Verbals Packet - Hart High School-ag

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Verbals Packet - Hart High School-ag Powered By Docstoc
					In addition:
VERBALS
from TheTongueUnited.com


A verbal is the form of a verb used as a noun, adjective or adverb.

Identifying verbals can be somewhat tricky. While verbals are forms of verbs, they are NOT the action
associated with the subject. In other words, they are not verbs.
    o Gerunds are forms of the verb that function as nouns. They always end in "ing."
    o Participles are forms of the verb that function as adjectives. They can end in "ed," "en," or "ing."
    o Infinitives are forms of the verb that may acts as adjectives, adverbs or nouns. They include "to"
         plus the base form of the verb, as in "to run."
As noted, verbals do not act in conjunction with the subject as a verb. They may modify the subject, and
in fact, they may be the subject, but they don't act as the verb for the subject.


how to identify verbals with ease:
When considering a word that may look like a verb but could be a verbal, much confusion can be
eliminated by following three simple steps:
1. Find the subject of the sentence. (Every sentence has one)
     o The subject is the person, place thing or idea that is "doing" or "being" in the sentence.
[In the following sentences, the subject is underlined.]
     o Susan soaked her tired feet in the cool creek.
             o SUSAN is the subject. She is the one who SOAKED.
     o Daniel gave his donation to someone dedicated to making a difference.
             o DANIEL is the subject. He is the one who GAVE
     o Does donating to charity give Conrad a sense of purpose?
             o In this sentence, DONATING is the subject. It is the thing that DOES GIVE.
2. Find the verb of the sentence. (Every sentence has one)
     o The verb is the action associated with the subject.
[In the following sentences, the subject is underlined and the verb is underlined.]
     o Susan soaked her tired feet in cool creek.
             o SUSAN, the subject, SOAKED. SOAKED is the verb.
     o Daniel gave his donation to someone dedicated to making a difference.
             o DANIEL the subject, GAVE so GAVE is the verb.
     o Does donating to charity give Conrad a sense of purpose?
             o DONATING, the subject, DOES GIVE, the verb.
3. Find the verbal of the sentence. (NOT every sentence has one)
     o The verbal is a form of the verb acting as an adverb, adjective or noun.
[In the following sentences, the subject is underlined, the verb is underlined, and the verbal is bold and
underlined.]
     o Susan soaked her tired feet in cool creek.
             o SUSAN is the subject. SOAKED is the verb. TIRED is a form of the verb TO TIRE acting as an
                adjective modifying FEET.
   o   Daniel gave his donation to someone dedicated to making a difference.
          o DANIEL is the subject. GAVE is the verb. DEDICATED is a form of the verb TO DEDICATE
              acting as an adjective modifying SOMEONE.
   o   Does donating to charity give Conrad a sense of purpose?
          o DONATING is the subject. DOES GIVE is the verb. DONATING is a form of the verb TO
              DONATE acting as a noun--in this case the subject.
          o
So, as you can see, a word we might want to identify as a verb may be a verbal, depending on its
function in the sentence.

Look at the following sentences and how the forms of the infinitive "to work" change identity as they
change function within the sentence.

   o   Charlie was working at a factory.
           o In this sentence, the subject is CHARLIE and he was working, which means that was
               working is a verb.
   o   Working at a factory changed Charlie's view of the production system.
           o In this sentence, WORKING is the subject and changed is the verb. The form of the verb
               ending in "ing" and acting as a noun is a gerund.
   o   As a working man, Charlie had plenty of time to contemplate the production system.
           o In this sentence, the subject is once again CHARLIE and he had, which makes had the
               verb. WORKING describes what kind of man Charlie is, so it is an adjective. The form of
               the verb ending in "ing," "ed" or "en" and acting as an adjective is a participle.
   o   Charlie contemplates ways to work on the production system.
           o In this sentence, the subject is once again CHARLIE and contemplates is the verb. TO
               WORK describes the "ways," so it is an adjective. The unconjugated form of the verb is an
               infinitive.




OKAY – NOW THAT YOU KNOW WHAT THEY ARE, LET’S LOOK AT EACH VERBAL SEPARATELY:
I. GERUNDS
            First and foremost, a gerund is the form of a verb, but it is not a verb BECAUSE IT IS NOT
             PERFORMING THE FUNCTION OF A VERB…IT IS ACTING LIKE A NOUN.
            Second, it is a noun.
            And finally, it ends in "ing."

Punctuation
A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.

Examples
[In the following examples, the gerund is bold and the verb is underlined.]

   o   Many local governments and school districts forbid releasing student information to any outside
       group, including the military, colleges or corporations.
          o First find the subject and verb: GOVERNMENTS and DISTRICTS are the subjects and
               FORBID is the verb. Is it an action verb? Yes? Do they forbid something? Yes. What?
               RELEASING. So, RELEASING is a direct object, which is a noun. A form of a verb that ends
               in ING and acts as a noun is a gerund.

   o   Burning oil and smashing atoms are good for the environment.
          o First find the subject and verb: BURNING and SMASHING are the subjects and ARE is the
             verb. Therefore, BURNING and SMASHING are nouns. A form of a verb that ends in ING
             and acts as a noun is a gerund.

   o   Coal mining yields 5,000 watts per square meter per day, and an oil field yields close to 10,000.
          o First find the subject and verb of the clause: MINING is the subject and YIELDS is the verb.
              Therefore, MINING is a noun. A form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a noun is a
              gerund.

   o   The story is the same for high-tech farming.
          o STORY is the subject. IS is the verb. FARMING is the object of the preposition FOR. An
              object is a noun. A form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a noun is a gerund.

   o   Kids enjoy surfing the 'Net, but it doesn't mean that their minds are engaged.
           o KIDS is the subject. ENJOY is the verb. SURFING is the direct object of the verb. An object
              is a noun. A form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a noun is a gerund

   o   The study does not show a link between using computers and improving student performance
          o The subject is STUDY. The verb is DOES SHOW. USING and IMPROVING are objects of the
              preposition BETWEEN.
DO: GERUND PRACTICE
           1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
           2. Change the verb in (parentheses) into the gerund form…yes, they are all acting as
              nouns!

   1. She is good at (dance) _____dancing______.

   2. He is crazy about (sing) ____________________.
   3. I don't like (play) ____________________cards.
   4. They are afraid of (swim) ____________________ in the sea.
   5. You should give up (smoke) ____________________.
   6. Sam dreams of (be) ____________________ a popstar.
   7. He is interested in (make) ____________________ friends.
   8. My uncle is afraid of (go) ____________________ by plane.
   9. We insist on (cook) ____________________ the dinner ourselves.
   10. They do not enjoy (swim) ____________________.


CONTINUE UNDERLINING THE SUBJECT ONCE, THE VERB TWICE, and now CIRCLE THE GERUND:
11. Reading is a popular pastime throughout France.


12. Articles written in both English and French are strong selling-points for many magazines.


13. Selling magazines is a difficult task in the competitive French market.


14. Publishing books is a large industry in France.


15. Many younger people enjoy reading comics.


GOOD! NOW THAT YOU CAN SUPPLY GERUNDS & IDENTIFY GERUNDS, LET’S MOVE ON TO ADDING
WHAT FUNCTION THEY ARE PERFORMING…yes, this is going back to sentence patterns…don’t worry –
I have faith in you 
GERUNDS CAN DO WHAT OTHER NOUNS DO:
SUBJECT (S)                        Eating is my favorite pastime in Mexico.
DIRECT OBJECT (DO)                 The Mexican people make visiting a pleasure.
INDIRECT OBJECT (IO)               Mr. Mendoza’s lecture gave traveling a new dimension.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (PN)          One student’s favorite activity is debating.
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION            Their well-behaved dog showed signs of careful training.
(OP)
APPOSITIVE (App)                   Juan’s profession, advertising, is very competitive.


More on gerunds from Purdue OWL:
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund,
like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.
However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun
ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.


Gerund as subject:
      Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)
      The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been
       removed.)
Gerund as direct object:
      They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
      They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)
Gerund as subject complement:
      My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
      My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)
Gerund as object of preposition:
      The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
      The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)
DO: GERUND FUNCTION PRACTICE
            Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
            Change the verb in (parentheses) into the gerund form…yes, they are all acting as
             nouns!
            CIRCLE THE FUNCTION OF THE GERUND (what function is that noun performing?)
1. After (to shop) _____shopping_____, we went to the cinema.

       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
2. (to ski) ____________________ can be dangerous.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
3. (to smoke) ____________________ is unhealthy.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
4. (to swim) ____________________ is my favorite activity.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
5. Do you like (to surf) ____________________ on the net?
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
6. Does she enjoy (to wear) ____________________ jewels?
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
7. At the (begin) ____________________ of the year, we move south.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
8. Before (to go) ____________________ to bed, I usually have a shower.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
9. Be careful when (to spell) ____________________ words.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App
10. The neighbors thanked me for (to call) ____________________the fire department.
       S      DO     IO     PN     OP     App




GOOD! NOW LET’S JUST EXPAND THE GERUND INTO A PHRASE – it really isn’t hard to
spot the group of words that follows a gerund as being its phrase…don’t overthink this!

GERUND PHRASES
GERUNDS CAN ALSO BE PHRASES – LIKE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES – THEY CAN HAVE SOME WORDS
AROUND THEM THAT BELONG TO THEM – JUST LIKE A PREPOSITION CAN HAVE AN “OBJECT OF THE
PREPOSITION” AFTER IT THAT BELONGS TO IT. DON’T WORRY: ONCE YOU FIND THE GERUND, THEY ARE
EASY TO SPOT.

Just a few of the ways that gerunds may be expanded into gerund phrases:
With adjectives:              His constant, angry ranting made Napoleon difficult to tolerate.
With an adjective phrase: Arguing about grades will get you nowhere.
With an adverb:               Answering quickly is not always a good idea.
With a prepositional          Many places in France prohibit walking on the grass.
phrase:
With an object of a           Pierre was incapable of reciting the poem.
preposition:
With indirect and direct      The French teacher tried giving her students praise.
objects:

From Purdue OWL:
A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or
noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or
state expressed in the gerund, such as:
The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
        Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.
               Finding (gerund)
               a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
               in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.
       I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.
               my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
               offering (gerund)
               you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
               this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the the predicate nominative.
       Tom's favorite tactic has been expressing concern to his constituents.
              expressing concern to (gerund)
              his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
       You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.
             faking (gerund)
                an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
                to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)

DO: GERUND PHRASE PRACTICE
         1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
         2. Circle the entire gerund phrase.

1. Making movies is a big business in France.
2. An average year for the French film industry entails producing roughly 150 movies.
3. Only India and the United States are known for making more movies than France.
4. Viewing American movies is a popular French pastime, but the French try promoting their own
films.
5. Government restrictions limit the showing of American films to one third of the nation’s theaters.


REVISING TO FORM GERUND PHRASES:
Change the underlined words to a gerund phrase…you may have to add or change words to keep the
meaning of the sentence.
EXAMPLE:     Construction of Notre Dame de Paris began in 1163 when the cornerstone was laid.
ANSWER:      Construction of Notre Dame de Paris began in 1163 with the laying of the cornerstone.


6. To complete the cathedral was no small task.
________________________________________________________________________________
7. To gaze at Gothic architecture makes our thoughts ascend.
________________________________________________________________________________
8. Gothic architects and artisans worked to craft the rose windows of stained glass.
________________________________________________________________________________
9. To build it took teams of workers eighty-seven years.
________________________________________________________________________________
10. No expense was spared to erect a church that would reflect the prestige of Paris.
________________________________________________________________________________
II. PARTICIPLES
            First and foremost, a participle is the form of a verb, but it is not a verb BECAUSE IT IS
             NOT PERFORMING THE FUNCTION OF A VERB…IT IS ACTING LIKE AN ADJECTIVE.
            Second, it is an adjective.
            And finally, it ends in "ing" (present tense) or "ed" or "en" (past tense).

EXAMPLES
[In the following examples, the participle is bold and the verb is underlined.]
     o As the colonies became a new nation dedicated to the proposition that all men are created
        equal, public schools had another purpose.
             o First find the subject and verb of each clause: COLONIES BECAME and SCHOOLS HAD.
             o With that done, we can see that DEDICATED is not the subject. Instead, it describes the
                word NATION. Therefore, it is an adjective. A form of a verb that ends in ED, EN or ING
                and acts as an adjective is a participle.
     o Transformed by the national economy, urban factories developed a need for disciplined,
        obedient workers.
             o The subject (factories) DEVELOPED. So what does TRANSFORMED do? It describes
                FACTORIES.
     o Learning to solve problems in groups, the students began to understand how to fit within the
        social structure.
             o Identify the subject and verb. What is this sentence about? STUDENTS. What is the verb?
                BEGAN. What part of the sentence does LEARNING go with? The subject. It describes
                STUDENTS, so it is a form of the verb acting as an adjective—a participle.


The steps to finding a participle:
1. Find the subject and verb to eliminate any confusion.
    o Al Gore, knocked around by Bill Bradley for being "pro-gun," is confidently pushing gun control to
        the forefront of his presidential campaign.
            o AL GORE is the subject. IS PUSHING is the verb. KNOCKED is a form of the verb, acting as
               an adjective, modifying Al GORE.
    o The activist called for a waiting period for gun purchases to help reduce illegal gun trafficking.
            o The subject is ACTIVIST. The verb is CALLED. WAITING is a form of the verb, acting as an
               adjective, modifying PERIOD.
    o Headed by conservative media watchdog leader Brent Bozell, the Parents Television Council
        announced the results of a study.
            o The subject is THE PARENTS TELEVISION COUNCIL. The verb is ANNOUNCED. HEADED is a
               form of the verb, acting as an adjective, modifying the subject.
   o   The network reported on the springtime ritual of young men and women flocking to warm
       beaches around the globe.
          o The subject is NETWORK. The verb is REPORTED. FLOCKING is a form of the verb, acting as
              an adjective, modifying men and women. It can't act as a verb without an auxiliary verb.
              For example: Young men and women WERE flocking to warm beaches.


2. Decide what part of the sentence the verbal belongs to.
    o The statement issued by Columbia noted that a current weakness of the Internet is the inability
       to authenticate material.
           o The subject is STATEMENT. The verb is NOTED. ISSUED is part of the complete subject. It
              is a form of the verb, acting as an adjective.
    o The armed services struggle to meet recruiting goals in a tight job market.
           o The subject is SERVICES. The verb is STRUGGLE. RECRUITING is part of the complete
              predicate. It is a form of the verb, acting as an adjective modifying goals.

More from Purdue OWL:

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal
indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses
action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or
pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles
end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and
seen.
     The crying baby had a wet diaper.
     Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.
     The burning log fell off the fire.
     Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.



DO: PARTICIPLE PRACTICE
Change the verb in (parentheses) into the PRESENT PARTICIPLE (-ING) form…yes, they are all acting as
adjectives, right in front of the noun they are describing/modifying!

1)_________________dogs (bark)
2)_________________children (play)
3) _________________girls (scream)
4) _________________cowboys (dance)
5) _________________ducks (swim)

Now try changing the verb (in parentheses) into the PAST PARTICIPLE (-ed, -en) form…yes, they are all
still acting as adjectives, right in front of the noun they are describing/modifying!

6) _____________________fans (fascinate)
7) _____________________computers (stole)
8) _____________________students (bore)
9) _____________________boys (confuse)
10)____________________umbrellas (forget)



DO: PARTICPLE in sentence PRACTICE
          1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
          2. Change the verb in (parentheses) into the participle form that makes SENSE in the
             sentence (-ing, or –ed/-en)…yes, they are all acting as adjectives!
          3. Draw an arrow from the participle (adjective) to the noun that it is
             describing/modifying.

Example: I talked to the man ________ the newspaper (read).

Answer: I talked to the man reading the newspaper.


1) He saw his friend ____________________ (go) out with Sue.


2) The bus crashed into the blue car ____________________ (drive) down the hill.


3) Peter hurt his leg ____________________ (do) karate.


4) The umbrella ____________________ (find) at the bus stop belongs to John Smith.


5) The people ____________________ (dance) in the street are all very friendly.


6) I heard my mother ____________________ (talk) on the phone.


7) My uncle always has his car ____________________ (wash).


8) We stood ____________________ (wait) for the taxi.


9) ____________________ (look) down from the tower, we saw many people walking in the streets.


10) The people drove off in a ____________________ (steal) car.
GOOD!  NOW YOU’RE READY TO LOOK AT PARTICIPLES IN PHRASES.
WE CALL THESE PAR-TI-CI-PIAL PHRASES (the noun “participle” turns into an adjective: “participi-al”



PARTICIPIAL PHRASES

PARTICIPLES CAN ALSO BE PHRASES – LIKE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND GERUND PHRASES – THEY CAN
HAVE SOME WORDS AFTER THEM THAT BELONG TO THEM. DON’T WORRY: ONCE YOU FIND THE
PARTICIPLE, THEY ARE EASY TO SPOT:
A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s)
or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action
or state expressed in the participle, such as:

Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
     The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack.
              Removing (participle)
              his coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)

Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline.
       The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin.
              walking (participle)
              along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)

Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills.
       The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children.
               introduced (to) (participle)
               music (direct object of action expressed in participle)
               early (adverb)

Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise.
       The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn.
              Having been (participle)
              a gymnast (subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle)

Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it
modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.
     Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. *
     Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.
In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the
participle carrying. Certainly foot can't be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is an
example of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying any
specific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling." Since a person must be doing the carrying for
the sentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately
after the participial phrase, as in the second sentence.

Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.
    Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed.
    Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.



If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas
only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
      Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.
      The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.

Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be
used:
    The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award.
    The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.

If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifies
an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies.
      The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.
        (The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.)
      Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence.
        (The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)

Points to remember
   1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an
        adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.
   2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
   3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify
        as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.
   4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it:
            o a) comes at the beginning of a sentence
            o b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element
            o c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.


OKAY, THAT SEEMED LIKE A LOT OF INFORMATION – BUT DON’T WORRY – JUST LOOK FOR THE
PARTICIPLE, THEN FIND THE WORDS THAT ARE GROUPED WITH IT. LET’S TRY THE SENTENCES YOU DID
IN THE LAST EXERCISE…

CIRCLE THE WORDS AROUND THE PARTICIPLE THAT SEEM TO “GO WITH” IT…I BET YOU’LL BE RIGHT 

1) He saw his friend GOING out with Sue.
2) The bus crashed into the blue car DRIVEN/DRIVING down the hill.
3) Peter hurt his leg DOING karate.
4) The umbrella FOUND at the bus stop belongs to John Smith.
5) The people DANCING in the street are all very friendly.
6) I heard my mother TALKING on the phone.
7) My uncle always has his car WASHED.
8) We stood WAITING for the taxi.
9) LOOKING down from the tower, we saw many people walking in the streets.
10) The people drove off in a STOLEN car.

DO: PARTICIPIAL PHRASE PRACTICE
       1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
       2. Circle the entire participial phrase…remember, it is acting like a big adjective.
       3. Draw an arrow from the circled phrase to the noun it is describing/modifying.

1. Pioneering in different fields, the French have been leaders in the scientific world.

2. The French government, having supported scientific research for more than 350 years, has made

many advances possible.

3. In 1635, the Royal Garden became one of the first scientific research centers sponsored by a

government.

4. King Louis XIV, known as the Sun King, founded the Royal Academy of Science.

5. Revered as the father of modern chemistry, Antoine Lavoisier gave much to science.



DO: PARTICIPIAL PHRASE WRITING PRACTICE
NOW…practice writing in participial phrases 
Combine each pair of sentences by turning one into a participial phrase.
          make sure your new phrase is acting as an adjective.
          draw an arrow from your phrase back to the noun it is describing/modifying.
          if you cannot draw an arrow from your phrase to its noun, you have probably written a
             gerund phrase (noun) rather than a participial phrase (adj.)
          remember – adjectives are close by the nouns they describe/modify.

EXAMPLE: Marie Curie helped found the field of nuclear chemistry. She did so studying radioactive
elements.

INCORRECT: Marie Curie helped found the field of nuclear chemistry by studying
radioactive elements.
      “by” is a preposition…so what comes after it is the object of the preposition (noun or
       pronoun). This is a noun spot ONLY. So the use of “studying” here is as a gerund.

CORRECT: Marie Curie, studying radioactive elements, helped found the field of
nuclear chemistry.
     Look how close the participial phrase is to the noun it describes/modifies. This is how
       adjectives work, even if they’re a group of words acting like an adjective 
     I can clearly draw an arrow from the participial phrase to the noun it describes/modifies.
     The participial phrase is going to describe a NOUN…so it will often describe the SUBJECT or the
       DIRECT OBJECT.
1. French researchers have also achieved numerous medical breakthroughs. They have been striving
to improve the quality of life.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. During the eighteenth century, Marie Francois Xavier Bichat conducted research. It focused on the
study of human anatomy.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Another French researcher, Louis Pasteur, invented several vaccines. He invented them for a world
plagued by disease.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Pasteur devoted his life to scientific study. He made many other crucial discoveries.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
III. INFINITIVES
            First and foremost, an infinitive is the form of the verb, but it is not a verb BECAUSE IT IS
             NOT PERFORMING THE FUNCTION OF A VERB…IT IS ACTING LIKE A NOUN, ADJECTIVE, OR
             ADVERB.
            Second, an infinitive can be a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
            And finally, it is always "to" plus a verb.

EXAMPLES
[In the following examples, the infinitive is bold and the verb is underlined.]
     o Supporters of the Internet fail to mention that it contains a lot of trash packaged to look like
        reliable information.
             o The subject is SUPPORTERS. The verb is FAIL. The infinitive TO MENTION is the object of
                the verb. Therefore, it is a noun.
     o Students need to learn the parts of speech.
             o The subject is STUDENTS. The verb is NEED. The infinitive TO LEARN is the object of the
                verb. Therefore, it is a noun.
     o The ants have arrived to grab the leftovers from the picnic.
             o The subject is ANTS. The verb is HAVE ARRIVED. The infinitive TO GRAB is an adverb
                explaining why or where they have arrived.
     o That attorney has the right to represent you.
             o The subject is ATTORNEY. The verb is HAS. RIGHT is the object of the verb and the
                infinitive TO REPRESENT is an adjective telling us what kind of right.
     o Lawsuits are useful to punish corporations or to represent consumers.
             o The subject is LAWYERS. The verb is ARE. USEFUL is type of adjective known as a
                predicate adjective and the infinitive TO PUNISH and TO REPRESENT are adverbs
                modifying that adjective.
     o Farmers are splicing genes and manipulating seeds to create more robust plants.
             o The subject is FARMERS. The verbs are ARE SPLICING and MANIPULATING. TO CREATE
                tells us why they are doing this. Therefore, it is an adverb.

More from Purdue OWL:
An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning
as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of
verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive
may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.
Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a
sentence can sometimes be confusing.
     To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)
     Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)
     His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
     He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
     We must study to learn. (adverb)
Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb—with a prepositional
phrase beginning with “to,” which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.
     Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
     Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us

DO: INFINITIVE PRACTICE
             1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
             2. Circle the infinitive.
             3. Write whether the infinitive is acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb. If it is acting as a
                noun, identify what that noun is doing too (S, DO, IO, OP, App). Good review!

__noun_(subject)__ 1. To understand requires maturity and acceptance.


_________________ 2. The peasants of France decided to rebel.

_________________ 3. The children showed a willingness to cooperate.

_________________ 4. The French soldier’s only hope was to surrender.

_________________ 5. Our flight from Paris was about to leave.

_________________ 6. During the war, the French people struggled to resist.

_________________ 7. You have only one choice, to stay.

_________________ 8. Some people were unable to fight.

THAT ^ LIST COVERS ALL THE WAYS INFINITIVES ARE USED. READY FOR MORE?

_________________ 1. France has a large number of interesting museums to visit.

_________________ 2. Almost every museum contains numerous priceless works of art for the visitor

to admire.

_________________ 3. Since many museums were in disrepair, the government decided in 1956 to

renovate them.
_________________ 4. To modernize was the ultimate goal of the government program.

_________________ 5. Constructed originally as a fortress by King Philippe August, the Louvre was

intended to defend Paris from its enemies.

_________________ 6. To explore France’s most important museum requires several full days.

_________________ 7. Massive crowds during the 1980’s left the museum with only one option, to

expand.

INFINITIVE PHRASES

An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or
(pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s), or
complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive, such as:

We intended to leave early.
       The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended.
               to leave (infinitive)
               early (adverb)

I have a paper to write before class.
        The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper.
                to write (infinitive)
                before class (prepositional phrase as adverb)

Phil agreed to give me a ride.
        The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed.
                to give (infinitive)
                me (indirect object of action expressed in infinitive)
                a ride (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

They asked me to bring some food.
       The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb asked.
               me (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase)
               to bring (infinitive)
               some food (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

Everyone wanted Carol to be the captain of the team.
      The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb wanted.
              Carol (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase)
              to be (infinitive)
              the captain (subject complement for Carol, via state of being expressed in infinitive)
              of the team (prepositional phrase as adjective)
NOW LET’S IDENTIFY SOME INFINITIVE PHRASES 



DO: INFINITIVE PHRASE PRACTICE
           1. Underline the subject once and the main verb phrase twice.
           2. If the phrase beginning with “to” is a Prep. Phrase, write it with PP on the line. If it is an
              Infinitive phrase, write it with IP on the line.

EXAMPLE: When I am in Paris, I like to drive.
ANSWER: to drive (IP)

____________________          1. To travel is very easy in France.
____________________          2. There are many different ways to tour.
____________________          3. In Paris, the subway is a good place to start.
____________________          4. The subway will take you to every part of the city.
____________________          5. You can travel easily from the fancy Sixteenth District to the Latin
Quarter, where students hang out.
____________________          6. You will want to buy a book of tickets good for ten rides.
____________________          7. Outside of Paris, high-speed trains can take travelers to cities in several
parts of the country.
____________________          8. These trains can accelerate to speeds of more than 200 miles per hour.
____________________          9. Travelers are also able to take high-speed trains as far as Amsterdam,
Holland.
____________________          10. Trains to most European cities leave Paris often.
FANTASTIC JOB! TOMORROW WE WILL REVIEW ALL 3 TYPES OF VERBALS, MIXED TOGETHER 
Actors: In these last two examples the actor of the infinitive phrase could be roughly characterized as
the "subject" of the action or state expressed in the infinitive. It is somewhat misleading to use the word
subject, however, since an infinitive phrase is not a full clause with a subject and a finite verb. Also
notice that when it is a pronoun, the actor appears in the objective case (me, not I, in the fourth
example). Certain verbs, when they take an infinitive direct object, require an actor for the infinitive
phrase; others can't have an actor. Still other verbs can go either way, as the following charts illustrate.

Verbs that take infinitive objects without actors:
Agree              Begin          continue          decide
Fail               Hesitate       hope              intend
Learn              Neglect        offer             plan
Prefer             Pretend        promise           refuse
Remember           Start          try
Examples:
    Most students plan to study.
    We began to learn.
    They offered to pay.
    They neglected to pay.
    She promised to return.

In all of these examples no actor can come between the italicized main (finite) verb and the infinitive
direct-object phrase.

Verbs that take infinitive objects with actors:
advise              Allow      convince           remind
encourage           Force      hire               teach
instruct            Invite     permit             tell
implore             Incite     appoint            order
Examples:
    He reminded me to buy milk.
         Their fathers advise them to study.
         She forced the defendant to admit the truth.
         You've convinced the director of the program to change her position.
         I invite you to consider the evidence.

In all of these examples an actor is required after the italicized main (finite) verb and before the infinitive
direct-object phrase.

Verbs that use either pattern:
ask       expect      (would) like         want       need
Examples:
    I asked to see the records.
    I asked him to show me the records.
    Trent expected his group to win.
    Trent expected to win.
    Brenda likes to drive fast.
    Brenda likes her friend to drive fast.

In all of these examples the italicized main verb can take an infinitive object with or without an actor.

Punctuation: If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be
set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase.
     To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
     To improve your writing, you must consider your purpose and audience.

Points to remember
   1. An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective,
        or adverb.
   2. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s), and/or
        actor(s).
   3. An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a
        sentence.

Split infinitives
Split infinitives occur when additional words are included between to and the verb in an infinitive. Many
readers find a single adverb splitting the infinitive to be acceptable, but this practice should be avoided
in formal writing.
Examples:
     I like to on a nice day walk in the woods. * (unacceptable)
         On a nice day, I like to walk in the woods. (revised)
     I needed to quickly gather my personal possessions. (acceptable in informal contexts)
         I needed to gather my personal possessions quickly. (revised for formal contexts)

				
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