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petersonfamilychiropractic.comblood_typing_lab.ppt

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					Blood
ABO and Rh
  Typing
  Antigens and Antibodies
Antigens (Ag)
  – Large, foreign proteins (usually)
  – Free molecules or part of a cell
  – stimulate immune system to produce
    antibodies
Antibodies (Aby)
  – Stimulated B cells become Plasma
    Cells,produce antibody
  – 4th level proteins: 4-20+ polypeptides
Ag exposure leads to Aby production!         2
       ABO Typing System
• Landsteiner, early 20th century
• Blood cells carry “antigens” on cell
  membranes
   – Glycoproteins A, B, or O (lack of A or B)
• Antibodies secreted by plasma cells into
  plasma
• Humans produce antibodies against antigens
  they do not possess in ABO system.
   – Source Ag: Environmental bacteria with Ag’s
     identical to both A and B Ag
                                                   3
       ABO System
                    Can     Can
Type   Ag   Aby    donate receive
                     to    from

 A      A    b     A, AB A, O

 B      B    a     B, AB   B, O
       Both
AB          None    AB      All
       A&B
 O     None a, b    All     O
                                    4
       ABO Transfusions

• Incoming Ag cannot meet recipient
  Aby of matching kind:
  A + a  Agglutination
  B + b  Agglutination
Universal Donor:     Type O
Universal Recipient: Type AB


                                      5
                     Agglutination
Ag + Aby  Clumping of RBC’s
    – “Popcorn Ball” effect

         A                       A
A                                        A
                 A           A       A
     A


             A           A
                                                 Aby structure
                     A   A                   -2 long polypept.
                                             -2 short polypept.
                                             -2 functional sites
                                                                   6
Explaining The Table !!!

In transfusions, concern is:
  – Donor antigen meeting recipient
    antibody
  – Reverse not an issue….usually !
    • Dilution = reason




                                      (4)7
               Rh Factor
Rh +
  – First found in Rhesus monkey blood
  – Factor (Ag) present on RBC’s
  – 85-87% of population
Rh-
  – Factor (Ag) absent
  - 13-15% population
• Rh+ : Ag, no Aby
• Rh- : No Ag, usually no Aby

                                         8
   Rh Mismatch Problems
Transfusions
  Possible problems
Mother/Fetus incompatabilities
 during pregnancy
  Rh+ fetus carried by Rh- mother:
   Potential problems!



                                     9
Rh Mismatch Problems (cont.)

                  ?                    “Free”
     Mom                Fetus        Exchange ?
     Rh-                 Rh+             NO!


      Uterine          Fetal Blood
      Blood

Exchange:
• Water, small molecules, some “larger” molecules
• Some passage of antibodies
• Cells not normally exchanged
                                                    10
  Rh- Mother carrying Rh+ Fetus

• Normally, no Rh Aby to Rh factor
• During pregnancy (if fetus Rh+)
  – Some blood “mixing”
    • Throughout pregnancy
    • At delivery (highest occurrence)
• If Rh Ag passed to mother:
  – Stimulates her to form Rh Aby

                                         11
 Rh- Mother carrying Rh+ Fetus (cont.)


Next pregnancy:
  If fetus Rh+  Possible agglutination of
     fetal blood by maternal aby!
Condition called:
  Erythroblastosis fetalis, “Blue Baby”
Solutions:
  If child born alive: whole body transfusion
  Rhogam for mom late pregnancy/at delivery
Rhogam = Rh Aby
                                             12

				
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posted:5/13/2013
language:English
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