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Censorship Through History

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					Censorship Through
     History
  The Early Years
• Rigid guidelines for
acceptable art appeared
in Egypt as early as 3400 B.C.

         »      8 A.D. Poet Ovid was exiled from
         »      ancient Rome because his Ars
         »      Amatoria had offended the moral
         »      sensibilities of Emperor Augustus.

• 339 BC, The ancient Greek city/state of
  Sparta banned poetry and other reading
  material that didn’t deal with “useful”
  topics, like agriculture and commerce.
• Greek Philosopher Plato
(428-347 B.C) thought that
because art has the power
to intensify emotions, a
“drastic censor” should
control them.
• Greek Philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C) said
  that young people should be protected not
  only from words but also from pictures.
• 213 B.C., Chinese emperor Shi Huang Di burned
                             The Analects of the
                                   philosopher
  Confucius and                    nearly all
  other books in
      China in an attempt to
             destroy old loyalties and
                  ideas.
• 5th Century to the 15th
Century, Medieval Europe,
almost all artistic
expression was commissioned
by the government or the
Catholic Church.
• 1538, The English monarchy established
  licensing laws to allow the government to
  control what was printed.

          » 1559, Queen Elizabeth I ordered that
            no book could be published without
            approval.

          » 1643, The English government issued
            a censorship edict that required all
            books to be submitted to an official
            censor before publication.
             »             1789, Congress voted to accept
             »             the Constitution. Many people
                                  were worried that the
                 powerful,        new, centralized
                 government              might trample the
                 rights of        individuals.



• 1791, Congress approved the first
10 amendments, which came to Be know
as the Bill of Rights. The amendments
were meant to protect basic liberties
and specific rights and freedoms.

• 1933, 5,000 singing students ended a torchlight parade
  with a huge book burning in Nazi Germany.

• 1935, Smoot Hawley Tariff passed, allowing any book
  printed by an established publisher was freely admitted
  in the United States.
• 1948, United Nations adopted a Universal Declaration of
   human rights to protect people’s freedom of expression
   and other basic rights.
• 1818, People were encouraged to censor
their own readings through books such
as Bowdler’s family shakespeare.
Thomas Bowdler published works by
Shakespeare and other authors, but
he edited out reference to sex and
other passages that he believed
“unfit to Be read aloud By a
gentleman to company of ladies.”




-1873, Anthony Comstock founded the New York Society for
   the suppression of vice and Congress passed a law that
   would allow the U.S. Postal Service to prohibit indecent
   material from being sent through the mail.
1950-60’s, senator Joseph
mccarthy’s “witch hunts”
for supposed Communists.
»




»        1968, Movie ratings became
         the norm.

        1969, Tinker v. Des Moines
        School District
• 1988, Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier.




• 2010, Ciudad Juarez is the one of the deadliest
  cities in Mexico, and is one of the most
  dangerous for journalists. 10 were killed in
  2010. Drug cartels pressure journalist and
  editors in Mexico to avoid reporting on them and
  to print unflattering stories about rival drug
  cartels. The result is increasing self-
  censorship.

				
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posted:5/17/2013
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