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					Teaching Methodologies
         for
    Macronutrients
                       C6H12O6
             C6H12O6
             Amino Acids
                An Analogy to

        The letters of the alphabet!
                  ABCD

Amino Acids…………
The alphabetic code for proteins!
  Think of amino acids as letters of
            the alphabet!
26 letters….               20 Amino Acids….
                             Leucine, Isoleucine,
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ….          Methionine,Tryptophan,Lysine,
                             Valine…………




From which every word is   From which every protein is
  composed                   composed
       Letters              Amino Acids

           DO
           G

The making of a word!     The making of a protein
                                  chain
                          The sequence of Amino
The sequence of Letters
                           Acids determines the
 determines the word
                                  protein


       GOD
       A Word!                 A Protein!
Add or insert another   Add or insert another
        Letter              Amino Acid



     GOOD

   A new Word!                A new Protein!


      Notice - Letters can be repeated…….
            And so can Amino Acids!
     PROPER ORDER!

  “FORM”       “FROM”


“STRESSED”   “DESSERTS”
              ANY LENGTH!
Different words – Different lengths
 An
 And
 Annoy


Different protein - Different lengths
 Insulin - 51 Amino Acids
 Haemoglobin – 500+ Amino Acids
 Keratin – Thousands Amino Acids
        Primary Structure

                        Peptide link




Different amino acids
Secondary Structure



               S
               S

           S       Disulphide link
           S
Tertiary Structure
                         Periodic Table
I    II                                                      III   IV   V    VI   VII   VIII



H                                                                                       He

Li   Be                                                      B     C    N    O    F     Na


Na   Mg                                                      Al    Si   P    S    Cl    Ar


K    Ca   Sc   Ti   V     Cr   Mn   Fe   Co   Ni   Cu   Zn   Ga    Ge   As   Se   Br    Kr

Rb   Sr   Y    Zr   Nb   Mo    Tc   Ru   Rh   Pd   Ag   Cd   In    Sn   Sb   Te    I    Xe

Cs   Ba   La   Hf   Ta    W    Re   Os   Ir   Pt   Au   Hg   Tl    Pb   Bi   Po   At    Rn

Fr   Ra   Ac
    Amino Acid
        R



                     O
H       C        C       OH




        N

    H       H
C – 4 Bonds
H – 1 Bond
O – 2 Bonds
     CH2OH

      c      o
H                 H



      H           C
C

       OH    H

OH    C      C    OH

       H     OH
 Formation of a Disaccharide

  C6H12O6          C12H24O12
+ C6H12O6              H2O
____________    -_______________
  C12H24O12        C12H22O11
               Polysaccharides



C6H12O6
               C6H12O6        C6H12O6
                                             C6H12O6


      - H 2O         - H 2O         - H 2O




                         (C6H10O5)n
      Spot the Difference!
CIS FATS           TRANS FATS

  H     H                    H


  C     C            C       C

                     H
    Monounsaturated Fatty Acid


    H   H   H   H    H   O


H   C   C   C   C    C    C      OH


    H   H            H
     Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid


      O   H    H    H         H


                                  H
HO   C    C    C    C    C    C



                         H    H
               DIGESTION OF ________________ WORKCARD
                                         Duodenum
       Mouth                            Secretion:______________

Secretion:____________                  Enzyme:________________

Enzyme:_____________                    Substrate:______________

Substrate:___________                   Product:_______________

Product:_____________

                                              Ileum
      Stomach
                                      Secretion:_________________

Secretion:____________                Enzyme:___________________

Enzyme:______________                 Substrate:_________________

Substrate:____________                Product:__________________

Product:______________
Digestion of Protein
Digestion of Carbohydrate
Digestion of Lipid
Secretions, Enzymes, Substrates and Products


Secretions         Enzymes            Substrates   Products

Gastric Juice      Pepsin             Protein      Peptones
Pancreatic Juice   Rennin             Caesinogen   Peptides
Intestinal juice   Peptidase          Peptides     Amino Acids
Saliva             Trypsin            Lactose      Maltose
                   Pancreatic         Sucrose      Glucose
                   Amylase            Maltose      Glucose +
                   Salivary Amylase   Starch       Fructose
                   Maltase            Lipids       Glucose +
                   Sucrase                         Galactose
                   Lactase                         Fatty acids and
                   Lipase                          Glycerol
                           DIGESTION OF PROTEIN
                                           Duodenum
         Mouth
                                        Secretion: Pancreatic
Secretion: None                         Juice
Enzyme: None                            Enzyme: Trypsin
Substrate: None                         Substrate:Peptones
Product: None                           Product: Peptides
                                           Ileum

       Stomach                          Secretion: Intestinal
Secretion: Gastric Juice                Juice
Enzymes: Pepsin,                        Enzyme: peptidase
Rennin
                                        Substrate: peptides
Substrates: Protein,
Caesinogen                              Product: Amino Acids
Products: Peptones,
Caesin
 Digestion Of Protein
Organ              Secretions         Enzymes            Substrate    Products
Stomach            Gastric Juice      Pepsin             Protein      Peptones
                                      Rennin             Caseinogen   Casein
Duodenum           Pancreatic Juice   Trypsin            Protein      Peptides


Ileum              Intestinal Juice   Peptidase          Peptides     Amino Acids

 Digestion of Carbohydrate
Mouth              Saliva             Salivary Amylase   Starch       Maltose


Duodenum           Pancreatic Juice   Amylase            Starch       Maltose

Ileum              Intestinal Juice   Maltase            Maltose      Glucose
                                      Sucrase            Sucrose      Glucose +
                                                                      Fructose
                                      Lactase            Lactose      Glucose +
                                                                      Galactose

 Digestion of Lipids
Liver              Bile               Bile Salts (non    Lipids       Emulsified lipid
                                      enzyme)
Duodenum           Pancreatic Juice   Lipase             Lipids       Fatty Acids and
                                                                      Glycerol
Ileum              Intestinal Juice   Lipase             Lipids       Fatty Acids and
                                                                      Glycerol

				
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posted:5/17/2013
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