Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - PDF

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					Introduction to Animal Science




    Introduction to Anatomy and
     Physiology of Farm Animals

                Department of Animal Science
                National Chung Hsing University
                         Pin-Chi Tang
                            唐品琦

                         Office: 4C ; Lab: 204
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             REFERENCES
Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals
                                       7th Edition
   Rowen D. Frandson, W. Lee Wilke, Anna Dee Fails
   Wiley-Blackwell, June 2009


家畜解剖生理學
    季培元       合計圖書出版社

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Anatomy
 The science that deals with the form
 and structure of all organisms.


Physiology
 The study of the integrated functions of
 the body and the functions of all its parts
 (systems, organs, tissues, cells and cell
 components), including biophysical and
 biochemical processes.
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Anatomy
   Shape
   Texture
   Location
   relations of structures



   Histochemistry
   Gross anatomy
   Comparative anatomy
   Microscopic anatomy (histology)
   Ultrastructural cytology          9
Physiology
    Respose of whole animals,
               isolated organs
               individual cells

    to changes in their environment




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Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 2009   11
Directional terms and planes of the animal body.

                            Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 2009   12
Cranial
     A directional term meaning toward
     the head

Caudal
     A directional term meaning toward
     the tail

Rostral
     A directional term used in reference
     to features of the head to mean
     toward the nose
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Dorsal
    Means toward or beyond the
    backbone or vertebral column


Ventral
    Means away from the vertebral
    column or toward the mid
    abdominal wall


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Palmar: forelimb
     Refers to the flexor or caudal
     surface




Plantar: hindlimb
     Refers to the caudal surface


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Directional terms and planes of
the animal body.
         Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 2009   16
Directional terms and planes of the animal body.
                            Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, 2009   17
Median plane:    midsagittal plane
     An imaginary plane passing through the
     body so as to divedie the body into
     equal right and left halves


Sagittal plane
     Any plane parallel to the meidan plane


Transverse plane
     A plane at right angles to the median
     plane and divides the body into cranial
     and caudal segments
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Horizontal plane
     A plane at right angles to both the
     median plane and transverse planes,
     and divides the body into dorsal (upper)
     and ventral (lower) segments

Medial
     Close to or toward the median plane


Lateral
     Means away from the median plane

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Deep and internal
     Indicate proximity to the center of
     an anatomical structure

Superficial and external
     Refer to proximity to the surface of
     the body

Proximal
     Means relatively close to a given
     part
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Distal
     Means farther from the given part

Prone
     Refers to a position in which the
     dorsal aspect of the body or any
     extremity is uppermost

Supine
     Refers to the position in which the
     ventral aspect of the body or
     palmar or plantar aspect of an
     exstrmeity is uppermost               21