Defence Management and Civil Society Interaction and Co-operation Dr. Velizar Shalamanov Introduction Defence management Scope of Civil Society Interaction between Defence Institutions and Civil Society Models of Cooperation between Defence Institutions and Civil Society Challenges and Opportunities Conclusion Introduction Reference model for effective defence management; Reference model for mature civil society environment around defence management system; Model of cooperation between defence establishment and civil society; Model of regional environment on civil society level in relation to defence management. Defence management Business Model for defense Legislation and other documents Functions and Structures Description of the reference model of defense management 21ST CENTURY MODEL OF DEFENSE MANAGEMENT FORMULATION OF SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY President International Organizations National Assembly Prime Minister Council of Ministers Foreign Defense Ministries and Institutions Minister of Defense Ministries and Agencies Ministry of Defense Non-governmental Organizations There are three main functions on the higher level: Formulation of policy Implementation of policy Audit control of implemented policy Especially for the military field the implementation function is divided into two sub-functions: administrative and operations. 21ST CENTURY MODEL OF DEFENSE MANAGEMENT MINISTER OF DEFENSE’S MAIN AREAS OF COMPETENCY IN DEFENSE MANAGEMENT POLITICAL OFFICE CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATION FORMULATION OF DEFENSE POLICY INSPECTORATE ADMINISTERING OF DEFENSE POLICY MINISTER OF DEFENSE CONTROL OF IMPLEMENTATION MILITARY ADMINISTRATION PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS JOINT OPERATIONS STAFF OFFICE OF FINANCIAL COMPTROLLER Scope of Civil Society as network of Citizens non-governmental organizations (including international ones) academic institutions (involved in research and development, or education and training) business - defence industry and civil industry media. Role of civilians in National security structures is twofold: in the area of policy definition (pure civilian responsibility) policy implementation (joint work with uniformed professionals to provide optimal mix of expertise and guarantee effectiveness and transparency). Measure of success for the role of civilians in the national security system is satisfaction of the society from security sector and public support for the sector at all on one side and shape of civil-military relations inside security sector from the other side Interaction between Defence Institutions and Civil Society Requires Transparency, based on: • adequate legislation • structures to implement this legislation including for civil control and parliamentarian oversight • but most of all in current dynamic environment two factors are key for success well educated people modern information systems Interactions between defence management and civil society could be manifold: MoD and Government – NGO, academic sector and business, media; Parliament – NGO, academic sector and business, media; Civilians and military in MoD; MoD and Government – Parliament; Between NGO, business, media, academic institutions themselves on defence management issues; National administration – international organizations; Among civil society elements on the regional basis. Models of Cooperation between Defence Institutions and Civil Society fully centralized (society to Parliament, Parliament to Government, Government to Defence Staff) fully decentralized when every element of civil society could directly cooperate with any element of the defence establishment optimal model is somewhere in between and could be optimised to achieve the goal of balance between efficiency and civil control, having in mind level of maturity of the defence institutions, civil society elements and culture of cooperation in the country Environment for Implementation Network Centric Knowledge Based Approach / Strategy US, Canada UK, N,DK, Sp, It, NGO NATO EU … MoD, MoI, CPA, MTT, ME, ME, MES, … Parliament and Political Parties Civilian Business Consultants Action Team TEREM and other DI/IT companies CNSDR-BAS Universities Media – papers/electronic Ukraine Russia Regional influence SEE, BSCR Long-term Transformation Plan Role of the civil society is to generate ideas and to ask for • Transparency • Accountability • Responsibility as well as to back up reformists efforts in the Government. Academic Sector model of cooperation with defense institutions is connected with process to invoke scientific methods in decision making and especially in providing comprehensive approach to the SSR, transformation and in particular modernization of the forces Business community is cooperating with defense establishment in transferring best practices to resource management, by asking for outsourcing of nonmilitary activities, facilitating offset deals in modernization and being a partner in post-conflict reconstruction in the area of operation. Consultants – national and especially international ones present other model of cooperation by further increasing transparency and providing source of expertise for developing of more alternatives as well as to provide better understanding between parties in decision making process. Media cooperates with defense institutions by providing special investigations on key issues for the society, informing regularly about development in defense area (locally, nationally and in the Euroatlantic area) through constant link with PR offices of the different defense organizations. Different models of cooperation - in many different functional areas Participation of Civil Society in Policy Development Performing of Civil Control by Civil Society Involvement in Policy Implementation Providing Public Support and Resources for Defence Civil Society as a factor for Security Sector Integration around the Concept of Civil Security Civil Society as a factor for Security Sector Integration around the Concept of Civil Security Task of transforming national security system to include civil security concept is a great challenge for effective cooperation between civil society and defense / interior management institutions. Center of Excellence in Security Sector Transformation: Communication and Information Infrastructure (CII) Working Groups (WG) Knowledge Infrastructure (KI) Expert Network (EN) On international level models are: Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) and national Atlantic associations in different countries; PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Study Institutes and its working groups and Annual conferences; NATO Science Committee and especially new established Human and Societal Dynamics Panel as well as other Public Diplomacy programs of NATO; Regional arrangements to involve civil society in pure administrative initiatives as SEEDM, BSI for CMEP, MVLE and others NGO activities as BSCR Civil Control Consortium Challenges and Opportunities Interaction and cooperation between civil society and defence management depends on level of maturity of both sides. It is an issue of internal effort for the country, but could be greatly facilitated by external support and in the framework of international cooperation. Problems (I) Best use of critical human resources, especially people graduated abroad in NATO countries – civilian, retired military and active military. Reform of the MoI not to be postponed, focusing mostly in MoD and creating tension and negative attitude to the defense reform. Postponing special services reforms is factor of negative influence in the area of all other reforms – not only in the security sector, but political, economic, other spheres. Professionalization of the Armed Forces by abandoning conscript service to be accelerated in parallel with downsizing and before full scale modernization, but in parallel with building Reserve and kind of Civil Guard. Problems (II) Challenges of modernization especially in the area of corruption tension and lack of management capacity could ruin other aspects of on going reform. In many countries new weapon systems could not be procured only on national level having in mind the scale, regional integration as result of membership in one defense alliance and other arguments. Utilization of excesses of equipment, infrastructure, munitions could generate negative influence if not divided from reform efforts and managed separately. Problems (III) National Defense Industry and R&D if not addressed properly in parallel of security sector reform and modernization, including through similar restructuring, retraining and reintegration programs to military could generate social problems, cases of illegal arms trade, degradation of national capacity for joint programs in Euroatlantic community. E&T in the security matters, especially military education and interior education system is critical and if transformation here is not successful or if changes are too chaotic the result is negative in long term. Objectives and priorities of the BSCR Consortium include: consolidation of the NGOs’ efforts supporting democratic transformations of the region; rapprochement of the positions of the participating countries on democratic control and regional security; establishment of a system of effective monitoring over the level of DC and the state of national and regional security by the means of an identical methodology; development of a Security Sector (SS) Maturity Model and elaboration of Methodology for SS Maturity Assessment; establishment of a network of the web-sites and periodicals; establishment of a Black Sea-Caspian Virtual Distributed ADL College. End goal is to achieve fully integrated security sector. Preparation of this third generation SSR could start earlier having in mind the target model. Regional dimension (I) Security is a regional issue as well as Euroatlantic issue and with a key role of the US – Russian influence could not be neglected in the region of SEE, Black Sea – Caspian region, Central Asia and greater Middle East at large. Progress measurement is based on comparative analysis between countries with similar background and goals from the region. Transfer of knowledge from SEE through Black Sea to the Caspian sea and Central Asia is a key idea of enlarging the zone of freedom and democracy as a best way to provide security. Regional dimension (II) Small countries need regional integration for effective program management and development of their national security sector – especially in the area of E&T, R&D, modernization, infrastructure, hosting of allies. Multinational formations are key for improved international cooperation and strengthening of transatlantic link as well as integration of the security sector. Security is prerequisite for infrastructure and vice versa as well as infrastructure is the key issue for development of the BSCR. BSCR Center for SSR (Security and Integration Center) Management; Research section – think-tank; Training section with mobile teams for outreach; IT section with PIMS management for BSCR; Lessons learned section with library for knowledge (International Journal) management; Conference and networking support (News Letter) team; Technical staff. It means the center will be integral body to support research / lessons learned, networking, training, IT environment management and knowledge management at large. Conclusion Balance between defense institution building and civil society development is a prerequisite for effective interaction and cooperation between them. Even more, effective defense establishment could not be developed without capacity in civil society to participate in the process. It is through involvement of civil society bodies possible to implement concept of civil security and integrated security sector. Regional cooperation and following the common reference models is a key tool for success.