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BASICS OF LIGHTING

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					หมายเหตุ กรุณานาเอกสารชุดนี้มาในวันประชุมด้วย

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1. Overall Architecture of the ELMCA Curricula
The table below reflect the agree ELMCA curricula. It reflects four courses addressing successively and incrementally key engineering and technical aspects of lighting solutions toward energy efficient lighting solutions with main themes and key sub-topics to be addressed.

ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING CURRICULA
BASICS OF LIGHTING
HUMAN EYE - construction - perception of light - spectral sensitivity LIGHTING AND VISION - adaptation - visual acuity - contrast sensitivity - visual performance - glare - aging of visual system - mesopic vision COLOUR THEORY QUANTITIES AND LAWS - luminous flux - luminous intensity - illuminance, luminance - quantity of light - Lambertian law - cosine and square law - reflection, transmission PHOTOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
LIGHT SOURCES - production of light - incandescent, halogen - fluorescent etc. LEDs, OLEDs LUMINAIRES - function of luminaires - electrical, thermal, photometric, marking requirements - luminaire types BALLASTS - magnetic and electronic

LIGHTING DESIGN AND SIMULATION
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING DESIGN PRINCIPLES DAYLIGHT DESIGN PRINCIPLES LIGHTING STANDARDS LIGHTING QUALITY ASPECTS - colour aspects - luminance distribution - glare evaluation - visual performance and comfort

ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING SOLUTIONS
WORLD-WIDE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION FOR LIGHTING ENERGY CODES AND STANDARDS POLICIES AND MANAGEMENTS SOLUTIONS FOR - residential lighting - office lighting

PHOTOVOLTAIC AND LIGHTING CALCULATION LIGHTING SYSTEMS AND SIMULATION LIGHTING SYSTEMS - computer programmes LIGHTING ECONOMICS - interior lighting - cost calculations LIGHTING CONTROL - exterior lighting investment, energy, - control methods maintenance costs - equipment INTEGRATION OF - life-cycle costs - control strategies - intelligent control systems DAYLIGHT AND SCENARIOS OF ENERGYARTIFICIAL LIGHTING EFFICIENT LIGHTING AND SAVING POTENTIAL

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1. LIGHT AND LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS (LLF)

1.1 Light, eyes, vision process 1.1.1 Nature of light 1.1.2 Light and radiant energy spectrum 1.1.3 Light effects and applications 1.1.4 Characterization of light 1.1.5 Light and lighting 1.1.6 Human eyes 1.1.7 Lighting and vision 1.2 Light in nonvisual process 1.2.1 Photobiology: Effect on human and animals Effect on microorganisms Effects on insects 1.2.2 Photosynthesis: Effects on plants 1.2.3 Photochemistry : Effects on materials 1.2.4 Photovotaic: Effects on energy, Generation of energy (PV) and application 1.3 Definition and terminology in lighting aspects 1.3.1 Geometrical fundamentals: Solid angle, solid angle projection 1.3.2 Physical radiation quantities and units: Radiant flux, radiant intensity, radiance, irradiance, radiant exposure, radiant exitance, radiant efficiency 1.3.3 V - function 1.3.4 Photometric quantities and units: Luminous flux, luminous intensity, luminance, illuminance, exitance, luminous efficacy, luminous efficiency 1.3.5 Photometric quantities describing light control: Transmission, reflection, and absorption 1.4 Photometry and colorimetry 1.4.1 Photometry and colorimetry 1.4.2 Photometric laws 1) Square law 2) Lambert’s cosine law 1.4.3 Photometric measurements 1) Luminance and illuminance meters 2) Photometers and spectrometers 3) Standard sources and calibration 1.4.4 Colorimetry 1) Basic concepts 2) CIE colour systems 3) Standard illuminants and reflection colorimetry 4

4) Colour rendering index 1.5 Principles of light generation 1.5.1 Introduction 1.5.2 Thermal radiation 1) Blackbody radiation 2) Planck’s law and Wien’s displacement law 3) Luminous efficacy of blackbody radiation 4) Colour and distribution temperature 1.5.3 Electric discharge 1) Low pressure discharge 2) High pressure discharge 1.5.4 Phosphorescence 1) Fundamental concepts 2) Broadband phosphors 3) Tricolor phosphors 1.5.5 Recombination radiation 1) Semiconductor p-n junction 2) Recombination of electrons and holes at a semiconductor p–n junction 3) Electroluminescence 4) Bulk recombination of electrons and holes injected from electrodes. 1.5.6 Stimulated radiation and LASER 1) Stimulated radiation 2) Principle of operation of laser 3) Characteristics of laser radiation 1.6 Daylight and daylight control 1.6.1 Natural light: Sunlight, sky light 1.6.2 Daylight availability 1.6.3 Sun and skylight characteristics 1.6.4 Daylighting application and daylight control, 1.6.5 Integration of daylight and electric lighting 1.6.6 Daylighting effect on energy use 1.6.7 Daylight Control  Detailed Site Obstruction Survey  Wall Fenestrations a) Overhangs & Awnings b) Vertical Louvers c) Shelf Reflectors d) Intermediate Light Shelves e) Light Scoops f) Light Baffles  Roof Fenestrations a) Skylights b) North/South Roof Monitors c) Ceiling Baffles d) Exterior Vertical Shield/Reflectors 1.7 Light sources and control gears 1.7.1 Basic function of control gears 1) Light Control and Distribution  Principles 5

 General Function 2) Electric Lighting Control  Switching and Dimming  Time Clocks  Sensors a) Occupancy Sensors b) Illumination Sensors / Photocells c) Combination of Photocells and Dimmers 1.7.2 Lamps 1) Lamp Categories  Incandescent  Fluorescent  High Intensity Discharge  Light Emitting Diodes 2) Energy Efficiency 3) Applications 1.7.3 Lamp Ballasts 1) Types of Ballasts  Electromagnetic  Electronic 2) Special Ballasts 3) Ballast Factor 4) System Compatibility 5) Ballast Reliability 1.7.4 Lamps and Ballast Matching 1) Matching Selection Consideration 2) System Efficacy 3) Wattage Compatibility 4) Lamp Retrofitting 5) Lamp-Ballast Matching  Self – Ballasted Lamps  Ballasts for Fluorescent  Ballasts for HID 1.8 Optical properties of material 1.8.1 Overview of materials used in light engineering 1. Reflection 2. Refraction 3. Diffusion 4. Mesurement optical properties of materials 1.8.2 Principles of light control 1. Light control by reflection system 2. Light control by refraction and diffusion systems 3. Introduction of some kinds of luminaires and their light field distribution

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1.9 Luminaires 1.9.1 Construction, 1.9.2 Types and classification 1.9.3 Luminaire performance : photometric,electrical and mechanical 1.9.4 Performance testing 1.9.5 Photometric measurement 1.9.6 Coordinate systems

1.10 Luminaires 1.10.1 Demonstration of luminaires’ light field distribution 1) Set of light intensity curves in coordinate systems (polar and Cartesian coordinate sytems) 2) Set of light isointensity curves (Iso candela) 3) Set of light isoilluminance curves (Iso lux) 1.10.2 Techniques of collecting demonstration of luminaires’ light field distribution 1) Goniophotometer 2) Curves drawing of light field distribution stipulated by CIE 1.10.3 Application of luminaires’ light field curve 1) Application to the calculation of luminous flux, utilization coefficient, and efficiency of luminaires 2) Application to the lighting calculation of one luminaire and a system of luminaries 1.11 Principles of Lighting Calculation 1.11.2 Artificial Lighting Calculation 1) Point-by-Point / Point Grid / Inverse Square Method 2) Lumen Method / Zonal Cavity Method 1.11.1 Daylight Calculation 1) Daylight Factor Method 2) Lumen Method for Daylighting 1.12 Lighting Application I – Indoor 1.12.1 Indoor Lighting Quality, Efficiency and Pollution Assessment Case Study No.1: LIGHTING EVALUATION AND COMPARISON: Descriptive, Photographic and Measurement Survey of the Lighting of Two Existing Office Rooms 1.12.2 Case Study and Practice in Indoor Lighting Case Study No. 2: LIGHTING DESIGN AND COMPARISON: Two Office Room 1.13 Lighting Application II – Outdoor 1.13.1 Outdoor Lighting Quality, Efficiency and Pollution Assessment 7

Case Study No. 3: LIGHTING EVALUATION AND COMPARISON: Descriptive, Photographic and Measurement Survey of the Lighting of an Existing Subdivision Entrance 1.13.2 Case Study and Practice in Indoor Lighting Case Study No. 4: LIGHTING DESIGN AND EVALUATION: A New Subdivision Entrance 1.14 Lighting quality, efficiency and pollution - Assessment of lighting quality, efficiency and pollution

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2. ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES (EELT) 2.1 Lighting Systems 2.1.1 Lighting Classification 1) General lighting system General lighting Local lighting Localized lighting 2) By distribution system 3) By Mounting system 4) Outdoor system 2.1.2 Lighting System Components 1) Lighting system needs 2) Daylighting 3) Light sources 4) Luminaires 5) Lighting controls

2.2 Daylight and daylighting 2.2.1 Nature of daylight 1) Daylight as light source:  Direct sun  Clear blue sky  Partly cloudy sky  Overcast sky 2) The Efficacy of daylight 3) Chromaticity and color rendering 4) Spectral characteristics 2.2.2 Daylight systems 2.2.3 Daylight system components 1) Sun as light source 2) Daylight openings 3) Directing the daylight: reflectors and refractors 4) Shading: opaque shielding components 5) Housing 6) Glazing options: transparent/translucent filtering components 2.2.4 Toplighting daylight systems 1) Design considerations 2) Toplghting options 3) Clerestories, Monitors and Sawtooths Monitors 2.2.5 Sidelighting daylight systems 1) Sidelighting design considerations 2) Sidelighting options 2.2.6 Energy saving by daylighting 2.3 Artifical light sources 1 2.3.1 Type classification 2.3.2 Working mechanism of lighting sources 1) Incandescent lighting source 2) Gaseous discharge sources 9

3) Electroluminescence 2.3.3 General performance characteristics 1) Efficacy and energy 2) Lamp life 3) Maintenance of light output 4) Color, CRI 5) Lamp temperature characteristics 2.3.4 Typical electric and photometric characteristics 2.4 Artifical light sources 2 2.4.1 Incandescent lamps: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.2 Tungsten-halogen incandescent lamps construction, characteristics, application 2.4.3 Fluorescent lamps 1) Linerar fluorescent lamps : T-12, T-10, T-8, T-5 lamp: construction, characteristics, application 2) Compact fluorescent lamps : screw-base CFLs, Advanced CFL products, construction, characteristics, application 2.4.4 Mercury vapor lamps: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.5 Low pressure sodium: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.6 High pressure sodium: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.7 Metal halide lamps: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.8 Electrodeless lamps: construction, characteristics, application 2.4.9 Xenon high pressure lamps: construction, characteristics, application 2.5 Artificial light sources 3 2.5.1 LED: construction, characteristics, application 2.5.2 OLED: construction, characteristics, application 2.6. Control Gears 1 2.6.1 Auxiliary Equipments and Circuits 2.6.1.1 Ballasts 2.6.1.2 Starters 2.6.1.3 Ignitors 2.6.2 System Compatibility and Noise 2.6.2.1 Ballast noise 2.6.2.2 Flicker and Stroboscopic Effect 2.6.2.3 Radio Interference 2.6.2.4 Harmonics 2.6.3 Governing Standards 2.6.3.1 Ballasts 2.6.3.2 Thermal Protection 2.6.3.3 Harmonics 2.7 Control Gears 2 2.7.1 Performance Testing and Evaluation 1) Ballast Efficiency Index 2.7.2 Electronic Ballasts 2.7.3 Brightness control DALI 2.7.6 Case Study and Practice

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2.8 Luminaires (Indoor and Outdoor) 2.8.1 Classification 1) General Classification 2) Classification by Optical System 3) Classification by Shielding Angle 2.8.2 Luminaire Characteristics / Properties 1) Light Distribution 2) Light Output Ratio 3) Utilization Factor 4) Operating Condition 5) Electrical Protection 6) Shielding Angle 7) Spacing Criteria 2.8.3 Components 1) Lamps 2) Control Gears 3) Housing 4) Reflectors 5) Shielding/diffusing 2.9 Luminaires (Indoor and Outdoor) 2 2.9.1 Photometric Measurement 1) Photometric Data / Reports 2) Photometric Graphs 3) Polar Graphs 4) Rectilinear / Cartesian Graphs 5) Beam Angle 6) Spectral Power Distribution Curve 2.9.2 Photometric File Formats 1) IES file 2) CIE file 3) EULUMDAT file 2.9.3 Design Principle of Energy Efficient Luminaires 1) Material Selection 2) Optical Control Design 2.10 Luminaires (Indoor and Outdoor) 3 2.10.1 Performance Evaluation (Quality,Energy Efficiency,Economics,etc.) 1) Discomfort Glare Evaluation (Glare Limitation Curve,Unified,Glare Rating Limit) 2) Energy Efficiency Index Evalution 3) Economic Comparation 2.11 Lighting System Control and Management 2.11.1 Control Strategies and Devices 1) Goal of Lighting Control and Management 2) Lighting Control Strategies 3) Lighting Control Techniques 4) Lighting Control Devices and Equipments 5) Lighting Control Systems 6) Impact of Lighting Controls

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2.12 Lighting system control and management 2.12.1 General consideration 2.12.2 Integrated (intelligent) control system 2.12.3 PC embedded control 2.12.4 LCS components 2.12.5 Intelligent buildings and homes, building management system 2.12.6 Supervision and control street light network 2.12.7 Lighting system management 2.13 Lighting product standards 2.13.1. Performance & Safety Standards for Fluorescent Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.2. Performance & Safety Standards for Compact Fluorescent Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.3. Performance & Safety Standards for Mercury Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.4. Performance & Safety Standards for Metal Halide Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.5. Performance & Safety Standards for High Pressure Sodium Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.6. Performance & Safety Standards for Tungsten-Halogen Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Lamp Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.7. Performance & Safety Standards for LED Light Sources Lamps 1) Methods of Measurement 2) LED Light Source Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.8. Performance & Safety Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Starters 1) Testing 2) Starter Performance 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.9. Performance & Safety Standards for Ballasts of Fluorescent Lamps 1) Testing 2) Ballast Performance 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.10. Performance & Safety Standards for Ballasts of High Intensity Discharge & Low Pressure Sodium Lamps 1) Testing 2) Ballast Performance 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.11. Performance & Safety Standards for Indoor Luminaires 12

1) Methods of Measurement 2) Luminaire Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.13.12. Performance & Safety Standards for Outdoor Luminaires 1) Methods of Measurement 2) Luminaire Specifications 3) Safety Requirements 2.14 EMC and Energy Standards 2.14.1 EMC Standards for Electrical Lighting Equipment 1) Radiated Electromagnetic Disturbances 2) Test Specifications • Electrostatic Discharges • Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields • Power Frequency Magnetic Fields • Injected Currents • Surges • Voltage Dips and Interruptions • Voltage Fluctuations 3) Assessment of Conformity 2.14.2 Energy Standards 1) Exterior Lighting Power 2) Interior Lighting Power 3) Energy Calculation Methods • Building Area Method • Space-by-Space Method • Energy Cost Budget Method 4) Lighting Controls 5) Fluorescent and HID Lamp Ballasts

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3. Lighting System Design and Simulation (LSDS) 3.1 Lighting design process and code + standard 1. Design process scheme and the role of the designer in the process 2. Definition of requirements (spatial design concept) 3. Definition of requirements (use-specific requirements, definition of visual task) 4. Definition of requirements (visual comfort) 5. Definition of requirements (visual perception, glare) 6. Definition of requirements (thermal comfort, energy load due to light) 7. Definition of requirements (benchmark values) 8. Definition of requirements (benchmark values) 9. Definition of requirements (international standards and recommendations) 10. Definition of requirements (international standards and recommendations) 11. Definition of requirements (international standards and recommendations) 12. Definition of requirements (international standards and recommendations) 13. Site analysis / building inventory analysis / potential study (link to lecture unit 3.8) 14. Site analysis / building inventory analysis / potential study (makro-, meso-, mikroclimate) 15. site analysis / building inventory analysis / potential study (daylight availability) 16. site analysis / building inventory analysis / potential study (shading studies) 17. the lighting concept (daylight / artificial light) 18. the lighting concept (working with alternatives) 19. illustrating the lighting concept (drawing) 20. illustrating the lighting concept (drawing) 21. illustrating the lighting concept (model building) 22. illustrating the lighting concept (model building) 23. evaluating the concept (simulation tools), link to lecture units 3.5, 3.6, 3.7 24. evaluating the concept (computer) link to lecture units 3.6, 3.7 25. evaluating the concept (physical model) link to lecture units 3.5 26. detail planning 27. detail planning 28. example of a design process 29. example of a design process 30. example of a design process 31. example of a design process 32. example of a design process 3.2 Lamp and luminaire application - Lamp and luminaire for energy efficient design 3.3 Lighting design principles for interior I 3.3.1 ELMCA concept for efficient lighting 3.3.2 Lighting Design Consideration 1) Lighting Design Process 2) Lighting Quantity Illumination Levels Illumination Levels based on Light Source Spectrum 14

3.3.3 Lighting Quality 1) Light Distribution 2) Space and Workplace Considerations 3) Lighting People and Objects 3.3.4 Implementation 1) Lighting Analysis Tools • Introduction • Hand Calculations • Basic Point-by-Point Lighting Programs • Advance Lighting Programs • Special Calculations • Exterior Lighting Calculations 2) Daylighting Design Analysis Tools • Manual Calculations • Scale Models • Computer Simulations 3) Economic Analysis of Lighting Systems • Economic Limitations • Economic Decision-Making • Retrofit Assessment and Lighting audits • Life-Cycle-Cost-Analysis 3.3.5 General procedure for maintained illuminance and luminance 1) Objectives and Design Considerations • Setting Task • Quality Requirement • Quantity Requirement • Area Atmosphere • Area Description and Use • Selection of System and Luminaire 2) Light Loss Factor - Unrecoverable Light Loss Factor • Temperature Factor (Luminaire ambient Temperature) • Line Voltage Factor (Supply voltage to luminaire) • Ballast Factor (BF) • Luminaire Surface Depreciation (LSD) 3) Recoverable Light Loss Factor • Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD) • Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) • Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (RSDD) • Lamp Burnout (LBO) 3.3.6. Calculations 3.3.6.1. Hand Calculation • Total Light Loss Factor • Average illumination Calculation • Practical Layout of Luminaire • Economic Analysis of Lighting System 3.3.6.2. Software for lighting design and calculation 3.4 Lighting Design for Interior 3.4.1 Lighting Design considerations 1) Assessing the need 2) Safety 15

3) Task lighting levels (illuminance) 4) Glare 5) Lighting and colour appearance 6) Economy and energy efficiency. 7) Energy conservation legislation 8) Daylighting 3.4.2. Selecting Lighting Equipment 1) Lamp selection • Filament lamps • Fluorescent lamps • High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps • Control gear for discharge lamps 2) Luminaire selection 1) General lighting luminaires 2) Display lighting luminaires 3) Lighting track 4) Lighting structures 5) Lighting control • Switches • Dimmer • Time switches • Photocells • Presence detectors • Intelligent luminaires • Complex controls 3.4.3. Design calculations for straightforward situation 3.4.3.1. General lighting - How many luminaires? 1) Information about the room • Room index • Room surface reflectance 2) Information about lamp and luminaire 3) Information about environmental cleanliness and maintenance factors 4) Number of luminaires required 5) Planning the luminaire layout 3.4.3.2. Calculation to provide local emphasis 3.4.3.3. Checking for energy efficiency 3.4.3.4. Energy saving payback calculations 3.4.3.5. Computer-assisted calculations

Case study 1. Lighting for Supermarket 3.4.4. Lighting System for Supermarket 3.4.4.1. Lighting design considerations 1) Assessing the need 2) Safety and emergency 3) Task lighting levels (illuminance) 4) Glare 5) Lighting and colour appearance 6) Economy and energy efficiency. 7) Energy conservation legislation 8) Daylighting 16

9) Vertical illuminance 10) Utilisation Factor for walls UF (W) or Utilisation for ceiling UF (C) 3.4.4.2. Selecting Lighting Equipment 1) Lamp selection • Filament lamps • Fluorescent lamps • High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps • Control gear for discharge lamps 2) Luminaire selection • General lighting luminaries • Display lighting luminaries • Lighting track • Lighting structures • Lighting control • Switches • Dimmer • Time switches • Photocells • Presence detectors • Intelligent luminaires • Complex controls 3.4.4.3. Lighting design 1) General Lighting - Information about the room • Room index • Room surface reflectance - Information about lamp and luminaire - Information about environmental cleanliness and maintenance factors -The number of luminaires required - Planning the luminaire layout 2) Task Lighting - The Visual Modeling of Vertical Illuminance - Calculation of Vertical Illuminance - Calculation of Direct Vertical Illuminance 3.4.4.4. Checking for energy efficiency 3.4.4.5. Energy saving payback calculations 3.4.4.6. Computer-assisted calculations Case Study2 - Lighting for classroom 3.4.5. Lighting System for classroom 3.4.5.1. Lighting design considerations 1) Illuminance levels on tables and on chart board 2) Glare and colour rendering index 3) Daylighting 3.4.5.2. Selecting Lighting Equipment 1) Lamp selection - Fluorescent lamps - Control gear for fluorescent lamps 2). Luminaire selection - General lighting luminaires - Display lighting luminaires - Switches 17

3.4.5.3. Lighting design 1) General Lighting - Information about the room • Geometry dimensions of classroom • Room index • Room surface reflectance - Information about lamp and luminaire - Information about environmental cleanliness and maintenance factors - The number of luminaires required - Planning the luminaire layout 2) Task Lighting - Information about the blackboard  Dimension and position  Blackboard surface reflectance - Information about lamp and luminaire - Information about environmental cleanliness and maintenance factors - The number of luminaires required - Planning the luminaire layout 3.5 Performance evaluation and simulation 3.5.1 Lighting performance evaluation methods - Physical model - Software - Calculation - Full scale model 3.5.2 Algorithm in computer-aided-lighting software - Ray-tracing - Radiosity - Others Computer simulation for spaces Export geometric model Import geometric model for use in Lighting software - Import, Unit, Layer, Material, Blocks, Luminiare, Display on screen, View Prepare material definition - Material property: reflectance, transparency, glossy - Template Material Assignment - Material selection, Material assignment - Window assignment Prepare daylight conditions - Location - Daylight conditions: sun and sky-cie, clear, partly cloudy and cloudy - Time Lighting Analysis - Area selection - Quantity performance evaluation: illuminance level, luminance, uniformity, glare, power density Rendering option - Quick calculation, image resolution, Ray tracing, Radiosity Display list - contour, colored contour, gray scale 18

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Save picture and analysis, and Report generation 3.7 Daylighting design and consideration for energy efficient 1. Daylight : colour and intensity 2. Daylight: colour and intensity 3. Daylight /artificial light 4. Daylight /artificial light 5. Daylight: direct light and diffuse light 6. Sun position 7. Sun position (altitude and azimuth angles) 8. Sun position (seasonal changes) 9. Sun position (changes throughout a day) 10. Sun position diagrams 11. Sun position diagrams 12. Local time, time zone, mean solar time, real solar time 13. Real luminance distribution (sunny sky) 14. Real luminance distribution (cloudy sky) 15. Standardized luminance distribution (CIE) 16. Standardized luminance distribution (CIE) 17. Measures of daylight efficiency 18. Daylight factor 19. Daylight autonomy 20. Daylight autonomy and energy consumption for artificial lighting 21. Energy load due to daylight 22. Visual comfort and energy efficiency 23. Glare 24. Glare 25. Daylight and material properties (reflectance) 26. Daylight and material properties (colour) 27. Optimizing building geometry for daylight efficiency 28. Optimizing building geometry for daylight efficiency 29. Facade design 30. Facade design 31. Facade design 32. Facade design Lighting model simulation - Overview of daylight simulation tools Simulation tool 1: geometric drawing Simulation tool 2: computer, simulation software, link to lecture unit 3.6,3.7 Simulation tool 3: horizontoscope Simulation tool 4: artificial sun / heliodon Simulation tool 5: artificial sky Overview of artificial light simulation tools Simulation tool 1: computer, simulation software Simulation tool 2: model with artificial light sources Building model (reproducing material properties: reflectance) Building model (reproducing material properties: color) Building model (reproducing material properties: structure) Building model (scale) Reproducing artificial light sources Measuring equipment: (illuminance meter) Measuring equipment: (luminance meter/ luminance camera) 19

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Model simulation using an artificial sky Model simulation using an artificial sky (shading studies) Model simulation using an artificial sky (standardized luminance distributions, CIE-skies) Model simulation using an artificial sky (daylight factor) Model simulation using an artificial sky (daylight coefficients) Model simulation using an artificial sky (simulating the luminance distribution throughout the course of a day) Model simulation using an artificial sky (simulating the luminance distribution throughout a year) Model simulation using an artificial sky (reproducing real/measured luminance distributions) Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation example using the artificial sky Simulation of daylight and artificial light (example) Simulation of daylight and artificial light (example) 3.9 Daylighting system and integration 1. Functions of daylight systems: sunscreen, light guiding, anti-glare shield 2. Facade openings: size and positioning 3. Facade openings: size and positioning 4. Facade openings: size and positioning 5. Skylights 6. Skylights 7. Atriums 8. Facade shading and light guiding systems 9. Facade shading and light guiding systems 10. Traditional and simple daylight systems 11. Traditional and simple daylight systems 12. Lightshelfs 13. Blinds and shades 14. Blinds and shades 15. Fixed and movable systems 16. Controlling blinds and shades 17. Reflective grids 18. Prismatic elements 19. Light guiding glazing 20. Laser cut panels 21. Systems incorporated in double glazing 22. Systems incorporated in double glazing 23. Light guiding systems 24. Heliostats 25. Optic fibres 26. Daylight ceilings 27. Daylight ceilings 28. Integration of daylight and artificial light 29. Integration of daylight and artificial light 30. Daylight dependent control of artificial light 31. Daylight dependent control of artificial light 20

32. Daylight dependent control of artificial light 3.10 Lighting design for exterior – Street lighting system 3.10.1. Lighting Design Consideration 1) Objectives 2) Physical Factors • Lighted Area • Business and congested street • Outline street and highways • Electric service facilities 3) Economy Factors • Cost of Lighting • Illuminance (Luminance) levels • Distance required for stopping with good brakes on dry pavement • Methods of Discernment 4) Pavement Luminance requirements 5) Factors influencing pavement luminance • Luminaire Distribution Characteristics • Spacing and Arrangement • Mounting Heights • Overhang-Bracket Lengths • Post-Top Luminaires • Glare • Practical Control of Glare • Glare from other Source • Weather Conditions 6) Lighting pollution 7) City beautification 3.10.2. Lighting Design Process 1)Information about area to be lighted 2) Street lighting Standards 3) Sleeting Lighting Equipments • Lamps Selection • Luminaires selections • Control gear selection • Switches and cable selections 4) Lighting design and calculation 1) Introduction 2) Hand calculations 3) Basic Point-by-Point Lighting Programs • Arrangements • Mounting Heights • Spacing • Maintenance factor • Luminaire Dirt Depreciation 4) Advance Lighting Programs

Case study 3 - Lighting system for highways and car parking Case study 4 - Lighting system for facade of building

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3.11

Lighting design principles for exterior II 3.11.1 Principles for Facade Lighting 1) Purposes of Building Lighting Identification of the location of a building Identification of entries, stairs, special function areas, and service areas Attraction of attention to a building Creation of a positive community impression Expression of civic pride 2) Elements of Lighting which Control the Success of Façade Lighting Effects Lighting Direction Intensity Color of lighting 3) Luminous Composition Floodlighting Grazing Light Patterns Internal Building Lighting Color 3.11.2 Design Techniques for Energy Efficient Exteriors 1) ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1- 2007 -Section 9.4.1.3 - Exterior Lighting Control -Section 9.4.4 – Exterior Building Grounds Lighting -Section 9.4.5 – Exterior Building Lighting Power Full scale mock up 3.12.1 The need for full scale mock up 3.12.2 Preparation and consideration 3.12.3 Field work at site Computer simulation for exterior space 3.13.1 Lighting simulation model workshop—façade -Analysis of architectural characteristics and context -Concept in design approach -Applying appropriating techniques using computer simulation and analysis 3.13.2 Lighting simulation model workshop—road -Type of road -Luminaire selection -Simulation approach: conventional way vs optimization From design, simulation to decision making 3.14.1 Simple economic analysis in design options -Initial cost -Operating and maintenance cost 3.14.2 Discussion from result comparison 3.14.3 Scenario analysis for energy efficient design

3.12

3.13

3.14

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4 Energy Efficient Lighting Management (EELM) 4.1 Introduction - World-wide energy/ electricity consumption in buildings Energy and Buildings - General aspects of energy consumption - Energy consumption in buildings - Share of lighting with respect to total building energy consumption

1. Increase of world-wide primary energy use 2. Primary energy consumption per capita for different countries 3. Resources for energy conversion and their availability 4. Share of renewable energies world-wide 5. Greenhouse gases due to energy conversion 6. Objectives of Kyoto protocol 7. Distribution of primary energy use in Europe 8. Distribution of primary energy use in Asia 9. Comparison of energy use in residential and office buildings in Europe 10. Comparison of energy use in residential and office buildings in Asia 11. Definition of primary, site and end use energy 12. Primary energy factors for different resources in Germany 13. Distribution of energy consumption in a residential in Germany 14. Distribution of energy consumption in an office building in Germany 15. Optimisation potential in energy consumption for an office building in Germany 16. Distribution of energy consumption in an office building in Thailand 17. Optimisation potential in energy consumption for an office building in Thailand 4.2 Codes, standards & recommendation 1 - Quantitative aspects - Promotional schemes 4.3 Codes, standards & recommendation 2 - Qualitative aspects - Health and wellbeing - Behavioural aspects 4.4 Energy efficient lighting systems in action - Basic electrical systems: dimming & switching - Advanced systems: DALI, wireless, photovoltaic, 4.5 Energy efficient lighting policy and management 1 - Policies for energy efficient lighting system - Principle of lighting system management 4.6 Energy efficient lighting policy and management 2 - Commission of energy efficient lighting systems planning - Procurement specifications - Verification procedures 4.7 Energy efficient lighting policy and management 3 23

- Monitoring procedures - Maintenance procedures - Post-occupancy evaluation 4.8 Lighting economics 1 - Introduction to economic analysis /Life-cycle cost analysis 4.9 Lighting economics 2 - Life-cycle cost analysis of lighting systems for buildings 4.10 Lighting economics 3 - Life-cycle cost analysis of outdoor lighting systems 4.11 Energy-Efficient Lighting Best Practices 1

Energy-efficient lighting best practices - Offices - Museums 1. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 2. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 3. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 4. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 5. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 6. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 7. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 8. Example 1: KfW bank east arcade, Frankfurt 9. Example 2: KfW bank refurbishment of main building, Frankfurt 10. Example 2: KfW bank refurbishment of main building, Frankfurt 11. Example 2: KfW bank refurbishment of main building, Frankfurt 12. Example 2: KfW bank refurbishment of main building, Frankfurt 13. Example 3: office 14. Example 3: office 15. Example 3: office 16. Example 3: office 17. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 18. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 19. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 20. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 21. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 22. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 23. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 24. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 25. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 26. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 27. Example 1: museum Ritter, Waldenbuch 28. Example 2: exhibition space 29. Example 2: exhibition space 30. Example 2: exhibition space 31. Example 2: exhibition space 24

32. Example 2: exhibition space

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Energy-efficient lighting best practices 2 - Offices Energy-efficient lighting best practices 3 - Roadway, Street Energy-efficient lighting best practices 4 - Exterior lighting (city beautification)

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