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Anomalously high per capita electricity consumption in Iceland

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					 ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER
   CAPITA ELECTRICITY
CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND
            GINA QUAN
     PHYSICS H190 SPRING 2012
             03/21/12
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Geothermal
  • Hydroelectric
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      2
What is Iceland?




                   3
             WHAT IS ICELAND?

• Population: 320,000
 • 60% reside in the
   capital city,
   Reykjavik
• 100,000 sq km
• High standard of
  living
• Terrain
 • Tectonically active
   • Mid-Atlantic ridge
   • Volcanic activity
 • Glaciers and rivers
                                4
             WHAT IS ICELAND?

• Isolated
 • Motivation to be
   self-sustaining
• What’s in
  Iceland?
 • Geysers, Hot
   springs
 • Aurora Borealis
 • Bjork


                                5
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Geothermal
  • Hydroelectric
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      6
HISTORY OF ENERGY

        • Hydro dams in the early 20th c.
          • Government encouraged
            electric stoves
        • Geothermal space heating
          • Women used to bake “hot
            spring bread” (hverabrauth)
          • First used in homes- early 20th
            century swimming pools
        • Industry growth  growth in
          hydroelectric and geothermal
          power
        • 1970’s movement toward
          replacing oil
                                              7
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      8
HYDROELECTRIC POWER

          • Accounts for 80% of
            electricity produced
          • Rivers, waterfalls 
            dams
          • Criticism for
            environmental
            consequences
          • Mostly near aluminum
            smelters (more on that
            later)


                                     9
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      10
GEOTHERMAL POWER



        • ~25% of energy produced
          in Iceland
        • Heats 90% of homes in
          Iceland
        • How?
         • 1. Heat from Earth heats
           water under crust
         • 2. Iceland drills boreholes
         • 3. Hot water
         • 4. Profit!!!
                                         11
GEOTHERMAL POWER



        • Blue Lagoon (Bláa lónið)
          • One of Iceland’s most visited
            attractions
        • 6 million liters of water
        • Water from geothermal
          plant waste
        • Rich in sulphur, silica



                                      12
GEOTHERMAL POWER


        • “Sustainable”- heat
          removed is small
          compared to total heat in
          Earth
        • Precipitation replenishes
          water
        • 5 major geothermal plants
        • 4 TWh/yr but could grow
          to up to 30 TWh/year

                                13
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      14
OTHER ENERGY SOURCES

          • Oil
            • Roughly 20% of energy
              consumption
            • Transportation, fishing
          • Coal
          • Shift toward renewable
            resources- 1960’s
          • Plans to be completely
            renewable by 2050



                                        15
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      16
 CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY

• 100% of electricity renewable
• Provides itself 70% of primary
  energy
  • More than any other country
• Virtually all is consumed by
  residents
• ~5.9 kW per person= 16.5
  million MWh/year




                                   17
COST OF ELECTRICITY IN ICELAND




                                 18
 Why the high electricity
consumption per capita?




                            19
                 MANUFACTURING

• Aluminum smelters
• Three plants
  • 1969- Rio Tinto Alcan (CN)
    • Intially, 33k metric tons/year
  • 1998- Century Aluminum
    Country (US)
  • 2008- Alcoa (US)
    • Built an entire hydroelectric
      plant
    • ~1000 tons of aluminum/day
    • Cause of 2008 crash?
• Total- nearly 800k metric
  tons/year!
                                       20
21
               MANUFACTURING

• Bauxite imported from US,
  Ireland and Australia

"We are based in the middle of
the North Atlantic Ocean. We
are not connected to the
mainland Europe grid," said
Bjarni Mar Gylfason, chief
economist for the Federation of
Icelandic Industries. "So we
export energy in the form of
aluminum."


                                  22
TOTAL ICELANDIC ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION



                                          23
              MANUFACTURING

• Ferrosilicum plants
• Industrial products-
  Roughly 55% of Iceland’s
  exports
  • Other exports
    • Fish
• Plants consume 5x
  electricity of residents




                              24
ENERGY CONSUMPTION- ALL



                          25
    ANOMALOUSLY HIGH PER CAPITA
 ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN ICELAND

• Introduction to Iceland
• History
• Energy Produced
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Other
• Consumption
• Future




                                      26
TO THE FUTURE

       • Economic recession 
         oil imports costly
       • Projects to develop
         renewable energy
        • Harvest methane in
          agriculture
        • Hydrogen fuel for cars
          and ships
        • Deep drilling 
          supercritical steam
        • + more!


                                   27
TO THE FUTURE

       • Current energy policy
        • Conserving natural areas
        • Reduce greenhouse gas
          emissions
        • Promote sustainable
          development
        • Diversify Economy
        • Increase forestation
        • Increase use of
          environmentally friendly
          vehicles



                                 28
               CONCLUSION

• Iceland’s anomalously high electricity consumption
  per capita is due to large scale manufacturing
• 80% of Iceland’s energy consumed is renewable
• The majority of energy produced is geothermal and
  hydroelectric




                                                   29
                    SOURCES

• Energy Development in Island Nations
  <http://www.edinenergy.org/iceland.html>
• Energy Solutions In Iceland
  <http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/637>
• Gjelsvik, et. al. Energy Demand in Iceland. Statistics
  Norway Research Department. May, 1995.
• Ministry for the Environment in Iceland. Iceland’s
  Fifth National Communication on Climate Change.
  2011.
• Wikipedia.org


                                                           30
THANK YOU


            31

				
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