Chapter 4 FEDERALISM Defining Federalism What is Federalism? Definition: A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the land and people. Intergovernmental Relations- Definition: The workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state and local governments Defining Federalism Unitary Confederate Federal Central Holds primary Limited powers Shares power authority regarding states with the states Regulates activities of states State Little or no Sovereign Shares power powers Allocate some with the central Regulated by duties to central government central government government Citizens Vote for central Vote for state Votes for both government government state & central officials officials officials From Table 3.1 Defining Federalism Why is Federalism So Important? Decentralizes our politics More opportunities to participate Decentralizes our policies Which government should take care of which problem? States can solve the same problem in different ways. Ch.4 section 1: Powers and Responsibilities The Constitution outlines the powers and responsibilities of both the federal government and the states. In addition, the Constitution assigns the federal courts an important role in resolving conflicts among the different levels of government. POWERS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: The U.S. Federal government holds three types of powers: 1. expressed- the powers that the Constitution expressly grants to the federal government. 2. implied- powers that are suggested by the expressed powers. 3. inherent- powers that naturally belong to any government of a sovereign nation. Powers and Responsibilities These three powers generally involve matters that affect all people in the US and that are impractical for the states to handle. Some of these powers come from the Constitution, while others are simply those that are exercised by any government of a sovereign nation. Powers and Responsibilities Powers of the state government: Reserved Powers- are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. However, according to the 10th Amendment- the powers that the Constitution does not give to the federal government nor specifically forbid the to the states “are reserved to the states…or to the people”. Concurrent Powers- those that the Constitution neither grants exclusively to the federal government nor denies to the states. Powers and Responsibilities Powers and Responsibilities Federal Government Powers: To regulate interstate and foreign trade To coin and print money To establish post offices To raise and support armed forces To declare war and make peace To govern new territories and admit new states To pass laws regulating immigration To make all laws necessary and proper Powers and Responsibilities Shared Powers: To collect taxes To borrow money To establish courts To charter banks To make and enforce laws To provide for the health and welfare of the people Powers and Responsibilities State Government Powers: To regulate trade within the state To establish local governments To conduct elections To determine qualified voters To establish and support public schools To pass laws regulating businesses within state borders To make civil and criminal laws To pass license requirements for professionals Powers and Responsibilities **Don’t forget about powers denied to the Federal Government, State Government, and Both! What Amendment’s ?!! **Don’t forget about the 3 main responsibilities the Federal government has and the responsibilities that state governments have to the Federal governments. Look in your notes!! You just may see this on the test!!! Powers and Responsibilities The Courts and Federal System: The framers knew that the system of government they created might lead to conflicts between the federal and state governments. How did the framers solve this problem? Article III of the Constitution gives the judicial branch the authority to hear cases involving the Constitution, U.S. laws, and disputes among the states. Thus, the judicial branch has the authority to act as referee between the federal and the states. Important Federalism Court Cases These are important court cases dealing with the issues of Federalism- know these cases for the test: Look to handout for assignment 1. Marbury v Madison 1803 2. McCulloch v Maryland 1819 3. Gibbons v Ogden 1824 4. Plessy v Ferguson 1896 5. South Dakota v Dole 1987 6. United States v Lopez 1995 7. Printz v US 1997 8. Reno v Condon 2000 9. Bush v Gore 2000 Growth of Federalism The influence of the federal government in the affairs of the states has greatly increased over the years. One way this has occurred is through the grant system. States receive grant-in-aid for specific projects and programs approved by the federal government. There are two different types of grants- Categorical- programs include those for building airports and other public facilities, unemployment compensation, fighting crime, and providing after natural disasters. Block- These federal funds can be used by state or locality in a broadly area such as welfare, community development, health or education. Growth of Federalism The federal government also has become more involved in states’ affairs through federal mandates. These mandates come in three basic forms: One involving directing the states actions to take action on a particular issue. Another form allows state or local governments to act on an issue themselves or to have the federal government do it. The third form involves an offer to aid to states that follow certain requirements. The Grant System Federal-State Relations Grants in aid- Monies passed from the federal government to state governments Grants show how political realities modify legal authority Began before Constitution with land and cash grants to states Dramatically increased in scope in the twentieth century Were attractive to state officials for various reasons Federal budget surpluses Federal income tax increased revenues Federal control of money supply Appeared as free money for state officials The Grant System Categorical Grants vs Revenue Sharing: Categorical grants are for specific purposes that often require local matching funds Block Grants devoted to general purpose with few restrictions Revenue Sharing required no matching funds and freedom on how to spend Distributed by statistical formula Ended in 1986 **Neither Block grants or revenue sharing achieved the goal of giving states more freedom in spending- Did not grow as fast as categorical grants Number of strings increased Review of Federal and State Relationships- Grant Systems From 1972-1987, Congress gave the state and their local governments a share of federal tax money through revenue sharing. Through the 3 types of grants-in-aid programs, the National Government gives resources to the states or their local governments. Categorical Grants- Made for specific purposes; building airports Block Grants- Given for much broader purposes; health or education Project Grants- are made to states, localities, and even private agencies that apply for them TEST Get ready for the Unit test over Federalism on Monday December 6th! DON’T WAIT TILL THE LAST MINUTE!! START STUDYING NOW! There will BE A LOT of information on this test!!!!
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