FEDERALISM

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					Chapter 4

FEDERALISM
Defining Federalism

 What is Federalism?
   Definition: A way of organizing a nation so that
    two or more levels of government have formal
    authority over the land and people.
 Intergovernmental Relations-
   Definition: The workings of the federal system-
    the entire set of interactions among national,
    state and local governments
Defining Federalism

                Unitary         Confederate            Federal

Central    Holds primary      Limited powers      Shares power
           authority          regarding states    with the states
           Regulates
           activities of
           states
State      Little or no       Sovereign           Shares power
           powers             Allocate some       with the central
           Regulated by       duties to central   government
           central            government
           government
Citizens   Vote for central   Vote for state      Votes for both
           government         government          state & central
           officials          officials           officials
                                 From Table 3.1
Defining Federalism

 Why is Federalism So Important?
   Decentralizes our politics
     More opportunities to participate
   Decentralizes our policies
     Which government should take care of which
      problem?
     States can solve the same problem in different
      ways.
  Ch.4 section 1: Powers and
  Responsibilities
 The Constitution outlines the powers and
  responsibilities of both the federal government and
  the states. In addition, the Constitution assigns the
  federal courts an important role in resolving conflicts
  among the different levels of government.
 POWERS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT:
   The U.S. Federal government holds three types of powers:
     1. expressed- the powers that the Constitution expressly
      grants to the federal government.
     2. implied- powers that are suggested by the expressed
      powers.
     3. inherent- powers that naturally belong to any government
      of a sovereign nation.
Powers and Responsibilities

 These three powers generally involve matters
  that affect all people in the US and that are
  impractical for the states to handle.
 Some of these powers come from the
  Constitution, while others are simply those
  that are exercised by any government of a
  sovereign nation.
Powers and Responsibilities

 Powers of the state government:
   Reserved Powers- are not specifically mentioned
    in the Constitution. However, according to the 10th
    Amendment- the powers that the Constitution
    does not give to the federal government nor
    specifically forbid the to the states “are reserved
    to the states…or to the people”.
   Concurrent Powers- those that the Constitution
    neither grants exclusively to the federal
    government nor denies to the states.
Powers and Responsibilities
Powers and Responsibilities

 Federal Government Powers:
   To regulate interstate and foreign trade
   To coin and print money
   To establish post offices
   To raise and support armed forces
   To declare war and make peace
   To govern new territories and admit new states
   To pass laws regulating immigration
   To make all laws necessary and proper
Powers and Responsibilities

 Shared Powers:
   To collect taxes
   To borrow money
   To establish courts
   To charter banks
   To make and enforce laws
   To provide for the health and welfare of the
    people
Powers and Responsibilities

 State Government Powers:
   To regulate trade within the state
   To establish local governments
   To conduct elections
   To determine qualified voters
   To establish and support public schools
   To pass laws regulating businesses within state
    borders
   To make civil and criminal laws
   To pass license requirements for professionals
Powers and Responsibilities

 **Don’t forget about powers denied to the
  Federal Government, State Government, and
  Both! What Amendment’s ?!!
 **Don’t forget about the 3 main
  responsibilities the Federal government has
  and the responsibilities that state
  governments have to the Federal
  governments. Look in your notes!! You just
  may see this on the test!!!
Powers and Responsibilities

 The Courts and Federal System:
   The framers knew that the system of government
    they created might lead to conflicts between the
    federal and state governments. How did the
    framers solve this problem?
   Article III of the Constitution gives the judicial
    branch the authority to hear cases involving the
    Constitution, U.S. laws, and disputes among the
    states. Thus, the judicial branch has the authority
    to act as referee between the federal and the
    states.
 Important Federalism Court
 Cases
 These are important court cases dealing with the
  issues of Federalism- know these cases for the
  test: Look to handout for assignment
     1. Marbury v Madison 1803
     2. McCulloch v Maryland 1819
     3. Gibbons v Ogden 1824
     4. Plessy v Ferguson 1896
     5. South Dakota v Dole 1987
     6. United States v Lopez 1995
     7. Printz v US 1997
     8. Reno v Condon 2000
     9. Bush v Gore 2000
  Growth of Federalism
 The influence of the federal government in the affairs
  of the states has greatly increased over the years.
 One way this has occurred is through the grant
  system.
 States receive grant-in-aid for specific projects and
  programs approved by the federal government.
 There are two different types of grants-
   Categorical- programs include those for building airports
    and other public facilities, unemployment compensation,
    fighting crime, and providing after natural disasters.
   Block- These federal funds can be used by state or locality in
    a broadly area such as welfare, community development,
    health or education.
Growth of Federalism

 The federal government also has become
 more involved in states’ affairs through
 federal mandates. These mandates come in
 three basic forms:
   One involving directing the states actions to take
    action on a particular issue.
   Another form allows state or local governments to
    act on an issue themselves or to have the federal
    government do it.
   The third form involves an offer to aid to states
    that follow certain requirements.
 The Grant System
 Federal-State Relations
   Grants in aid- Monies passed from the federal
    government to state governments
     Grants show how political realities modify legal
      authority
     Began before Constitution with land and cash grants to
      states
     Dramatically increased in scope in the twentieth century
     Were attractive to state officials for various reasons
         Federal budget surpluses
         Federal income tax increased revenues
         Federal control of money supply
         Appeared as free money for state officials
The Grant System
 Categorical Grants vs Revenue Sharing:
   Categorical grants are for specific purposes that
    often require local matching funds
   Block Grants devoted to general purpose with few
    restrictions
   Revenue Sharing required no matching funds and
    freedom on how to spend
     Distributed by statistical formula
     Ended in 1986
     **Neither Block grants or revenue sharing achieved
      the goal of giving states more freedom in spending-
       Did not grow as fast as categorical grants
       Number of strings increased
  Review of Federal and State
  Relationships- Grant Systems
 From 1972-1987, Congress gave the state and their
  local governments a share of federal tax money
  through revenue sharing.
 Through the 3 types of grants-in-aid programs, the
  National Government gives resources to the states
  or their local governments.
   Categorical Grants- Made for specific purposes; building
    airports
   Block Grants- Given for much broader purposes; health
    or education
   Project Grants- are made to states, localities, and even
    private agencies that apply for them
TEST

 Get ready for the Unit test over Federalism on
  Monday December 6th!

 DON’T WAIT TILL THE LAST MINUTE!!


 START STUDYING NOW! There will BE A LOT
  of information on this test!!!!

				
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