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Neural Prostheses

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					     第八章 Chapter 8
      神經復健輔具

     Neural Prosthesis



98                Biological Systems and Electronics
        提要
     1. 人工電子耳
     2. 人工視網膜
     3. 腦機界面
     4. 功能性電刺激 (with BION)
     5. 複合式神經-電子系統
        Prolog
     1.Cochlear Implant
     2.Artificial Retina
     3.The Brain-Machine Interface (Non-invasive,
     Invasive)
     4.Functional Electrical Stimulation (with BION)
     5.Hybrid Neuro-Electronic Systems (Cognitive
     functions)


99                                        Biological Systems and Electronics
The Bionic Body

  IEEE Spectrum 2008
 http://spectrum.ieee.org/
static/bionic




                             Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工電子耳                    (Cochlear Implant)
      Cochlear Nucleus 5
                                         Advanced Bionics HiRes 90K Implant




                   Medel - Maestro Cochlear Implant




106                                                   Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工電子耳   (Cochlear Implant)




106                            Biological Systems and Electronics
  電子耳可改善的聽力障礙 (What kind of hearing loss
  could be helped)
      Sensorineural Hearing Loss due to the malfunction of inner-ear
      (cochlear, auditory nerve) systems


      Potential causes
       Heredity/genetics/birth defects
       Noise induced hearing loss
       Head injury
       Certain medications (damage inner ear hair cells)
       Illness (measles, mumps, meningitis, menieres, tumors).
       Normal aging process


106                                            Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工電子耳運作原理
  (How do cochlear implants work ?)




         Source : http://products.cochlearamericas.com/cochlear-implants

106                                                Biological Systems and Electronics
  電子耳的系統架構
  (System Architecture of the Cochlear Implant)




106                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
  臨床病患經驗談
  (Clinical Patient Experience)




 Source : http://products.cochlearamericas.com/cochlear-implants/nucleus-customer-stories

106                                                    Biological Systems and Electronics
  電子耳的未來發展與挑戰
  (Future Development and Challenges of the Cochlear Implant)
     侵入式的手術可能造成感染 (Potential infection due to invasive
      surgery)
     可能的副作用(Potential side effects):
      1)皮膚感染; 2)造成耳鳴; 3)損壞前庭系統; 4)損壞面神經
      ,導致面部肌肉無力。
     需要長時間的適應,讓大腦熟悉新的聲音 (Long adaptation time for
      the brain)。
     患者通常會需要避免激烈運動、甚至不能耐受高磁場的環境。
       (Patients with implants should avoid violent exercise and strong
      magnetic field)
     植入性刺激電極對神經的可能傷害(可能造成神經的死亡或是連接
      的問題?) (Potential damage to neurons by implanted electrodes (e.g.
      neural death or connection change))
     訊號處理演算法的研究
106                                        Biological Systems and Electronics
        提要
     1. 人工電子耳
     2. 人工視網膜
     3. 腦機界面
     4. 功能性電刺激 (BION)
     5. 複合式神經-電子系統
        Prolog
     1.Cochlear Implant
     2.Artificial Retina
     3.The Brain-Machine Interface (Non-invasive,
     Invasive)
     4.Functional Electrical Stimulation (BION)
     5.Hybrid Neuro-Electronic Systems (Cognitive
     functions)


99                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
  視網膜與視覺神經路徑
  (Retina and the Visual Neural Pathway)




      (水晶體)




          (鞏膜)




106                                        Biological Systems and Electronics
  失明的成因 (Prevalence of Blindness)
Corneal opacities: 角膜            World           Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
Glaucoma: 青光眼                                    and Age-related macular
Cataract: 白內障                                    degeneration (AMD) have
DR: Diabetic retinopathy                         NO effective remedies at
RD: Retina detachments                           present




                           USA              Japan




EE4296                                   Biological Systems and Electronics
     人工視網膜
     (Artificial Retina)
        Second Sight – Argus II        (Illinois Institute of Technology)




14                                Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工視網膜電刺激位置
  (Stimulation places of Intraocular Artificial Retina)
                                           Easier surgical procedure than
                                            extraocular prosthesis
                                           Less affected by retinotopy
                                              Stimulation points located near
                                                the retina
                                           Epi-retinal stimulation
                                              Most advanced in clinical trials
    (脈絡膜)                                     Fixation of the stimulator
                                           Sub-retinal stimulation
                                              Device fixed naturally
                                              Integration is difficult
                                           Suprachoroidal transretinal
                                            stimulation (STS)
                                              Easiest surgical opearation
                                                Highest stimulation current

EE4296                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工視網膜系統
  (Complete System of the Intraocular Artificial Retina)




         Osaka University, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nidek Co. Inc




EE4296                                                 Biological Systems and Electronics
                                                                     16
  系統功能區塊圖 (Functional Block Diagram)




EE4296                       Biological Systems and Electronics
                                           17
  不同形式的人工視網膜 (Variants of Artificial Retina)




EE4296                       Biological Systems and Electronics
                                           18
     光感測器 (Photosensors)

        Micro-photodiode array (MPDA)
            Photocurrent is directly used to stimulate retinal cells
        Active pixel sensor (APS)
            PD with amplification blocks
            CMOS image sensor requires low-voltage low-power operation
            Signal processing circuits can be integrated to reduce physical size
        Log-sensor
            Photoresponse is logarithmic like a photoreceptor cell
        Pulse frequency modulation (PFM) photosensor
            Acts like a ganglion cell



19                                                   Biological Systems and Electronics
     電力與資料傳輸 (Power and Data Transmission)
        Three candidates in the installation place of the secondary coil
             Inside the crystalline lens
                  Pros: A complete intraocular implantation
                  Cons: geometrical relation between the two coils varies, so as power transmission
                   efficiency
             An episclera space
                  Pros: A complete intraocular implantation (relatively alleviated)
                  Cons: power transmission efficiency variation
             A subcateneous space behind the ear (cochlea implant)
                  Pros: Fixed power transmission efficiency (coil fixed)
                  Cons: difficult surgery




20                                                                     Biological Systems and Electronics
  具PFM光感測器的視網膜晶片
  (The retina chip with PFM photosensor)




EE4296                                     Biological Systems and Electronics
                                                         21
     人工視網膜的人體試驗
     (Human Experiments with Artificial Retina)




22                                         Biological Systems and Electronics
  人工視網膜的未來發展與挑戰
  (Future Development and Challenges of the Artificial Retina)

   封裝 (Package): 人的眼球附近會分泌體液,成份和食鹽水接近,
    人工視網膜晶片需可在這樣的環境下長期運作。
   電極 (Electrode):
      - 高密度 (high density) (> 1000)
      - 高電荷傳輸密度 (high charge-injection capacity) (> 0.15mC/cm2 )
      - 生物相容性(Biocompatibility) 。
      - 可撓性 (Flexibility)
   電力供應 (Power)
   散熱 (Heat dissipation) : 溫度不能升高超過1度C


106                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
        提要
     1. 人工電子耳
     2. 人工視網膜
     3. 腦機界面
     4. 功能性電刺激 (BION)
     5. 複合式神經-電子系統
        Prolog
     1.Cochlear Implant
     2.Artificial Retina
     3.The Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) (Non-invasive,
     Invasive)
     4.Functional Electrical Stimulation (BION)
     5.Hybrid Neuro-Electronic Systems (Cognitive
     functions)


99                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
     運動與觸覺大腦皮質區
     (Somatosensory/Motor Cortex)




25                                  Biological Systems and Electronics
     以腦機界面即時控制機械手臂
     (Control robotic arms with BMI implants in a Monkey )




                                                  Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
26                                         Biological Systems and Electronics
     以意識控制運動
     (Action from thoughts)




                              (M.A.L. Nicolelis, Nature vol.409, 2001)
27                                     Biological Systems and Electronics
     腦機界面的挑戰 (Challenges of the BMI)

         Miniaturised, high-density electrode array
         Biocompatibility, flexibility and long-term reliability
         Active probes – Integration with signal-conditioning
          circuits
         Real-time processing of multi-channel neural activity
         Microsystems with wireless telemetry of data & power
         Further understanding of our brain
         Co-adaptation between the BMI and the Brain in a
          close-loop configuration



28                                          Biological Systems and Electronics
植入式腦機介面人體實驗
(Human experiments with BMI implants)




                         ,(Hochberg & Donoghue et al., Nature, vol.442, 2006)
                                        Biological Systems and Electronics
     植入式腦機介面即時控制3D運動
     (Real-time 3D movement controlled by BMI implants)




                                 (Velliste & Schwartz et al., Nature, vol.453, 2008)
30                                            Biological Systems and Electronics
     神經工程研究在清華大學
     (NeuroEngineering Research Activity in the NTHU)

Neural Systems & Tests                                                       CMOS microelectrodes
 YC Chang, SR Yeh, Life Science Dept                                          & functional circuits
   YH Hsu, Chang-Gung Hospital                                                 H Chen, SC Lu, HP Ma. PC Huang
                                       Novel Neuroelectronic Interfaces              Electrical Eng. Dept.




                                                                               Customised MEMS
     Customised Materials
                                                                              microelectrode arrays
               TR Yew
        Material Science Dept.                                                    WL Fang, CT Fu, DJ Yao
                                                                                Nanoeng. & Microsystems Inst.



31                                                                   Biological Systems and Electronics
     非侵入式腦機介面?
     (How about noninvasive BMI?)




32                                  Biological Systems and Electronics
     腦機界面的訊號與資訊
     (Signals and Information at the BMI?)




                                     (Donoghue, J.P., Neuron, vol.60, no.3 , 2008)
33                                            Biological Systems and Electronics
     機械式四肢輔具
     (How about robotic orthoses?)




                                     The BLEEX Project, Homayoon Kazero
34
        Robot Suit HAL - cyberdyne   Biological Systems and Electronics
        提要
     1. 人工電子耳
     2. 人工視網膜
     3. 腦機界面
     4. 功能性電刺激 (BION)
     5. 複合式神經-電子系統
        Prolog
     1.Cochlear Implant
     2.Artificial Retina
     3.The Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) (Non-invasive,
     Invasive)
     4.Functional Electrical Stimulation (BION)
     5.Hybrid Neuro-Electronic Systems (Cognitive
     functions)


99                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
     用於功能性電刺激的雙向神經電子介面
     (Bidirectional neural interfaces for Functional Electrical Stimulation with BION)

                                                 (a)BION wireless modules
                                                 (b)Multicontact nerve cuff electrodes
                                                 (c)Utah microelectrode arrays
                                                 (d)Utah slant arrays




                                                  (G. E. Loeb, IEEE EMBC magzine, 2005)
36                                                    Biological Systems and Electronics
     功能性電刺激 with BION
     (Functional Electrical Stimulation with BION)



       Read Ref0 about the story of the BION




     ( IEEE Proc., vol.96, no.7 , 2008)        (G. E. Loeb, IEEE EMBC magzine, 2005)
37                                                Biological Systems and Electronics
     利用虛擬實境系統設計與調整FES系統
     (Virtual-reality system for designing and fitting the FES system)




38                                           Biological Systems and Electronics
        提要
     1. 人工電子耳
     2. 人工視網膜
     3. 腦機界面
     4. 功能性電刺激 (BION)
     5. 複合式神經-電子系統
        Prolog
     1.Cochlear Implant
     2.Artificial Retina
     3.The Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) (Non-invasive,
     Invasive)
     4.Functional Electrical Stimulation (BION)
     5.Hybrid Neuro-Electronic Systems (Cognitive
     functions)


99                                      Biological Systems and Electronics
研究動機(Motivation)
    Digital simulation of neuronal detailed model is discrete-time and
     time-consuming
     Analogue implementation of neuronal model facilitates
    - Real-time simulation of multiple neurons
    - Programming parameters of neurons independently and easily
     Hybrid neuron-silicon network
    - Gives the opportunity to access and tune separately parameters and
      synaptic conductances
    - Provides an improved microlab for neuroscientists to understand
      our brain better
    - Neural prostheses for high-level brain functions


                                              Biological Systems and Electronics
以類比積體電路實現Hodgkin-Huxley 模型
(Hodgkin-Huxley model in VLSI)




 Renaud, S., IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol.46., no.6,
                                                           Biological Systems and Electronics
 複合式神經-矽系統 (Hybrid Neuron-Silicon System)




(Le Masson, G. et al., Nature, vol.417, 2002)   Biological Systems and Electronics
  無脊椎動物之複合式神經網路
  (Invertebrate Neural Network In-vitro)
                                                                                       gmaxCa = 0
 STG Hybrid Network




                                      intermediate gmaxCa                           large gmaxCa




Renaud, S., IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol.46., no.6,     Biological Systems and Electronics
  睡眠v.s.清醒狀態 (Sleep v.s. Awake states)




                                                          Post-inhibition rebound bursts


            Negative current
            injection




Renaud, S., IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., vol.46., no.6,                    Biological Systems and Electronics
 脊椎動物之複合式神經網路
 (Vertebrate Neural Network In-vitro)




                                                TC




      • The visual thalamocortical circuit of a Ferret LGNd slice
      • The thalamus (TC cell) relays retinal info. accurately to the
      cortex in awake state, while becomes a generator of rhythms
      (spindle waves) during the early stage of sleep, in which
      visual info. is actively filtered by the rhythms.

(Le Masson, G. et al., Nature, vol.417, 2002)        Biological Systems and Electronics
 以複合式神經網路研究TC細胞之抑制性調控
 (Studying Inhibition-regulated correlation in TC cells with the
 hybrid neural network)




(Le Masson, G. et al., Nature, vol.417, 2002)   Biological Systems and Electronics
修護受損的認知功能? (Restoring lost cognitive functions?)




 (Berger, T.W. et al., IEEE Eng. in Medincine and Biology, vol.24., no.5,)

                                                                             Biological Systems and Electronics
Volterra-Poisson 模型 (Volterra-Poisson Model)




 (Berger, T.W. et al., IEEE Eng. in Medincine and Biology, vol.24., no.5,)

                                                                             Biological Systems and Electronics
實驗平台 (Experimental Setup)




(Berger, T.W. et al., IEEE Eng. in Medincine and Biology, vol.24., no.5,)   Biological Systems and Electronics
複合式海馬迴系統
(Hybrid hippocampal Slice based on FPGA-modelled CA3 region)




                                    Biological Systems and Electronics
實驗結果 (Experimental results)




(Berger, T.W. et al., IEEE Eng. in Medincine and Biology, vol.24., no.5,)   Biological Systems and Electronics
  參考文獻:
  Under construction….




137                      Biological Systems and Electronics

				
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