# Newton's laws by tangshuming

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```									Newton’s Laws
Newton’s First Law of Motion

•   “Every object continues in its state of rest, or
of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is
compelled to change that state of motion by
forces impressed upon it ”

•   The tendency of matter to maintain its state
of motion is known as INERTIA.
Newton’s First Law of Motion

•   Inertia prevents an object at rest from
moving spontaneously or an object in
uniform linear motion from changing its
speed or direction spontaneously.

•   Force is simply a push or a pull.
Newton’s First Law of Motion

•   Changes in motion do not happen
spontaneously.

•   Example:
1)   Tablecloth under dishes
Newton’s First Law of Motion

Inertia is the
tendency of an
object to resist
changes in its
velocity:
whether in
motion or
These pumpkins will not move unless acted on
motionless.        by an unbalanced force.
Forces

•   Usually think of a force as a push or pull
•   Vector quantity
•   May be a contact force or a field force
•   Contact forces result from physical contact between two
objects
•   Field forces act between disconnected objects
•   Also called “action at a distance”
Contact Forces…

•   Contact forces are forces which exert a
push or pull (interact) while touching.
•   Examples:
•   frictional forces,
•   tensional forces,
•   air resistance forces,
•   applied forces (e.g., pushes or pulls).
Action at a Distance Forces…

•   Action-at-a-distance forces exert a push
or pull (interact) without physical contact.
•   Examples:
•   Gravity (e.g., when you jump off the ground,
there is still a gravitational pull between you and
the Earth),
•   Electric (e.g., static electricity),
•   Magnetic (e.g., two magnets).
Contact and Field Forces
How Many FUNDAMENTAL Forces?

•   Four
•   Strong Nuclear Force
•   Electromagnetic Force
•   Weak Nuclear Force
•   Gravitational Force
What do they DO?

•   Strong Nuclear Force
•   Holds nucleus together
•   Electromagnetic Force
•   Interaction of electric & magnetic fields
•   Weak Nuclear Force
•   Gravitational Force
•   Attracts mass
How Strong are they?

•   On a relative scale, we let the strong force
= 1, then…

•   Strong Nuclear        1.00
•   Electromagnetic       1 x 10-2
•   Weak Nuclear          1 x 10-13

•   Gravitational         1 x 10-38
External and Internal Forces

•   External force
•   Any force that results from the interaction
between the object and its environment
•   Internal forces
•   Forces that originate within the object itself
•   They cannot change the object’s velocity
Example

When the ball at the end of the
string swings to its lowest point, the
string is cut by a sharp razor.
Which path will the ball then follow?

When the ball at the end of the
string swings to its lowest point, the
string is cut by a sharp razor.
Which path will the ball then follow?

Inertia
Example

When the pellet fired into
the spiral tube emerges,
which path will it follow?
(Neglect gravity).

When the pellet fired into
the spiral tube emerges,
which path will it follow?
(Neglect gravity).

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

•   A commonsense law.

F  ma
•   The force on an object is equal to its mass multiplied by its
acceleration.

•   Mass is the amount of matter an object has.

 Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. (Velocity is speed
•
in a given direction.)
Newton’s Second Law of Motion

•   The more massive an object, the more inertia.

•   The more inertia an object has, the harder it is
to get it moving.

•   Double the force - double the acceleration.
•   Double the mass - halve the acceleration.
Mass

•   …is the measure of the inertia of an object.
•   Inertia is the tendency of an object to continue in its
original motion
•   …is measured in kilograms.

•   … is how much matter is in an object..
Weight

•   The weight of an object FW is the
response of MASS to the
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.

•   FW = m g

•   g = 9.81 m/s2
Units

•   The units of mass is the kilogram (in MKS
system) and the slug (in Imperial system).
•   Mass is a SCALAR quantity.
•   The unit of force in the MKS system is the
Newtons, where a force of 1 N will give a
mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2 . In the
Imperial system, the unit of force is the
pound.
•   Force is a VECTOR quantity.
Units of Force

•   SI unit of force is a Newton (N)
kg m
1N  1 2
s
•   US Customary unit of force is a pound (lb)
•   1 N = 0.225 lb
Gravitational Force

•   Mutual force of attraction between any two
objects
•   Expressed by Newton’s Law of Universal
Gravitation:
m1 m2
Fg  G 2
r
•   G = universal gravitational constant =
6.67x10-11 N-m2/kg2
Example

If two objects (m1 = 100 kg) and (m2 = 1000 kg) are
separated by 0.5m, what is the gravitational force
between them?

m1 m2
Fg  G 2
r
       11 N  m
2 
100kg1000kg
Fg  
6.67x10         2 
            kg  0.5m    2

5
Fg  2.668x10 Newtons

• Notice the very, very small answer.
Gravity is the WEAKESS force by far.

• So - why are WE so aware of it?

• Because we are next to an incredibly
large & massive object - the Earth.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion

•   Examples:
1) Throwing a baseball
2) Slingshot (David & Goliath)
3) Hail
4) Moving cars (1)
5) Moving cars (2)
Example

If a mass of 1 kg is accelerated 1 m/s2 by a
force of 1 N, what would be the acceleration of
2 kg acted on by a force of 2 N?
(a) 0 m/s2
(b) 1 m/s2
(c) 2 m/s2
(d) 3 m/s2
(e) unable to determine

•   If a mass of 1 kg is accelerated 1 m/s2 by a
force of 1 N, what would be the acceleration
of 2 kg acted on by a force of 2 N?
F  ma
aF
m
m
a  2N      1 2
2kg s
Newton’s Third Law of Motion

•   “To every action (force) there is always opposed an
equal reaction (force): or, the mutual actions of two
bodies upon each other are always equal, and
directed to contrary parts. ”

•   The least intuitive law.

•   Every object that exerts a force on another object is
always acted upon by a reaction force.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Examples:
1.   Recoil of a gun.
2.   Thrust of a rocket.
3.   Rebound of a hammer from a struck nail.
4.   Book sitting on a table.
5.   Walking.
Example

If a Mack truck
and a
Volkswagen
on collision,
which vehicle      a) the Mack truck
will experience    b) the Volkswagen
the greater
impact force?      c) both the same
d) ... it depends on other factors

If a Mack truck
and a
Volkswagen
on collision,
which vehicle      Answer: Newton’s Third Law ~
will experience    action and reaction
the greater
impact force?
Example

Consider the apple at rest
on the table. If we call the
gravitational force exerted
on the apple action, what
is the reaction force
according to Newton's 3rd
Law?

Consider the apple at rest
on the table. If we call the
gravitational force (by the
earth) exerted on the
apple action, what is the
reaction force according
to Newton's 3rd Law?

by the apple on the earth
Example

If a mass of 10 kilograms is accelerated at
5 meters per second per second, what is
the force acting on it?

m    kg m
F  10 kg x 5  50 2 = 50 newtons
s     s
s
Example

What acceleration will result when a
12-N net force applied to a 3-kg
object?
(a) 0 m/s2
(b) 4 m/s2
(c) 36 m/s2
(d) Unable to determine

What acceleration will result when a
12-N net force applied to a 3-kg
object?       F  ma
aF
m
m
a  12N   3kg 4 2
s
Example

A 1-kg rock is thrown at 20 m/s
straight upward. Neglecting air
resistance, what is the net force that
acts on it when it is half way to the top
of its path?
(a) 0 N
(b) 4.9 N
(c) 9.8 N
(d) 20 N
(e) Unable to determine

acting on the rock is
gravity.
F=ma
F = (1) (9.8)=9.8N
Classical Mechanics…

The End

(for now…)

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