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Antebellum Culture and Reform


									Antebellum Culture and

       Chapter 12
               Romantic Impulse
   Nationalism and Romanticism in
    American Painting
       Nationalism (and most art / literature) was
        an import from Europe
       Americans start creating/looking at their
        own art/traditions
           power of nature
           Theme = in America “wild nature” still existed
       Literature and the Quest for Liberation
         First American Writers
            James Fenimore Cooper
                evoked wilderness themes and suspense
                Last of Mohicans and Deerslayer
            Walt Whitman
                “poet of American democracy”
                Leaves of Grass*
                conventions “restrictive” and individualism
            Herman Melville
                not as optimistic
                Moby Dick
            Edgar Allen Poe
                bleak search for human spirit
                The Raven
       Literature and the
        Antebellum South
         Centered in
          Richmond, then
         Romantic eulogies
          of plantation
          system in the upper
         “defenders” and
       Transcendentalists
         New England
         Borrowed from
          Philosophers Kant,
          Hegel and Schelling
       Transcendentalists Cont’d
         Individualism rested the distinction between “reason”
          and “understanding”
            reason = instincts and emotions, not rationality
            understanding = repression through externally imposed
         “Original relation to the universe”
         Ralph Waldo Emerson, minister, lecturer and writer
            the quest for self-reliance was really a search for communion
             with the unity of the universe and the wholeness of the great
             spiritual force known as God
            Nature*
         Henry David Thoreau
            individuals should work for self-realization by resisting
             pressures to conform to society’s expectations
            Walden*
            civil disobedience
         Many American landscape artists were greatly
          influenced by transcendentalists
   Visions of Utopia
       transcendentalism
        sparked communal
        living experiments
       George Ripley
            Brook Farm, Mass
            socialism
       Nathaniel Hawthorne
        (anti-utopian, anti-
            lived at Brook Farm for a
       Robert Owen
            Scottish industrialist and
            ...eventual failure but
             “Owenite” experiments
       Redefining Gender
         Margaret Fuller
            transcendentalist
            focused on importance of
             the discovery of “self”
         Oneida “Perfectionists”
            utopian society
            all residents “married” to
             other residents
            freed women from
             demands of male lust
         The Shakers
            complete celibacy
            no one born into
            sexual equality, God not
             male or female
            believed in social discipline
             more than personal
   The Mormons
       Josesph Smith
            Book of Mormon
            Sect of Christianity
            searched for sanctuary (“New Jerusalem”) for
             a community of “saints”
            polygamy
            intense secrecy
            arrested, jailed, lynched
       Independence, Missouri --> Kirtland, Ohio --
        > Nauvoo, Illinois --> Salt Lake City
       Brigham Young
            lead an expedition of 12,000 across the
             desert to Utah
            never again to be dislodged
       Reflection of the time
            human perfectibility
            God had been a human, people could
             become a god
            highly organized, centrally directed society
            strong emphasis on family
            sep. spheres
                  Remaking Society
       Two Separate Schools
         transcendentalists (Emerson,
          Thoreau, Unitarians,
          Universalists, romantics)
         “New Light” Evangelical
          Protestants (products of the
          Second Great Awakening)
            Charles Grandison Finney in New
         Both emphasized human
          potential to improve
         Both believed Calvinist
          philosophies of predestination
          and helplessness as
       The Temperance Crusade
         connected to the revival of Evangelical Protestantism
         Finney and co. connected alcohol to social problems
            crime
            spousal abuse
            poverty
         Old Northwest grain excess
         Drinking was principal leisure activity for many workers
         average male in the 1830s drank three times as much
          as today
         American Society for Promotion of Temperance
         Washington Temperance Society
         Protestant vs. Catholic / Natives vs. Immigrants
   Health
       Cholera
           brought on by
           outbreaks in urban
           thousands die
       “Cures”
           hydrotherapy
           nutrition (Graham)
       Phrenology
           shape of individual’s
            skull determined
       Reforming Education
         Massachusetts and Thomas Mann
            lengthened school year
            doubled teacher’s salaries
            new methods of training for teachers
         School quality and attendance depended on region
            North East, highly trained teachers
         West and South had teachers were barely literate
         Native Americans
         Alternative schools
            transcendentalist
         Values: order, discipline, punctuality, respect for
   Rehabilitation
       “asylums”
           criminals
           mentally ill
       overcrowding
       orphanages
       homes for “friendless” women
       goal was to help people lead a more productive
   Indian Reservation
       Indians live sheltered from white society
       “regenerate” Indian race
       The Rise of Feminism
            Women played major role
               Temperance Movement
               Abolition of Slavery
            Social standards for women of Antebellum America
               raise children
               dependent on husband
            Grimke Sisters of SC
            1840 Anti-Slavery convention in London, women are turned away
            Shifted women’s focus to elevate the status of women
               Lucretia Mott
               Elizabeth Cady Stanton
               Susan B. Anthony
            1848 Seneca Falls, New York
               Women’s rights convention
               “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions”
                  “all men and women created equal”
                  demanded right to vote
                  denounced separate “spheres”
                  majority were Quakers
                Susan B. Anthony

                                   Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lucretia Mott
    The Crusade against Slavery
   Early Opposition to Slavery
       Early 1800s focus was on re-location back to
       1817 American Colonization Society worked
        carefully to challenge slavery without
        challenging property rights
       gradual manumission
       1830 Shipment of African Americans back to
       1846 Independent Republic of Liberia
   William Lloyd Garrison*
       founded the newspaper Liberator
       urged shift of focus to the black perspective
       rejection of “gradualism”
       rejection of “colonization”
       founded New England Anti-Slavery Society
       1835 = 400 chapters / by 1838 = 1,350
   Black Abolitionists
       1850 250,000 free blacks in the North
       Black Abolitionists Cont’d
         lived in conditions of poverty
          and oppression often worse
          than southern slaves
             victims of mob violence
             no access to education
             could not vote
             barred from occupations
             kidnapping
             Proud of freedom
         David Walker
             Appeal to the Colored Citizens
             “kill or be killed”
         Sojourner Truth
             powerful female spokesperson for
              the abolition of slavery
   Black Abolitionists
       Frederick Douglass
          electrifying orator
          born a slave in Maryland
           but escaped to freedom
            North Star
          demanded not only
           freedom, but social
          forged alliance with
   Anti-Abolitionism
       feared abolitionism would produce a destructive
        war between sections
       threat to stability
       escalating wave of violence towards abolitionists
       efforts to keep black children out of school in the
       race riots in urban settings
       Elijah Lovejoy
   Abolitionism Divided
       Garrison again
            calls for overthrow of Constitution
            call for equal rights for women in
             organization leads to division
            expulsion of slave states from the
       Moderate vs. Garrisonian
       Amistad
       Free-Soil campaign
       Smuggling of Arms to Kansas
       Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle
        Tom’s Cabin*
            sold 300,000 copies within a year of
            anti-slavery story/book

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