Abyssinia Crisis - TeacherWeb

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					Italian artillery in Ethiopia during
           the crisis, 1936
           What is it?
The Abyssinia Crisis was a diplomatic
 crisis between the Kingdom of Italy
   and the Empire of Ethiopia (also
         known as Abyssinia).
        Who was involved?
 Both Ethiopia and Italy were members of the League
  of Nations. Italy joined in 1919, and Ethiopia joined in
  1923, seven years after Haile Selassie I was appointed
  head of state.

 In 1928, both countries signed the Italo-Ethiopian
  Treaty of Friendship, which declared a 20 year
  friendship between the two countries.

 Also in 1928, the two countries signed the Kellogg-
  Briand Pact, which forbid the use of war as an
  “instrument of national policy”.
Benito Mussolini   Haile Selassie I
       When did it happen?
 The Abyssinia Crisis took place during the interwar
  period, starting in 1934, and officially ending in 1936
  when Italy captured Addis Ababa on May 5th, during
  the Second Italo-Abysinnian War.

 However, Ethiopia was part of the East African
  Campaign against the Axis Powers in World War II,
  so the fighting continued until the war was over in
      Where did it happen?
 The incident that started the crisis was in the
  Ogaden, a region in the Somali State in Ethiopia.

          Why did it happen?
 In the early 1930’s, the population of Italy was growing steadily,
  and Benito Mussolini wanted to increase the size of the Italian
  Empire in order to gain more raw materials, to promote
  nationalism, and to provide a place for the growing population
  to live.
 In 1930, Italy built a fort at Walwal, in the boundary zone
  between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland.
 In November 1934, an Ethiopian militia arrived at the fort and
  demanded that the Italian troops leave. The next day, a British
  and Ethiopian survey commission passed through the fort. The
  commission protested the Italian confrontation, but the British
  members of the group left to avoid conflict. The Ethiopian
  members stayed, and this caused a skirmish, which started the
  Abyssinian Crisis.
          What happened?
 Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations, and
  arbitration was attempted multiple times, by both
  the League and by Great Britain.

 The Italians, however continued to send large
  numbers of troops to areas around Ethiopia.

 Eventually, the League exonerated both Ethiopia
  and Italy, but on October 3, 1935, Italy invaded
  Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
      What was the result?
 The crisis led to the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and
  eventually to the creation of Africa Orientale Italiana
  (AOI) or Italian East Africa.

 It undermined the power of the League of Nations
  to maintain peace throughout the world, which led
  World War II.

 It encouraged Italy to ally itself with Nazi Germany,
  which created two definite sides in Europe, the
  Allied and the Axis Powers.




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