BASIC LINUX COMMANDS
cd Change directory. This is the command you use to change into different
An example would be "cd /mnt" (minus the quotes, always minus the quotes) now
you will be the /mnt dir.
mount Mounts a filesystem. ex, "mount /dev/hda4 /mnt" mounts hard drive partition 4 in
your /mnt directory.
cp Copies files. eg, "cp SomeFile /home/momo/" copies a SomeFile into user
momo's home directory.
mv Move. Does the same as cp except moves the file instead of copying it. You also
use the mv command to rename files/directories ex, "mv file1
SomeNewFilename" renames file1 to SomeNewFilename.
mkdir Make Directory. ex, "mkdir /home/momo/new" creates a directory named new in
momo's home directory. If you are currently in the directory you want to make
the the new directory in you can just do "mkdir new" to make a directory named
rm Removes files and directories. ex, "rm file1". To use rm without a hassle you may
want to use "rm -rf". This way you won't be prompted to confirm the removal of
the file. You can not use rm to remove directories which are not empty unless you
use an option telling rm to do otherwise, the -rf option works well for this. Use
"rm -rf" carefully.
rmdir Removes empty directories. ex, "rmdir new".
man displays the man page for a paticular application or command
chmod changes the permissions for a file; permissions should include a letter designating
permissions who gets permissions (u for the user, g for the group, o for others, or a for all)
filenames followed by a + or - (to give or take away the permission) followed by the kind of
permission (r for read access, w for write access, x for execute if the file is a
program or script); the complete command that you type should look like:
chmod g-w filename
clear clears the screen
ls [-l] [-a] lists the files in a directory; -l displays detailed informtion about each file and
[-p] [-r] [- directory, including persmissions, owners, size and time/date when the file was
t] [-x] last modified; -a option displays all the files and subdirectories including hidden
files (with names that begin with a dot); -p displays a slash at the end of each
directory name to distinquish them from filenames; -r displays files in reverse
order; -t displays files in order of modification time; -x displays the filenames in
columns across the screen.
ps displays information about your processes/jobs/programs which are running on
pwd displays the current working directory