡Qb |
1.5 Kíbvi ¯^iƒc‡K D`NvUb K‡i ZviB wfwˇZ whwb wkíZË¡ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb, whwb
cÖK…ZA‡_© LuvwU Kíbvev‡`i cÖeZ©K,wZwb BZvvwji †e‡b‡`‡Ëv †µv‡P| †µv‡P e‡jb :
Kíbve„wË eyw×wbi‡cÿ I ü`qv‡eMgy³ GKwU ¯^Zš¿e„wË ; †PZbvq iƒc wb‡q cÖwZfvZ
nIqv gv‡bB Kíbv | Kíbv Zuvi Kv‡Q g‡bi ˆPZb¨‡`‡k cÖZ¨qivwRi cÖKvk ev
iƒcvqY|mnR K‡i ej‡j ej‡Z nq , Kíbv n‡jv g‡bi GKwU mij cÖKvk hvi g‡a¨ fve
I fvebvi †Kvb weKíbv †bB Ñ †hb Avcbv AvcwbB M‡o IVv A‡bK¸‡jv Qwe|‡µv‡Pi
Kv‡Q Kíbv Ávbwe‡kl , g‡bi Ggb GKwU iƒc hv eû ˆewP‡Î¨i g‡a¨ HK¨ wb‡q
D™¢vwmZ| m½x‡Zi D`vni‡Y ejv hvq, wewfbœ aŸwb I myicÖZ¨q AvZ¥vi Mfxi †_‡K †Kvb
iƒc wb‡q hLb g‡bi ˆPZb¨ ¯Í‡i D™¢vwmZ nq ZLbB nq my‡ii m„wó | g‡b my‡ii D™¢eB
n‡jv my‡ii Kíbv |Kíbvi KvR g‡bi g‡a¨ my‡ii Qwe M‡o †Zvjv Ñ eyw× ev Av‡eM w`‡q
bq| Kíbv n‡jv weï× a¨vb , GB a¨v‡bi iƒcB m½xZ |



                                       25
1.6 Kíbvev` wkíZ‡Ë¡ eo Avmb `Lj K‡i _vK‡jI eyw× ev A‡eM‡K wk‡í Lv‡Uv K‡i
†`Lvi Dcvq †bB|mv_©K wk‡í Avgiv eyw×i cÖKvk †`wL ,Av‡e‡Mi DrmviYI †`wL|
KweZvq Q›` wbg©v‡Y ,m½x‡Zi Zvb-Zvj wbg©v‡Y , Dcb¨v‡mi cwiPh©vq , ¯’vc‡Z¨I
wbg©vY‡KŠk‡j Kíbvi †P‡q MwY‡Zi Pzj‡Puov wnmve Av‡iv †ewk ¸iæ‡Z¡i `vwe iv‡L|

2.1 wk‡í mgMÖZv(Totality) n‡”Q mg¯Z w`K †_‡K c~Y©v½ GKwU wkí A_©vr GKwU
Av`k© wk‡í †h mg¯Z ¸Yvejx ev ˆewkó¨ _vKv cÖ‡qvRb Zvi me¸‡jvB H wk‡í we`¨gvb
|GKwU mv_©K wk‡íi Rb¨ cÖ_‡gB cÖ‡qvRb welq wbe©vPb | wkíx Kx ej‡Qb Ñ Zuvi welq
wK? wZwb wK †cÖ‡gi K_v ej‡Qb ? wec- ei K_v ej‡Qb? weÁv‡bi ev Ae¶‡qi K_v
ej‡Qb? welq wbe©vP‡bi ci wØZxq cÖ‡qvRb : wZwb †Kgb K‡i ej‡Qb? GKRb mvwn‡Z¨i
mvaK , wZwb M‡`¨ wjL‡eb e‡j wVK K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ M‡`¨iI A‡bK dg© | wZwb wK
†QvUM‡íi AvKv‡i bv Dcb¨v‡m ej‡eb? bvwK bvU‡Ki Avw½‡K wjL‡eb ? KweZviI Av‡Q
A‡bK dg©Ñ m‡bU, MxwZKve¨ BZ¨vw` | eûwea welq †hgb i‡q‡Q †Zgwb i‡q‡Q eûwea
Avw½K| wkímªóv‡K mv_©K wkím„wói Rb¨ welq I Avw½K Dfqw`KB we‡ePbv I g~j¨vqb
Ki‡Z nq|

2.2 welq I Avw½K BZ¨vw`i web¨vmI GK GK wk‡í GK GK iKg |aiv hvK gvwbK
e‡›`¨vcva¨v‡qi ÔcÙv b`xi gvwSÕ Dcb¨vmwU | GB Dcb¨vmwU‡Z(Totality) Av‡Q e‡j
mgv‡jvPKMY g‡b K‡ib| GB Dcb¨v‡m cÖPwjZ Av‡iv `kwU Dcb¨v‡mi g‡ZvB GKwU
Kvwnwb , wKQz PwiÎ Ges mgvRwPÎ Av‡Q | mgMÖZv G‡m‡Q Kvwnbx I Pwi‡Îi †gj e܇bi
ga¨ w`‡q | †jLK GKwU Rxeb‡ev‡ai K_v e‡j‡Qb, GKwU bZzb Rxeb I mgv‡Ri K_v
e‡j‡Qb, e‡j‡Qb gvbe Rxe‡bi AcÖwZ‡iva¨ -Aj•Nbxq Kvgbv-evmbvi K_v | Dcb¨v‡mi
fvlv ,msjvc, PwiÎ iƒcvqY me wKQz wg‡jB GKwU H‡K¨i m„wó K‡i‡Q |

Ugvm GKzBbvm (1226Ñ1274) wk‡í mgMÖZv cÖm‡½ ej‡Z wM‡q e‡jb: K. wkíwU n‡e
wbLyuZ| L. Dcv`vbmg~‡ni h_vh_ mgš^q bv NU‡j wkí bv›`wbK nq bv | Dcv`vbmg~‡ni
mvgÄm¨Zv GKzBbv‡mi Kv‡Q ¸iyZ¡c~Y© welq | M. cÖvÄjZv | wkí K…wÎg e‡j g‡b n‡j ev
Kómva¨ m„wó n‡j g‡b my›`i jv‡M bv |wkí n‡e ¯^Ztù’Z© |
2.3 GKwU ¸‡Yi Dcw¯’wZ _vK‡Z cv‡i - ¸YwU gyL¨ wKš‘ wkí mv_©KZvi Rb¨ h‡_ó bq |
A‡bKMy‡jv ¸‡Yi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z wkíwU wbwg©Z nq| Avevi A‡bK my›`i my›`i e¯‘ GKÎ
Ki‡jB wbwg©Z e¯‘ my›`i nq bv | Dcv`vbmg~‡ni cwigvY , e¨envi-we¯Z…wZ eûwea
wel‡qi Ici wbf©i K‡i mvgÄm¨Zv M‡o I‡V|‰eòe AvPvh© kªxi~c †Mv¯^vgxi GKwU Dw³
G cÖm‡½ D‡j-L Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i |Ôf‡er †mŠ›`h©g½vbvs mwbœ‡e‡k h‡_vwPZg&Õ|

2.4 cÖK…Z A‡_© wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi ev A½mg~‡ni h_vh_ mwbœ‡ek bv n‡j wk‡í c~Y©v½Zv
Av‡m bv| Dcv`vbmg~n wb‡R‡`i AšZnxb iƒcvfv‡m †mŠ›`h©‡K aviY K‡i| D`vniY¯^iƒc
                                     26
GKwU Mv‡bi K_v ejv hvq| GKwU Mvb‡K ZLbB m¤ú~Y© Mvb ejv hvq, hLb Mv‡bi
welqwUi m‡½ m½wZ †i‡L myi Kiv nq| my›`i welq Z_v evYxi m‡½ hw` my›`i myi
nq‡Zvev †kªvZvi ü`qMÖvnx n‡e| wKš‘ fvj fve I fv‡jv my‡ii Mvb hw` fv‡jv K‡Éi
†Kvb wkíx cwi‡ekb bv K‡ib Z‡e Zv my›`i n‡e bv | Avevi fv‡jv Mvq‡KiI we‡kl
wKQz †KŠkj Av‡Q - hv Mvb‡K wfbœ gvÎv †`q | GKwU Mvb `yRb wkíxi MvIqvq `yiKg nq
| GB wfbœZvi KviY wkíxi MvqKx wkíxi myicÖ‡¶cY(throwing) | †QvU †QvU PvZzh©c~Y©
               y
gxo ,MgK ,kªwZi Dc¯’vcb ev welq-myi Abymv‡i MvbwU‡K my›`i Kivi wbR¯^
¸Yvejx|Gme †QvU †QvU KvR wkí‡K bv›`wbK K‡i-¯^vZš¿¨ `vb K‡i|
2.5 †h wk‡í evûj¨ _v‡K †m wkí‡K cwÛZMY `total art’ ej‡Z bvivR | mv_©K wk‡í
A‡bK Dcv`vbB _vK‡e wKš‘Dcv`vb¸‡jv n‡Z n‡e cwigvYg‡Zv| AwZwi³ ev fvwi
Aj¼vi †m‰›`h© evovq bv eis Zv wk‡íi †mŠ›`h©nvwb NUvq | cwiwgwZ‡eva wkíxi Rb¨
Acwinvh¨©| cwiwgwZ wkí‡K Mv¤¢xh© `vb K‡i |
2.6 †m›U AMvw÷b (1227Ñ1274) wk‡í HK¨ , mgZv I k„•LjZv‡K mwe‡kl ¸iyZ¡ †`b
| ZvRgnj GKwU c~Y©v½ ¯’vcZ¨wk‡íi wb`k©b |ZvRgn‡ji MVb‰kjx , Dcv`vbmg~‡ni
k„sLjv, Aj¼v‡ii wbLyuZ cÖ‡qvM mewKQz wg‡jB ZvRgnj‡K mgMÖZv w`‡q‡Q |fviZxq
cwÛZMY cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB mv_©K wk‡í mZ¨ I Kj¨v‡Yi Acwinvh© Dcw¯’wZ cÖZ¨vkv
K‡i‡Qb| cvðvZ¨ wkíiwmKMYI evi evi e‡j‡Qb, GKwU fv‡jv wkí gvby‡li AvZ¥v‡K
DbœZ Ki‡e Ñ gvby‡li bxwZ I Av`‡k©i †eva‡K kvwYZ Ki‡e | Avi Aek¨B DrK…ó wkí
ev¯ZeZv‡K wfwË K‡i gvbyl‡K Avb›` †`‡e | GKwU m¤ú~Y© wkí eve evi †`‡LI mva
†g‡U bv | GKwU Mvb Avgiv evi evi ïwb ,GKwU bvUK ev wm‡bgv evi evi †`wL |Zvi
KviY H wk‡í wPišZbZv Av‡Q Ñ gvbe ü`‡qi wPiKv‡ji †LvivK Av‡Q |

2.7 wk‡íi mgMÖZv †Kv_vq Ñ †kl K_v †eva nq Kv‡iv c‡¶B ejv m¤¢e bq | G
A‡bKUv igYx †`‡ni jve‡Y¨i gZ me©e¨vß Ñ hvi eY©bv w`‡jI A‡bKvskB †_‡K hvq
eY©bvZxZ |



                           evsjv Dcb¨v‡m cuwP‡k gvP©

                                      my`xß Aqb nvbœvb


Dwbk kÕ evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi ga¨ w`‡q evOvwji ¯^iƒc †PZbv cÖLi n‡q DVwQ‡jv| GB
¯^iƒc †PZbvB evOvwj‡K DØy× K‡i‡Q cvwK¯Ívb iv‡óªi cxob †kvlY I eÂbvi weiy‡× GK
kw³kvjx ivR‰bwZK hy‡× AeZxY© n‡Z| `yB `k‡Ki ivR‰bwZK hy× †k‡lÕ 71 Gi cuwP‡k
                                         27
gv‡P©i MYnZ¨v evOvwj‡K eva¨ K‡iwQ‡jv Aw¯Í‡Z¡i GK msMÖv‡g, gyw³hy‡×| cvwK¯Ívbx mvgwiK
evwnbx †h ee©i nZ¨vhÁ Pvwj‡qwQ‡jv wbi¯¿ evOvwji Dci gyw³hy‡×i ïiy‡Z 25†k gv‡P©i
ÔKvjiv‡ZÕ Zuvi Zzjbv c„w_exi †Kv‡bv gyw³hy‡×i BwZnv‡m †bB| gyw³hy‡×i cÖ¯ËwZ
cÖvwZôvwbKfv‡e bv _vK‡jI evsjvi gvbyl Ges Zv‡`i †bZ…Z¡ wKQyUv n‡jI eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jv
mk¯¿ msMÖvg Qvov AwaKvi Av`vq m¤¢e n‡e bv| ZvB gv‡P©i cÖ_g †_‡K evsjv‡`k QvÎ
BDwbq‡bi Kg©x‡`i A¯¿ cÖwkÿY wb‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| 25 ZvwiL Bqvwnqvi †eZvi e³…Zv †`Iqvi
K_v wQ‡jv, wKš‘ mnRvZ PµvšÍKvix cvwK¯Ívbx †mbvkvmK †mB iv‡ZB AZwK©‡Z AvµgY K‡i
evsjv‡K| mK‡jB hLb †cÖwm‡W‡›Ui fvl‡Yi Rb¨ D`MÖxe ZLwb Lei cvIqv †Mj Bqvwnqv
†mbvevwnbx‡K kni `L‡ji Av‡`k w`‡q‡Qb| evsjvi AvKvk evZvm, c_- cÖvšÍi, gvV-
NvU,‡`vKvb e¨emv cÖwZôvb, ®‹zj- K‡jR, gnjvq gnjvq, evwo‡Z evwo‡Z †m w`b †b‡g
G‡mwQ‡jv `ywe©ln wefxwlKvgq Rxeb| †mB `„k¨cU evsjv Dcb¨v‡m KL‡bv I‡V G‡m‡Q ûeû
cÖwZ”Qwe wn‡m‡e, KL‡bv Kvwnbxi avivevwnKZvq LÛ LÛ wPÎ wn‡m‡e|


QvweŸ‡k gvP© Ges ZrcieZ©x w`bmg~‡ni †h wPÎ Zv Av‡bvqvi cvkvi ÔivB‡dj †ivwU AvIivZÕ,
iv‡eqv LvZz‡bi Ô‡divix m~h©;, kIKZ Avjxi ÔhvÎvÕ, ikx` nvq`v‡ii ÔLuvPvqÕ, AvgRv`
†nv‡m‡bi Ôhy× hvÎvi ivwÎÕ Dcb¨vmmg~‡n †ek ¯^”QZvq dz‡U I‡V‡Q| Gme Dcb¨v‡m gyw³hy‡×i
cÖvK&Kv‡ji bMi Rxe‡bi fqvenZv; gvby‡li wbKU me‡P‡q wcÖq †h Rxeb †mB Rxe‡bi wbwe©Pvi
mgvwß Ges m¤¢ve¨ g„Zz¨i fqvenZvq Kvd©y Ges cvK‡mbv †ewóZ GK cÖKvi e›`x Rxeb, Zvi GK
DrKU wPÎ i‡q‡Q|


1947 Gi 14 B AvM÷ cvwK¯Ívb bvgK †h iv‡óªwUi m~Pbv n‡qwQ‡jv †mLv‡b `yB wfbœ ms¯‹…wZ-
RvZxqZv Ges m¤ú~Y© `yB †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb‡K GK K‡i ivóªxq KvVv‡gv‡Z wb‡q Avmv
n‡qwQ‡jv| evOvwj `yB hyM cvwK¯Ívbx kvmb †kvl‡Y wb‡®úwlZ n‡qwQ‡jv| mËi Gi wbe©vPb
evOvwj‡K cy‡iv cvwK¯Ív‡bi kvmb ÿgZv jv‡fi AwaKvi w`‡jI KzPµx cvwK¯Ívbx mvgwiK kvmK
m¤cÖv`vq Zv †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| eis Zviv evOvwj‡K wPiZ‡i ¯Íä K‡i †`qvi cwiKíbv
wn‡m‡e bxjbKkv †gvZv‡eK G‡Ki ci GK ˆeVK Ki‡Z _v‡K Ges Bmjvgvev`, KivwP †_‡K
A¯¿ I ˆmb¨ G‡b XvKvmn evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb kni¸‡jv‡Z wb‡qvwRZ K‡i| Ae‡k‡l 25†k
gv‡P©i ÔKvjiv‡ZÕ c~e© cwiKíbv Abyhvqx wbixn RbZvi Dci AZwK©‡Z AvµgY K‡i| 25†k
gv‡P©i iv‡Z mvivivZ wbwe©Pvi MYnZ¨v NwU‡q 26 ZvwiL Kvd©y w`‡q cy‡iv bMievmx‡K Aeiy× K‡i
iv‡L Ges 26 †k gv‡P©i iv‡Z Avevi nZ¨vh‡Á †g‡Z I‡V| Ò‡m wK gvÎ `y†Uv ivZ | `y†Uv hyM
†hbÓ wQ‡jv bMievmxi wbKU| bMievmx ey‡S wb‡qwQ‡jv †mB `yB ivZ wQ‡jv ÒcvwK¯Ívbx `yB
hy‡Mi mvigg©Ó|

cvwK¯Ívwb `yB hy‡Mi kvm‡bi d‡j evOvwji g‡b †h †ÿv‡fi mÂvi n‡qwQ‡jv Zv‡K e›`y‡Ki bj
w`‡q `gb Kivi cÖšZzwZ cvwK¯Ívwb kvmKiv cy‡iv gvP© Ry‡oB wb‡qwQ‡jv| gv‡P©i cuwPk ZvwiL
Bqvwnqv Lvb Avµg‡Yi wb‡`©k w`‡q cwðg cvwK¯Ívb P‡j hvq| iv‡ZB we‡kl we‡kl GjvKvq
cvK ‡mbvevwnbx Suvwc‡q c‡o| N‡i N‡i Xy‡K ev½vwj‡K gv‡i| †Kv_vI g„Z‡`n¸‡jv †i‡L †M‡Q
                                          28
KL‡bv g„Z‡`n mwi‡q wb‡q †M‡Q| mwi‡q †bqv jvk GK RvqMvq R‡ov K‡i gvwU Pvcv w`‡q‡Q|
we‡kl we‡kl GjvKv Av¸b R¡vwj‡q cywo‡q w`‡q‡Q , wek¦we`¨vjq GjvKvi BKevj n‡ji cÖ‡fv÷
Awd‡mi mvg‡b †m Av¸b QvweŸk ZvwiL mKvj GMv‡ivUv ch©šÍ R¡‡j‡Q| cuwP‡ki iv‡Z Pvicv‡k
ïay Av¸‡bi dzjwK †`Lv †M‡Q| †auvqv Av¸‡b †gjv‡gwk PZzw`©K| evRvi cy‡o †kl| Av¸b
cuwP‡ki iv‡ZB AvIjv` †nv‡mb †j‡bi †`vKvb¸‡jv‡K f®§xf~Z K‡i †d‡j‡Q| GB Ae¯’vq
evB‡i †ei n‡j ¸wj †L‡q gi‡Z n‡e, †fZ‡i _vK‡j Av¸‡b cy‡o givi fq- Ggwb wQ‡jv
cuwP‡ki †mB ivZ| mviv iv‡Zi AvµgY †k‡l mg¯Í XvKv kni †Kgb †hb n‡q hvq|
†KvjvnjgyLi bvMwiK Rxe‡b †b‡g Av‡m †Kgb GK AwePj wb¯ÍäZv| cÖ‡Z¨K evwoi N‡ii
`iRv- Rvbvjv eÜ| †Kv‡bv mvovkã †bB| a~ a~ Rbk~Y¨ iv¯ÍvNvU| XvKv kn‡ii hyeK, QvÎ I
ivR‰bwZK Kg©x †¯^”Qv‡meKiv cvwb¯Ívwb‡`i hy× cÖ¯ZzwZ wel‡q †KD †KD wKQyUv Abygvb Ki‡Z
nq‡Zv †c‡iwQ‡jv, wKš‘ cuwP‡ki iv‡Z Ges ZrieZ©x w`b `y‡q‡Ki fqvenZvi KvQvKvwQ aviYvq
Zviv †cuŠQ‡Z cv‡i wb| d‡j AwaKvsk mvaviY gvby‡li †fZiUv f‡q wng n‡q wM‡qwQ‡jv,
AvZ‡¼i Qvqv c‡owQ‡jv †Pv‡L- gy‡L|

wbe©vwPZ RbcÖwZwbwai nv‡Z ÿgZv wdwi‡q w`‡Z n‡j cvwK¯Ív‡bi kvmb ÿgZv e½eÜz †kL
gywReyi ingv‡bi nv‡Z Zz‡j bv †`Iqvi weKí Bqvwnqvi nv‡Z wQ‡jv bv| KviY e½eÜz ZLb
cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvaviY wbe©vP‡b msL¨vMwiô Avm‡b weRqx| A_P weRqx †bZvi nv‡Z cvwK¯Ív‡bi
kvmbfvi wdwi‡q bv w`‡q Bqvwnqv cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvgwiK Awdmvi‡`i m‡½ Av‡jvPbv K‡iB P~ovšÍ
wm×všÍ wb‡qwQ‡jv| cuwP‡ki iv‡Z †hfv‡e cvK †mbvevwnbx Suvwc‡q c‡owQ‡jv wbi¯¿ evOvwji
Ici Zv‡Z eySv hvq cvwK¯Ívwb †PZbvi evB‡ii Ges wkwÿZ I evOvwj RvZxqZvev‡`i aviK me
eyw×Rxex, QvÎ hyeK m‡e©vcwi evsjv‡K Rbk~Y¨ Kivi cwiKíbv wb‡qwQ‡jv| Zviv nvm‡Z nvm‡Z
evOvwj‡K jvBb a‡i `uvo Kwi‡q‡Q, nvm‡Z nvm‡Z mevB‡K ¸wj K‡i‡Q| iv¯Ív- NvU cvov- gnjv
GLv‡b †mLv‡b AMwYZ jvk †`Lv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ Zv‡`i wQ‡jv bv, D‡Ïk¨ wQ‡jv m¤¢ve¨ cvwK¯Ívb
we‡ivax‡`i wbwðý Kiv| ZvB cuwP‡ki c‡ii w`‡b Kvd©y w`‡q XvKv‡K Aeiy× K‡i ivLv
n‡qwQ‡jv, hv‡Z c‡ii w`b Zv‡`i wPwýZ GjvKvq, evwo‡Z Avevi AvµgY K‡i evOvwj wba‡b
†g‡Z IVv hvq| iv¯Ívq iv¯Ívq wQ‡jv †mbv †evSvB Mvwo, Unj w`w”Qj ivB‡dj ZvK K‡i| Ggb
Ae¯’vq evOvwj iv¯Ívq †ei n‡Z mvnm cvq wb, iv¯Ívi cv‡kB hv‡`i evwo, DrKÉvq iƒ× n‡q
G‡m‡Q Zv‡`i wbtk¦vm| Rxeb Pvjbv nVvr _g‡K †M‡Q, _g‡K †M‡Q gvby‡li Rxeb hvÎv|


mËi Gi wbe©vP‡b evOvwji wecyj weR‡qB wba©vwiZ n‡q wM‡qwQ‡jv evOvwj Avi c`vbZ n‡q
_vK‡e bv| Zvici GKvˇii gv‡P©i DËvj w`b¸‡jv‡Z Av‡iv Zv‡ci mÂvvi nq e½eÜzi 7B
gv‡P©i fvl‡Yi ci| KcU, cÖZviK Ges wg‡_¨ev`x cvwK¯Ívwb‡`i Ici †_‡K evOvwji wek¦vm
I‡V wM‡qwQ‡jv| ZvB Av‡jvPbvi bv‡g mgq KvUv‡bvi duv‡KB evOvwj A‡bK RvqMvq
gyw³msMÖv‡gi Rb¨ cÖšÍZ nw”Q‡jv| XvKv kn‡ii cvovq cvovq A‡bK KwgwU MVb n‡qwQ‡jv
m¤¢ve¨ cwiw¯’wZ †gv‡Kevjvi Rb¨| A¯¿ cÖwkÿ‡Yi welqwUI XvKv kn‡i n‡q‡Q| evOvwj †hb
eyS‡ZB †c‡iwQ‡jv mk¯¿ msMÖvg Awbevh© n‡q c‡o‡Q| ZvB mk¯¿ msMÖv‡gi wPšÍv gv_vq †i‡L
XvKv kn‡ii QvÎ- hye‡bZviv Zv‡`i cÖv_vwgK cÖ¯ËwZ wel‡q m‡PZb n‡qwQ‡jv| evOvwj gyw³
msMÖv‡gi Rb¨ †hfv‡e cÖ¯ËZ wQ‡jv, gyw³hy‡×i Dcb¨vmmg~‡n Zv †Zgb D¾¡jZvq cÖKvk bv
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†c‡jI cuwP‡k gv‡P©i Avµg‡Yi ci evOvwji cÖwZ‡iva wPÎ Dcb¨vmmg~‡n wewÿßfv‡e n‡jI
A‡bKUv ev¯ÍeZvi wbwi‡LB we‡kwlZ n‡q‡Q| ÔcÖwZ‡iva wP‡ÎiÕ bvbv w`K Avgiv cvB ÔivB‡dj
†ivwU AvIivZÕ, Ô‡divix m~h©Õ, ÔhvÎvÕ, cvwK¯Ívbx †mbvevwnbx c~e© cwiKwíZfv‡e cuwP‡k gv‡P©i
iv‡Z evOvwji Dci Suvwc‡q c‡o| e½eÜzi m‡½ Bqvwnqvi Av‡jvPbv eÜ n‡q hvIqvq evOvwji
g‡b mk¯¿ msMÖvg I m¤¢ve¨ cÖ‡iv‡ai wPšÍvi welqwU cÖvavb¨ cvq| QvÎ, hyeK I cvovq cvovq
†hme fjvw›Uqvi wQ‡jv Zviv kni GjvKvq cÖ‡ek gy‡L, iv¯Ívq m„wó K‡i e¨vwi‡KW| e‡ov e‡ov
MvQ †K‡U iv¯Ívq cÖwZeÜKZv m„wó Kiv nq| wKš‘ iv‡Zi fqven nvgjvq ivRvievM cywjk jvBb,
wek¦we`¨vjq GjvKv, kn‡ii we‡kl we‡kl RbemwZ, evRvimn evsjv‡`‡ki A‡bK ¯’v‡bI GK
Îv‡mi ivRZ¡ Kv‡qg K‡i cvK kvmK I †mbvevwnbx| Zviv AZwK©‡Z, fqven I wbg©g nvgjv
Pvwj‡q evOvwj‡K ¯Íä K‡i w`‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jv| wKš‘ evsjvi `~išÍ hyemgvR, †`k†cÖwgK cywjk,
†mbvevwnbx, I Avbmvi Gi m`m¨iv †h cªv_wgK cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zz‡jwQ‡jv Zv‡Z cvwK¯Ívbx‡`i
¯^cœ c~iY n‡Z cv‡iwb| ax‡i ax‡i mgMÖ evsjvq cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡jv evOvwjiv| ivRvievM
cywjk jvBb cÖ_g iv‡ZB AvµgY Kiv n‡qwQ‡jv| †eu‡P hvIqv cywjk m`m¨ Zvi m½x‡`i g„Zz¨i
I gv- †evb‡`i B¾‡Zi e`jv †bqvi Rb¨ `„ß kc‡_ ewjqvb n‡q I‡V| `„pZvq e‡j : Avgv‡`i
KZ eÜz‡K Iiv †g‡i †djj, gv- †ev‡bi B¾Z wbj- Avgiv Zvi †kva †be bv? †Lv`vi Kmg,
Avgvi gv‡qi Kmg, Avgvi i‡³i Kmg Avgiv Gi †kva †beB †be|

 †h RvwZ ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨, gyw³i Rb¨, AKvZ‡i Rxeb w`‡Z Rv‡b †m RvwZ‡K †ewkw`b
civaxbZvi k„•L‡j Ave× ivLv hvq bv Ñ †gŠj mZ¨ evOvwj wek¦vm Ki‡Zv wb‡Ri Aw¯Í‡Z¡i
g‡ZvB| d‡j cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvkvmK Bqvwnqv evOvwji Ici Zvi mk¯¿ ˆmb¨evwnbx‡K †jwj‡q
w`‡j evsjvi Avcvgi RbMb wmØvšÍ wb‡Z †`ix K‡i wb| N‡i N‡i †Xv‡K †mbvevwnbx †hfv‡e
evOvwj‡K nZ¨v Kiv ïiy K‡iwQ‡jv- †m Ae¯’vq evOvwj ey‡S wb‡qwQ‡jv webv cÖwZ‡iv‡a givi †P‡q
`yÕ GKUv‡K †g‡i giv fv‡jv- GB †eva †_‡KB evOvwj GK Amg cÖwZ‡iva M†o †Zv‡j cÖ_g
w`‡K| wb‡Ri kixiB wQ‡jv Zv‡`i Xvj; nv‡Z nq‡Zv †Kv‡bv †`kxq A¯¿- jvwV ev cyiv‡bv
ivB‡dj, e›`yK| wKš‘ me‡P‡q eo A¯¿ wQ‡jv AKvZ‡i gi‡Z cvivi `ytmvnm| gi‡Z hvIqvi
B”QvB wQ‡jv Ab¨Zg cÖwZ‡iva A¯¿| evOvwj gi‡Z gi‡Z mviv evsjvq GK AcÖwZ‡iva¨ cÖwZ‡iva
M‡o †Zv‡j| N‡ii g‡a¨ givi †P‡q GLv‡b `uvwo‡q `yÕ GKUv †g‡i giv fv‡jv| †m Rb¨ bvgnxb
AMwYZ gyw³‡hv×v Ni ‡_‡K iv¯Ívq †ei n‡q G‡mwQ‡jv|

Ô‡divix m~h©Õ Dcb¨v‡m, †Uª‡bi jvBi D‡ë †djvi welqwU Av‡Q| ïa~ jvBb D‡ë †djvi welq
bq, ewMI wPr K‡i †Uªb jvB‡b †i‡L †`Iqvi wPÎ cvIqv hvq|
AvµvšÍ GjvKv Ges m¤¢ve¨ AvµvšÍ GjvKv †_‡K gvbyl wbivcËvi Rb¨ GK GjvKv †_‡K Ab¨
GjvKvq P‡j hvw”Q‡jv| we‡kl K‡i gvbyl m`i iv¯Ív ev m`i GjvKv¸‡jv †_‡K †fZ‡ii w`‡Ki
GjvKv¸‡jv‡Z cwievi cwiRb wb‡q P‡j hvIqv †kªq g‡b K‡i‡Q| KviY †mbvevwnbx cÖv_wgK
Ae¯’vq _vbv m`i ev †Rjv m`‡i wQ‡jv| Aek¨ cÖvq GjvKvi hye mgvR hviv ivRvKvi `vjvj
evwnbxi m`m¨ nq wb Zviv evwo Ni †Q‡o fviZ Awfgy‡L Qy‡UwQ‡jv| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv we‡kl e¨w³
wb‡Ri Rxeb mskqvcbœ †f‡e wbivcËvi Rb¨ mxgv‡šÍi w`‡K hvÎv K‡i‡Q| KL‡bv †`Lv †M‡Q
hyewZ †g‡q‡KB wbivc` GjvKvq †cŠ‡Q w`‡q‡Q| ÔhvÎvÕ Dcb¨v‡m Aa¨vcK ivqnvb cwievimn
XvKv kni †_‡K †ei n‡q G‡m‡Q AwbwðZ MšZ‡e¨| Rxe‡bi gvqv, †Kej Rxeb iÿvi Rb¨
                                           30
gvbyl ÔhvÎvÕ Dcb¨v‡m kni †Q‡o wbivc` Avkª‡qi mÜv‡b †ei n‡q‡Q| ÔÔ‡cQ‡b ZvKvq bv
†KD| A_P †cQ‡b wcjwcj K‡i gvbyl †b‡g Avm‡Q b`xi Nv‡U|ÕÕ †cQ‡b ZvKv‡bvi mgq †bB
hvÎx`‡ji Kv‡iviB| meviB D‡Ïk¨ wbivc` Avkªq| †hb `~‡i, MÖv‡gi †fZ‡i †h‡Z cvi‡j
Rxeb euvPv‡Z cvi‡e| GK GKRb hvÎx GK GKwU GjvKv †_‡K G‡m‡Q, †bŠKvq D‡V‡Q Zvici
Avevi cv‡q †nu‡U hvÎv K‡i‡Q , †hb GKwU cwievi| kIKZ Avjx eY©bv K‡i‡Qb Gfv‡e :
ÔÔmevB GK m‡½ nuv‡U Zvici, jxjv, gÄy, mvwKbv, nvmvb ev”Pviv, weby, ivqnvb †hb GKwU
cwievi|ÕÕ ÔhvÎvÕ Dcb¨v‡m evOvwji hy× ev¯ÍeZvi GB kiYv_©x wPÎ wewPÎ iƒ‡c Dc¯’vwcZ
n‡q‡Q| kiYv_©x‡`i †fZi GK mšÍvb- m¤¢ev iv¯ÍvqB mšÍvb cÖme K‡i| †jvKRb iv¯Ívi
Pvicv‡k Kvco Avi weQvbvi Puv`i a‡i c`©v UvwO‡q mšÍvb cÖm‡ei e¨ve¯’ K‡i‡Q| jxjv bv‡gi
†g‡qwU, †h MÖv‡gi evwo hv‡e e‡j c‡_ cv evwo‡q‡Q †mI GKwU Avkªq †K‡›`ª G‡m AvU‡K
Av‡Q| A_P †mB Avkªq †K›`ª GjvKvwUI nq‡Zv †ewkw`b wbivc` _vK‡e bv GB f‡q †_‡K‡Q|




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