The Kennedy Years.ppt by tangshuming

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									    The Kennedy Years




The Election and Presidency of John
        Fitzgerald Kennedy

                                      1
    The 1960 Presidential Election
• John F. Kennedy enters the
  presidential race in January
• He chose Lyndon B. Johnson
  of Texas for VP at the
  Democratic Convention
• Some wondered if religion
  would influence Kennedy –
  he was a Roman Catholic
• Elected at 43, Kennedy was     Kennedy is pictured here with Richard
  the second youngest            Nixon, his opponent on the night of the
                                 first televised presidential debate. Those
  president in U.S. history      listening to the debate on radio thought
• Kennedy won by just over       Nixon won. Those watching TV came to
                                 a different conclusion.
  100,000 votes.                                                              2
                    Inauguration
• At his inaugural address on
  January 20, 1961, Kennedy
  famously said: "Ask not
  what your country can do
  for you, but rather what you
  can do for your country."
• He announced the Peace
  Corps, a plan to send 10,000
  young people to serve in
  Africa, Asia and Latin
  America                         Kennedy is shown here being sworn in by
• Kennedy argued it would         the Chief Justice of the United States.
  plant trust, good will and a    Can you find and name the four men in
  capacity for self-help in the   this photo who served as President?
  underdeveloped world
                                                                        3
                  The Bay of Pigs
• When Kennedy became
  President, he was told about a
  CIA plan to invade Cuba
• Kennedy had doubts but was
  afraid he would look “soft” on
  communism if he refused to go
  ahead
• Kennedy's advisers convinced
  him Fidel Castro was unpopular
  and that once the invasion
  started the Cuban people would
  support it
• On April 14, 1961, B-26 planes
  began bombing Cuba's airfields

                                    4
                  The Bay of Pigs
• Two days later five
  merchant ships carrying
  1,500 Cuban exiles arrived
  at the Bay of Pigs
• Two of the ships were sunk
• Within seventy-two hours
  all invading troops had been
  killed, wounded or had
  surrendered
• President Kennedy took full
  responsibility for the failed   President Kennedy accepted responsibility
  attack                          for the Bay of Pigs invasion.

                                                                          5
                  The Berlin Wall
• The Berlin Wall, put up in August
  1961, was over 87 miles long
• In June of 1962, a second, parallel
  fence 100 meters farther into East
  German territory was built - This
  established the No Man's Land
• Through the years, the Berlin Wall
  evolved through four versions:
  Wire fence (1961), Improved wire
  fence (1962–1965), Concrete wall
  (1965–1975), Grenzmauer 75
  (Border Wall 75) (1975–1989)
                                        6
          The Cuban Missile Crisis
• At the height of the Cold
  War, the Cuban Missile
  Crisis is the event during
  which the two sides came
  closest to open hostilities
• The Cuban Missile Crisis
  began on October 14, 1962,
  when American U-2 spy
  planes took photos of a
  Soviet intermediate-range      One of the Medium-Range Ballistic Missile sites
                                 the U.S.S.R. was trying to establish in Cuba.
  ballistic missile site under
  construction in Cuba
                                                                                   7
          The Cuban Missile Crisis
• The photos were analyzed and
  shown to Kennedy on October
  16, 1962
• Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the
  U.S. attacked the sites, it might
  lead to nuclear war, but if the
  U.S. did nothing, it would
  endure the threat of Soviet
  nuclear weapons being
  launched from close range



                                      8
          The Cuban Missile Crisis
• Because the weapons were
  so close, the U.S. might have
  been unable to retaliate if
  they were launched
• Another consideration was
  that the U.S. would appear
  to the world as weak in its
  own hemisphere
• Many military officials and
  cabinet members pressed
                                  A political cartoon from a British
  for an air assault on the       newspaper in which the caption reads,
  missile sites, but Kennedy      “OK, Mr. President, let’s talk.”
  ordered a naval quarantine                                              9
         The Cuban Missile Crisis
• The U.S. Navy inspected all
  ships arriving in Cuba.
• Kennedy began negotiations
  with the Soviets and
  ordered them to remove all
  offensive material that was
  being built on Cuba.
• Without doing so, the
  Soviet and Cuban peoples      Above is shown the USS Canberra, one of
  would face naval              dozens of ships that participated in the
                                Cuban Quarantine in 1962. It was built in
  quarantine.                   1943 and decommissioned in 1980.



                                                                       10
          The Cuban Missile Crisis
• President Kennedy made a
  short televised speech to
  the nation on October 22,
  1962
• He outlined the threat of
  the Soviet missiles, as he
  saw it
• He also said Soviet Foreign   President Kennedy’s Address of October
  Minister Andrei Gromyko       22, 1962 can be seen here:
                                http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeche
  had lied to him               s/jfkcubanmissilecrisis.html




                                                                      11
         The Cuban Missile Crisis
• A week later, he and Soviet
  Premier Nikita Khrushchev
  reached an agreement
• Khrushchev agreed to
  remove the missiles subject
  to U.N. inspections if the
  U.S. publicly promised
  never to invade Cuba and
  quietly removed US missiles   The Executive Committee of the National
                                Security Council (ExComm) meets in the
  stationed in Turkey.          White House Cabinet Room on October
                                29, 1962.



                                                                          12
       Civil Rights under Kennedy
• The end of state-sanctioned
  racial discrimination was a
  pressing domestic issue of
  Kennedy's era.
• The United States Supreme
  Court had ruled in Brown v.
  Board of Education (1954)
  that racial segregation in
  public schools was
  unconstitutional. However,
  many schools, did not obey    President Kennedy meets with Civil Rights
  the Court's judgment          leaders in the Oval Office.

                                                                       13
        Civil Rights under Kennedy
• Segregation on buses, in
  restaurants, movie theaters,
  bathrooms, and other
  public places remained
• Kennedy supported civil
  rights during the 1960
  campaign
• He said he could end
  housing discrimination with
  the “stroke of a pen” but
  did so only after civil rights
  leaders had mailed him
  hundreds of pens                   14
        Civil Rights under Kennedy
• In 1962, James Meredith
  tried to enroll at the
  University of Mississippi
• He was prevented from
  doing so by white students
• Kennedy sent 400 federal
  marshals and 3,000 troops
  to ensure that Meredith           African-American student, James
                                    Meredith, is accompanied by two U.S.
  could enroll in his first class   Marshals and surrounded by jeering white
• Kennedy also assigned             students after registering for entry at
                                    University of Mississippi on Sept. 1, 1962.
  federal marshals to protect
  Freedom Riders
                                                                              15
        Civil Rights under Kennedy
• Kennedy, at first, believed the
  movement for civil rights would
  anger Southern whites making
  it harder to pass civil rights laws
• Congress was dominated by
  Southern Democrats
• As a result of his cautious
  approach, many civil rights
  leaders viewed Kennedy as
  unsupportive of their efforts



                                        16
            Kennedy and Vietnam
• In Southeast Asia, Kennedy
  followed Eisenhower's lead by
  using limited military action to
  fight the Communist forces led
  by Ho Chi Minh
• Kennedy enacted policies
  providing political, economic,
  and military support for the
  unstable French-installed
  South Vietnam government,
  which eventually included
  sending 16,000 advisors and
  Special Forces troops
                                     17
            Kennedy and Vietnam
• By July 1963, Kennedy faced a
  crisis in Vietnam. The U.S. chose
  to assist in the coup d'état of the
  President of South Vietnam, Ngo
  Dinh Diem.
• Statements made by Kennedy's
  Secretary of Defense Robert
  McNamara suggest that Kennedy
  was strongly considering pulling
  out of Vietnam after the 1964
  election. ("The Fog of War”)


                                        18
         Kennedy’s Assassination
• President Kennedy was
  assassinated in Dallas, TX, on
  November 22, 1963
• Kennedy was shot twice in the
  neck and head
• Lee Harvey Oswald, the main
  suspect, was arrested, denied
  shooting anyone,
• He was killed (on LIVE
  Television!) by Jack Ruby on
  November 24, before being
  indicted or tried.
                                   19
         Kennedy’s Assassination
• President Johnson created the
  Warren Commission—chaired by
  Chief Justice Earl Warren—to
  investigate the assassination
• It concluded that Oswald was the
  lone assassin, but this remains
  disputed by some scholars,
  eyewitnesses, and the 1979
  findings of the House Select
  Committee on Assassinations
• Conspiracy theories about the
  assassination and supposed
  cover-up continue to circulate.    20
The End




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