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					                        3   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



                                                Lasciate ogni speranza voi ch’entrate.
                                                (All hopes abandon, ye who enter
                                                here.)
                                                                                Dante

                                      ARTICLE
       The use of the articles depends on the kind of noun they
modify. Below is the division of nouns into different classes which is
relevant for the use of the articles.


                                          NOUN

            COMMON                                                 PROPER
     (denotes any object of a                            (distinguishes an object or a
     class)                                              person from other ones of
                                                         the same class)

       ABSTRACT              CONCRETE              LIVING               INANIMATE
     (ideas, actions,        (something            BEINGS               OBJECTS
     processes,              tangible)             e.g. John,           e.g. The Limpopo,
     qualities)                                    Mickey Mouse,        Tuvalu,
                                                   Putin,               Manhattan, the
                                                   Dracula,             Washington Post,
                                                   Quasimodo,           the QE2, West
                                                   Britney Spears,      Ham United,
                                                   James Bond,          Zhelyabov Street,
                                                   Aristotle            Alpha Centauri



           CLASS NOUNS                MATERIALS                     COLLECTIVE
     (objects or living             e.g.        whisky,                 NOUNS
     beings belonging to a          plastecine, carbon           (denote groups of
     class)                         dioxine,     paper,          objects or living
     e.g. a student, a              snow                         beings as undivided
     pithecanthropus, a cat,                                     bodies)
     a cucumber,                                                 e.g. equipment, the
                                                                 bourgeoisie,      cattle,
                                                                 the rich
               4   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



        USE OF ARTICLES WITH CLASS NOUNS

      MEANING OF ARTICLES WITH CLASS NOUNS

1. The indefinite article has the nominating, classifying,
numeric and generalizing meanings. (As the indefinite article is
used only with singular nouns, the absence of article before
plural nouns has similar meaning, the only exception being the
numeric meaning. Thus the absence of article is meaningful and
is often called the zero article.)
a) The nominating meaning: The indefinite article in this
meaning denotes what kind of object (thing, person, etc.) the
speaker has to do with. We give a name to an object we have in
mind:
  I slept like a log.
  There is a piano in the corner.
  I could eat a horse now.
  A cloud passed across the sun.
b) The classifying meaning: The indefinite article in this
meaning assigns an object to a certain class or kind of similar
objects. Nouns with the indefinite article in the classifying
meaning are usually predicatives or appositions in the sentence:
  My dog is a chow chow.
  Mary has always been a good student.
  The defendant, a woman of 48, denies kicking the policeman.
NOTE: The difference between the nominating and the
classifying meanings becomes apparent if we turn the examples
given above in the plural. In the case of the nominating meaning
plural nouns may be preceded by words like some, several, a
few, etc.:
  I could eat several horses now.
c) The numeric meaning: The indefinite article in this meaning
shows the oneness of the object. In this case it can be substituted
by the word one:
  An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
  A million students were present at the grammar lesson.
                5   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



d) The generalizing meaning: The indefinite article in this
meaning indicates that the following noun denotes a typical
member of a class:
  A square has four sides. (=Every square has four sides.)
  A cat is a domestic animal. (=Every cat is a domestic animal.)
  A crocodile has a tail. (=Every crocodile has a tail, unless it is
sick.)
The generalizing meaning remains if we turn the nouns in the
above-given examples into the plural. Plural nouns in the
generalizing meaning are used with no article:
  Squares have four sides.
  Cats are domestic animals.

2. The definite article has the specifying and the generic
meanings.
a) The specifying meaning: The definite article in this meaning
denotes that the following noun refers to a particular object
(thing, person, etc.) or particular objects as distinct from all
others of the same class:
  The cuckoo clock doesn’t cuckoo any more.
  Please take the letters to the post office.
  She hit him on the ear.
  The tin-opener has seen better days.
b) The generic meaning: The definite article in this meaning
shows that the following noun refers to a class of objects as a
whole. The generic use of the definite article is typical of only
certain semantic groups of nouns, namely, of scientific
terminology, names of plants, living beings, etc:
  The cat is a domestic animal.
  Using the computer is as easy as falling off a log.
  The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876.
NOTE 1: In the sentence The cat is a domestic animal. we can
replace the cat by a cat or cats. However there is a difference in
meaning. The cat is used in an abstract sense – reference is made
to the whole class of cats as a whole, while by using a cat or cats
we mean what is typical of any member of the class of cats.
Therefore, replacement of the kind shown above is not always
               6   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



possible. For example, we can only say The cat was
domesticated many centuries ago, but not             *A cat was
domesticated many centuries ago, since the statement is true of
the class of cats and not of any individual specimen of the class.
NOTE 2: The noun man has no article when used with generic
reference; the noun woman is used either with the definite article
or with no article:
  Man must change in a changing world.
  (The) Woman rarely loses heart in the face of financial straits.
However in Modern English the words man and woman are
more often generalized by using the indefinite article or in the
plural:
  A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle.
  The game women play is men. (Adam Smith)

  ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE NOUNS MODIFIED BY
                  ATTRIBUTES

Attributes may be divided into limiting and descriptive.
A limiting attribute is used to point out a particular object or a
number of objects as distinct from all other objects of the same
class or kind. A noun with a limiting attribute is used with the
definite article in the specifying meaning.
  There was a crowd of people in the principal street of the
village.
A descriptive attribute describes an object or a number of
objects and does not affect the use of articles. The use of the
article depends on the context in this case:
  He was holding a rusty old key.
  The rusty old key was heavy.
Attributes modifying nouns may be expressed in different ways.
a) Modification by adjectives
There are adjectives that mostly have a limiting force because of
their lexical meaning and therefore call for the definite article:
same, only, very, main, principal, left. right, central, following,
present, former, latter, utmost, ultimate, final, opposite,
extreme, previous, proper, etc.
               7   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



NOTE 1: But when countable nouns modified by the above-
mentioned attributes denote objects or notions without any
indication of their specific features, when they are considered to
be unknown to the speaker, these nouns represent the centre of
new information, the rheme and they associate with the
indefinite article:
  She applied a final match to the laurel. (Murdoch)
  At nine o’clock the lights were turned out by a main switch in
the hall. (MacDonald)
NOTE 2: The adjective only is used as a descriptive attribute in
combination with the nouns daughter, son, child:
  Is he an only child?
b) Modification by ordinal numerals
Ordinal numerals are usually limiting attributes:
  Mr Gutenmorgen was the first person to arrive.
  It’s the fourth room down the corridor.
An ordinal numeral may mean “another”, “one more” and be
preceded by the indefinite article:
  I hope you won’t need a second reminder.
  Take a third apple.
NOTE: The numerals first, second, third enter set phrases,
which may be used with the indefinite or definite article
according to the context or situation:
  First impressions are very important.
… I have never won a first prize but I won a second prize once.
  You will need a second pair of shoes.
  I have been invited to a first night at the theatre.
  A third party is a party in a case different from the two
principals.
Other set expressions are used with no article:
  At first sight it looked like a simple accident.
  John took first place in the history exam, I finished in third
place.
  Our personal wishes take second place to the needs of the
children.
  Mr Piggins plays second fiddle in the orchestra.
  I said I wouldn’t do it, but on second thoughts I think I will.
               8   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



 I heard about it at first hand from Mrs Greengoose.




c) Modification by nouns in the possessive case
When an attribute is expressed by a noun in the Possessive Case
the article or its absence mostly refers to the noun in the
possessive case.
 e.g. the fellow's manners (= the manners of the fellow)
      a neighbour's daughter (= the daughter of a neighbour)
      a lion's teeth (= the teeth of a lion)
     Margaret's face (= the face of Margaret)
When the Possessive Case has the descriptive meaning the
article or its absence refers to the head noun. In these patterns
the Possessive Case cannot be substituted by an of-phrase, as a
rule.

a children's hospital                   sheep's eyes
a doctor's degree                       a summer's day
widow's weeds                           raven's wings
a women’s college

In the example above raven's wings does not mean the wings of
one particular raven, but a kind of wings. So, the zero article
refers to the word wings.

NOTE : the adjectives with the Possessive Case are used in the
following way:
      the old man's house (= the house of the old man)
      the man's old house (= the old house of the man)
With the descriptive meaning the adjective refers to the head
noun. e.g. a nice women's college (= a nice college for women,
not a college for nice women)

d) Modification by nouns in the common case
               9   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



When a head noun is modified by a noun in the common case the
article refers to the head noun
  The National Geographic Society building
  A London Sunday paper

       USE OF ARTICLES WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS
1. The definite article in the generic meaning is used with
collective nouns denoting mainly social classes or groups as
individual bodies (the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the
aristocracy, the nobility, the peasantry, the intelligentsia, the
public (=people in general), the press, the clergy, the laity, the
gentry, the police, the middle class, etc)
  The town gardens are open to the public.
  The minister invited the press to the meeting.
NOTE 1: Some of these words can be used with the indefinite
article in other meanings:
  Is there a public for that sort of book? (=a group of people
considered in terms of its relation to a particular activity)
  Britain has an official aristocracy of titled people.
NOTE 2: The nouns mankind and humanity, though used in a
collective sense, take no article:
  Mankind lives on a wonderful planet.

2. Partially substantivized adjectives denoting groups of
people as a whole class are used with the definite article in
the generic sense:
  Fortune favours the brave.
  The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
  The British drink a lot of tea.

3. The definite article in the generic meaning is also used with
plural nouns which denote social classes, religious groups,
nationalities only as undivided bodies: the Communists, the
Republicans, the Tories, the Catholics, the Zoroastrians, the
Anglicans, the Americans, the Germans, etc.
  The Conservatives are against state control of industry.
              10   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



       USE OF ARTICLES WITH MATERIAL NOUNS
1. Names of substances are generally used with no article. The
absence of the article has the nominating meaning:
  Yoghurt is usually thought of as a healthy food.
  Chlorofluorocarbon is now believed to be responsible for
damaging the ozone layer.
  The box was made of cardboard.

2. The definite article is used with names of substances when
the speaker has in mind specific (restricted) quantity of
substance or substance situated at some particular place. This
meaning of the definite article is called restricting:
  The tea I am drinking is green.
  Why aren’t you eating the porridge?
  The air was fresh.

3. Names of substances sometimes become countable when
their meaning is changed. In these cases they follow the general
rules of the use of articles with countable nouns. These nouns
usually denote:
a) a kind or a variety of substance:
  They don’t sell good coffees in the shop any longer.
  Several excellent beers are brewed in this district.
b) a portion of food or drink:
   I remember a friend of mine buying a couple of cheeses at
 Liverpool.
  After seven beers I left the pub.
c) if they have a different meaning:
  Australia won more golds than ever (=gold medals)
NOTE 1: Sometimes countable nouns are treated as names of
substances and are used in the singular with no article. This kind
of use is often found in partitive constructions after the nouns
patch, bit, scrap, piece, etc:
  The sky was clear of cloud.
  She went round the corner of the house to the patch of garden
behind the kitchen.
                11   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



NOTE 2: Such countable nouns as a duck, a lamb, a turkey, a
chicken, a lobster, etc. are used as names of substances when
they denote meat used for food:
  Is there duck on the menu?
  We had cold turkey for supper.
NOTE 3: Some collective nouns denoting a group of objects
thought of as a whole, behave like names of substances:
furniture, machinery, equipment, crockery, hardware,
silverware, china, luggage, foliage, etc.:
  The police have found bomb-making equipment in the terrorist
hideout.
  New machinery is being installed in the factory.

         USE OF ARTICLES WITH ABSTRACT NOUNS

There are two groups of abstract nouns: countable (an idea, a
fact, a word, etc.) and uncountable (love, fun, honesty,
criticism, etc.)

Articles with countable abstract nouns are used in the same
way as with countable concrete nouns (See Page 4).

A number of nouns may function both as countable and
uncountable depending on the meaning. In the former case
they follow the general rules for the use of articles with countable
nouns. For example:

                   UNCOUNTABLE                           COUNTABLE
nature       everything that exists in the       a quality that makes someone
             world independent of people:        or something different from
             We took a walk through the          others; character:
             wood to observe nature.             I have a kindly nature.
decision     quality of being able to make       a choice or judgement:
             choices and act on them             The committee expects to
             firmly:                             come to a decision.
             He is a man of decision who
             rarely changes his mind.
experience   knowledge or skill which            something that happens to one
             comes from practice:                and has an effect on the mind
               12   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



            Don’t correct him all the           and feelings:
            time – he’ll learn by               Our journey by camel was a
            experience.                         fascinating experience.
thought     1) the action of thinking:          something that is thought:
            He sat there, deep in thought       I’ve just had a bad thought.
            2) serious consideration:
            Give her offer plenty of
            thought.
joy         great happiness:                    a person or thing that causes
            I was filled with joy at the        joy:
            thought of seeing you again.        She remained a staunch friend
                                                throughout all the joys and
                                                sorrows of life.
likeness    sameness, resemblance:              1) a photograph or painting of
            I cannot see much likeness          a person esp. a good one that
            between them.                       is really like the person:
                                                The portrait is a good likeness
                                                2) an instance of being alike:
                                                There is a family likeness to
                                                be seen in all of them.
talk        1) empty or meaningless             an informal speech or lecture:
            speech:                             They had a long talk.
            He’s all talk.
            2) a subject of rumour or
            gossip:
            There is talk of a new
            invention.
gossip      idle talk about other people        1) chat:
            or events:                          They had a good gossip with
            She is too fond of gossip.          the neighbours.
                                                2) a person who is fond of
                                                chatting:
                                                Our neighbours are such
                                                gossips!
pleasure   1) the state of feeling of           a cause of happiness:
           happiness:                           It’s been a great pleasure to
           Small gifts give me much             talk to you.
           pleasure.                            People who don’t go to
           2) doing things for fun:             football matches have few
           Are you here on business or          pleasures in life.
           for pleasure?
improvement the act of improving or the something which is better:
               13   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



              state of being improved:          This composition is an
              Your English is getting           improvement on your last one.
              better, but there is still
              room for improvement.
success     succeeding:                         1) a person or thing that
            Nothing succeeds like               succeeds:
            success.                            The plan was a success.
                                                2) triumph:
                                                The army had numerous
                                                successes in this war.
knowledge   the state of being informed         the facts, skills and
            about something; awareness:         understanding that one has
            The matter was never                gained (also uncountable):
            brought to the knowledge of         She has a detailed knowledge
            the minister.                       of this period
                                                But: It’s common knowledge.
fantasy     imagination:                        a product of imagination:
            Stylistic analysis requires         He wrote a fantasy about life
            much fantasy.                       on Mars.
silence     stillness, absence of speech:       a period of time characterized
            I listened in silence.              by absence of sound:
                                                There were long unexplained
                                                silences.
horror      great fear mixed with               1) a thing or person that
            disgust:                            causes great fear:
            The news filled us with             The little horrors never
            horror.                             stopped playing tricks on their
                                                parents.
                                                2) in the set expression to
                                                have a horror of…
                                                A good housewife has a
                                                horror of dirt.
sense       good understanding and              1) any of the five feelings that
            judgement:                          humans have:
            You should have had enough          I’m afraid I don’t have a very
            sense to turn off the               good sense of smell.
            electricity supply.                 2) a feeling, esp. one that is
                                                hard to describe exactly:
                                                The incident left me with a
                                                sense of helplessness.
duty        the force that compels one to       a thing that one ought to do:
            act:                                My duties include taking
                 14   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



              It’s a call of duty.             letters to the post and making
                                               coffee.
inspiration   the act of inspiring or state of 1) something or someone
              being inspired:                  which gives a person the urge
              Poets often draw inspiration to do something:
              from nature.                     His wife is a constant
                                               inspiration to him.
                                               2) a sudden good idea:
                                               I had an inspiration.
aid           support or help:                 something that provides help:
              Foreign aid has been             A dictionary is an invaluable
              reduced again.                   aid in learning a new
                                               language.
authority     the ability, power, or right to a person or thing with the
              control and command:             power or right:
              They don’t have much             I quoted two authorities in
              authority.                       support.
cover         shelter or protection:           something that protects:
              The tree provided useful         Both covers were torn.
              cover.
detail        facts about something            a single point or fact about
              considered together:             something:
              They didn’t go into much         There are three details I
              detail.                          would add.
hate          hatred; extreme dislike:         something that causes hatred:
              She looked at me with hate in That’s one of my pet hates.
              her eyes.
necessity     the condition of being           something that is necessary:
              necessary:                       Food and clothing are the
              I see little necessity for       bare necessities of life.
              change.
truth         that which is true; sincerity;   a fact or principle accepted as
              honesty:                         true:
              There’s some truth in what       Bear these truths constantly in
              you say.                         mind.
worry         an uncomfortable feeling of      a person or thing that causes
              fear and uncertainty:            this feeling:
              It’s a source of great worry     It’s a worry to me having to
              to me.                           leave the parrot alone in the
                                               house.
                                               We have no money worries.
education     the teaching and training of     the knowledge and abilities
                15   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



             the young:                      developed through teaching
             No country can afford to        and training:
             neglect education.              He received a good education.
trade        the process of buying and       1) a job, esp. one that needs
             selling:                        special skills with the hands:
             The fall in the value of the    Being a printer is a trade,
             pound may help to stimulate     being a lawyer is a profession.
             international trade.            2) the stated level of business
                                             activity:
                                             Outside the castle he was
                                             doing a roaring trade in
                                             souvenirs.
control      the power to direct or restrain a method or system used for
             something:                      controlling (also uncountable
             A fool gives full vent to his   in this meaning):
             anger, but a wise man keeps The government has imposed
             himself under control.          strict controls on the import
                                             of luxury goods.
difficulty   the fact of being difficult:    something difficult:
             She had great difficulty in     He’s having financial
             understanding me.               difficulties.

NOTE: Many of these words are concrete nouns when countable.

Some abstract nouns may be used both as countable and
uncountable in the same lexical meaning: chance (possibility),
change (the act or result of changing), effect (a result or
condition produced by a cause), effort (something that needs the
use of strength), talent (a special natural ability), reason (the
cause of an event), etc. For example:

                    UNCOUNTABLE                        COUNTABLE
chance        You’d have more chance of          You don’t stand a chance of
              catching the train if you got      winning the case.
              a bus to the station.
change        Many people find it difficult      We need a change of
              to cope with change.               tactics.
effect        The advertising campaign           Mr Barrymore was suffering
              didn’t have much effect on         from the effects of too much
              sales.                             alcohol.
effort        It took a lot of effort to lift    It’s quite an effort to lift the
                16   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



             the piano.                          piano.
talent       She has great musical               He has a talent for drawing.
             talent.
reason       She just suddenly left              He didn’t tell us his
             without giving reason.              reasons.
discussion   The question of textbooks           They held a discussion
             will come up for discussion.        about their future plans.
discrepancy There is much discrepancy            How do you explain the
             between these two                   discrepancies in the
             descriptions.                       accounts.
conversation In today’s programme,               It’s impossible to carry on a
             three well-known artists are        conversation with all this
             in conversation with the            noise in the background.
             President of the Academy.
hope         The situation looks bad, but        Hopes of reaching a peace
             don’t give up hope.                 settlement are now fading.

    USE OF ARTICLES WITH UNCOUNTABLE ABSTRACT
                                 NOUNS
1. There is a group of nouns which are never used with the
indefinite article: advice, assistance, bliss, cunning, control
(the power to direct or restrain something), evidence, guidance,
health, fun, information, luck, nature (everything that exists in
the world independent of people), news, nonsense, permission,
progress, weather:
  Farming on such bad land is a struggle against nature.
  Acting on information received, the police have arrested two
suspects.
  I ask you for advice and perhaps for assistance.
  I’ve had bad luck all week!
  What nasty weather we are having today!
  No news is bad news.
  Swimming in the sea is great fun.
  Jane is still in hospital, but she’s making good progress.
  Did he give you permission to take that?

2. Other uncountable abstract nouns can be used with the
indefinite article:
               17   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



a) The words pity, disgrace, pleasure, relief, comfort,
disappointment, etc. in the sentences with formal it as subject
when they are used as predicatives of the main clause:
  It’s a pity you didn’t think of that before.
  It’s a shame to waste such talent.
NOTE: But It’s luck I met you. (See above)
b) The words pity, disgrace, pleasure, relief, comfort,
disappointment, etc. in exclamatory sentences after what:
  What a disgrace!
NOTE: But What luck! (See above)
c) When uncountable abstract nouns express a certain kind of
quality, emotion, state, etc. This meaning of the indefinite article
is called aspective:
  He was filled with a loathing he had never known.
  I was aware now of a sickness. (=a kind of sickness)
  She knew now why a softness had crept into the air; the sea
was near. (=a kind of softness)
d) If an uncountable abstract noun is modified by the adjectives
certain and peculiar the indefinite article is obligatory:
  There is a peculiar tension about her.
  Of course, you had to admit that he had a certain shrewdness.
e) The indefinite article may be used if an uncountable abstract
noun is modified by some descriptive attributes (except for the
descriptive attributes below)
  Looking back upon that luncheon now it is invested for me with
a curious glamour.
Besides bringing out a certain aspect of the notion denoted by
the noun the indefinite article also has a stylistic effect making a
description more vivid. Therefore, the use of the indefinite article
with uncountable abstract nouns is characteristic of the belles
lettres style.
NOTE: The indefinite article is often omitted if an uncountable
abstract noun modified by a descriptive attribute is used in the
following functions:
a) a predicative: It was gallant courage, and it had stood her in
such stead during her mother’s long illness.
                18   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



b) an attribute expressed by a prepositional phrase (mostly an of-
phrase): She was a woman of wonderful generosity and would
give away everything she possessed.
c) an adverbial modifier of manner expressed by a prepositional
group (mostly with the prepositions with or in): She sang with
such tragic beautiful anguish that my heart melted within me.
He shouted at them in helpless rage.

3) The indefinite article is not used with uncountable abstract
nouns:
a) in general sense:
  It was obvious that Mr Low found marriage a very satisfactory
state.
  The dog huddled close to Tamar’s feet for protection.
b) if they are modified by certain semantic groups of
descriptive attributes. These groups of attributes are as
follows1:
1) adjectives denoting nationality: Russian, French, Pakistani,
Icelandic, etc.:
  French literature, Saudi architecture, Russian circus, Peruvian
music, Zimbabwean art, Panamanian poetry
2) adjectives denoting social characteristics: feudal, capitalist,
proletarian, racial, religious, bourgeois, etc:
  bourgeois prejudice, racial segregation, feudal law
3) adjectives denoting periods of time, often historical periods:
contemporary, modern, ancient, Victorian, mediaeval, daily,
further, etc.:
  modern art, ancient history, further discussion
4) adjectives denoting authenticity or reliability: (true, authentic,
solid, false, dubious, reliable, real, genuine, etc.:
  real freedom, genuine happiness, true friendship, solid
harmony
5) adjectives denoting degree or extent: perfect, great, sufficient,
immense, sheer, utter, huge, tremendous, complete, absolute,
infinite, considerable, etc.:

1
  Barmina L.A., Verkhovskaya I.P. Learning to Use Articles. Moscow, 1989. p.27-
29.
               19   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



  immense joy, sheer foolishness, infinite power
6) adjectives denoting various genres or trends in art: dramatic,
theatrical, classical, romantic, detective, etc.:
  dramatic criticism, romantic prose, detective literature
7) adjectives referring to man’s social and spiritual life: social,
public, political, intellectual, spiritual, moral, immoral, mental,
humane, personal, reasonable, etc.:
  humane philosophy, mental arithmetic, public recognition
8) adjectives characterizing man’s manner and behaviour: polite,
impolite, brusque, formal, informal, nervous, serious, etc,:
  nervous attitude, formal behaviour, brusque gesticulation
9) adjectives denoting position or locality: outside, inside, inner,
outer, local, internal, external, etc.:
  local distribution, inner vision, inside information
10) adjectives characterizing phenomena as recurrent or going on
without stopping: continual (i.e. occurring again and again with
short breaks), continuous (i.e. going on without stopping),
constant, incessant, etc.:
  constant displeasure, continuous showing of moving pictures
11) miscellaneous adjectives: good, bad, free, critical, ordinary,
plain, physical, human, consistent and some other:
  ordinary honesty, huge physical strength, human psychology
12) nouns in the common case used attributively:
  family affection, science fiction, Greenwich time



The definite article is used with:
a) abstract nouns modified by a limiting attribute or if the idea
denoted by the noun is applied to a definite situation or object:
  The unexpectedness of our arrival left everybody speechless.
  In the darkness we could not see her face.
b) partially substantivized adjectives denoting abstract notions
are always used with the definite article:
  How womanly it is to ask the unanswerable at the moment
impossible.
                 20   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



   “I am not Uncle Wilmer,” Ian stated the obvious as he dashed
to the front door.
   “I don’t believe in the supernatural,” Sir Henry said.
   Muttering under his breath he surrendered to the inevitable
and took the dogs with him.
c) abstract nouns the present, the past, the future, the singular,
the plural:
  I am certain nothing will happen in the near future.
NOTE: Mark the difference between the expressions in future
(впредь), i.e. from this time on, and in the future (в будущем),
i.e. after a certain period of time passes:
   I hope in future you’ll be more careful.
   Everybody knew an enviable position awaited him in the
future.
The noun future may be used with the indefinite article when it is
the focus of communication (the rheme of the sentence):
   It was an uncertain future.


The presence or absence of the indefinite article with abstract
nouns can be illustrated by this table:

                           ABSTRACT NOUNS
                           ABSTRACT NOUNS

  COUNTABLE
   COUNTABLE                  COUNTABLE
                             COUNTABLE
         A
       (with A)                   or
                                 or                         UNCOUNTABLE
(an idea, a fact,
 (an idea, a fact,           UNCOUNTABLE
                            UNCOUNTABLE
etc.)
 etc.)


                             can be used with or
                                  without A
                21   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



                         can be used with A or                 only without A
                         not                                advice, assistance,
                                                            bliss,     cunning,
                                                            control, evidence,
with A with A                                               guidance, health,
                                 without A
1) it’s …
1) It’s a …              without A                          fun, information,
                         1) in general sense
2) what a …
2) What a …              1) in general sense                luck, nature, news,
                         2) modified by 12
3) curtain, peculiar
3) certain, peculiar     2) modified by 12                  nonsense,
                         groups of descriptive
4) aspective
4) aspective meaning         groups of                      permission,
                         attributes (See Page
    modified
5) meaning by                descriptive                    progress, weather
                         18)
 a modified by
5) descriptive               attributes
 attribute
a descriptive
attribute




         USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS

                       Articles with personal names

1. Personal names are normally used with no articles: John,
Mary, Mr Brown, etc.

2. The definite article is used:
a) when a personal name has the plural form to indicate a whole
family: the Joneses, the Browns, etc.:
  One June evening I went to dine with the McDonalds.
b) when a personal name is modified by a limiting attribute:
  It was the Jane I had known before.
  She was not the Mary of your youth.
c) when a personal noun is modified by adjectives. It is
important to stress that a personal name with the definite article
modified by an adjective is never the rheme of the sentence (it is
never the focus of communication):
  “I am the celebrated Mortimer Ellis,” he said.
  The late Mrs Jones was a very nice person.
  The Talented Mr Ripley
              22   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



NOTE 1: No article is used with personal names modified by the
adjectives old, young, dear, poor, little, tiny, honest:
  Old Anthony met us at the station.
  Poor John ran away.
  Little Willy found a machine-gun.
NOTE 2: If the personal name modified by an adjective is the
rheme of the sentence and conveys the most important part of the
communication, it is used with the indefinite article. The
adjectives usually denote the mood of the person described:
  The dinner was served by a silent Mrs Keats.
  I saw an infuriated Jennifer who started shouting at me the
moment I opened the door.

3. The indefinite article is used:
a) when a personal name indicates a member of a family:
  “The boy is a Benbow!” he replied hotly.
b) when a personal name indicates one resembling somebody:
  His face always reminded Michael of a Lincoln grown old.
c) when a personal name is modified by the adjective certain, or
the meaning certain is implied:
  A certain John Smith is waiting for you. (=someone who
called himself John Smith)
  He was engaged to be married to a Miss Smith.
  A Mr Drake phoned in the morning, but he didn’t leave a
message.
  “Did a woman see you some time today? A Nelly Conway?”
he asked anxiously.
d) when personal names denote things associated with the
names of certain persons. In this case personal names turn into
common nouns and follow the general rules of the use of
articles for common nouns:
  Every morning he drove out in a rickety old Ford. (=a car)
  “Has the museum a Petrov-Vodkin?” I asked. (=a picture)
  On one long wall hung a row of Van Goghs.

               Articles with geographic names
              23   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



1. The following geographic names are used with no article:
a) Names of continents: Africa, North America, Southeast Asia,
Eastern Europe, Antarctica, etc.;
(But: the Antarctic, the Arctic)
b) Names of countries: Barbados, Kiribati, Russia, French
Guiana, Bhutan, Lesotho, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), etc.
NOTE 1: The exceptions are the Netherlands and the Gambia.
NOTE 2: The article is used with names of countries occupying
archipelagos: the Maldives, the Philippines, the Comoros.
NOTE 3: The article is optional with (the) Congo, (the) Senegal,
(the) Cameroon, (the) Sudan, (the) Lebanon, (the) Ukraine,
(the)Yemen.
NOTE 4: The article is used with names of countries including
the words republic, states, kingdom, federation, etc.: The
Democratic Republic of Congo, The Czech Republic, The
Russian Federation, The United Arab Emirates, The United
Kingdom, The United States of America, The Federated States
of Micronesia, The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
[′lΛksəmbə:g], The Commonwealth of Dominica, etc.
c) names of counties, states, provinces, territories, areas, etc,:
Polynesia, Alabama, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New England,
Quebec, Bavaria, Lower Saxonia, Montenegro, Cheshire, East
Anglia, Lothian, Siberia, Flanders, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Uttar
Pradesh, Kerala, Brittany, Provence, Rio Grande do Norte,
Pernambuco, Queensland, Patagonia, Bophuthatswana
[‚bOpu:tət’swa:nə], Ulster, Transylvania, Nunavut, etc.
NOTE: The article is used with the Ruhr, the Saar, the Riviera,
the Transvaal, the Highlands, the Lowlands, the Midlands, the
Borders, the Wirral, the Lake District, the Peak District, the
Costa Brava, the Cotswolds, the Côte d’Azur, the Yukon, the
Klondike, The Tyrol, (the) Transkei, the District of Colombia,
the Algavre, the Maghreb, etc.
d) Names of cities and towns: Leicester [’lestə], Reading
[’rediŋ], Slough [’slau], Berwick [’berək], Phoenix [’fi:niks],
Ouagadougou [wa:gə’du:gu:], Thiruvananthapuram, etc.
NOTE: The exception is The Hague [heig]
              24   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



e) Names of separate islands: Jamaica, Anglesey [‘æŋgəlsi],
Great Britain, Java, New Caledonia, Zanzibar, Guam, Alcatraz,
etc.
NOTE: The article is used in names of islands containing the
preposition of: The Isle of Man, The Isle of Wight, etc.
f) Names of bays and gulfs: Hudson Bay, Manila Bay,
Chesapeake Bay, etc.
NOTE: The article is used in the names of bays containing the
preposition of: the Bay of Biscay, the Gulf of Mexico, the bay of
Pigs
Remember: the Persian Gulf
g) Names of peninsulas and capes: Kamchatka, Yucatan,
Labrador, Cape Horn, Cape Cod, Cape Canaveral, etc.
NOTE: The definite article is used if the name contains the
preposition of or the word peninsula: the Balkan Peninsula, the
Hindustan Peninsula, the Cape of Good Hope, etc.
h) names of mountain peaks: Everest, Fuji, Vesuvius, Elbrus,
Hekla, Capital Hill, Popocatépetl [pOpəkætə’petl],
Snowdon, Carrauntoohill [kærən’tu:əl], K2 (Mount
Godwin Austen).
NOTE: The article is used with the names of European
mountains which have an article in the local language: Der
Matterhorn=The Matterhorn, La Meije=The Meije. But the
article is not used before Mont: Le Mont Blanc is called Mont
Blanc.
i) Names of lakes containing the words lake, loch or lough: Lake
Baikal, Loch Ness, Lough Neagh [lox‘nei] , Lake Superior,
Lake Michigan, Lake Seliger, etc.
NOTE: The article is used if there is the preposition of or the
word lake is absent: The Lake of Baikal, the Baikal.
j) Names of some city areas: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens,
Chelsea, Westminster, Docklands, etc.
NOTE: But The City, the East End, the West End, the Bronx,
etc.
k) Names of parks and zoos: Hyde Park, Regent’s Park, Central
Park, Chester Zoo, London Zoo, Yosemite [jəu’semiti]
National Park, Disneyland, Disney World, etc.
               25   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



l) Names of streets and squares: Baker Street, Oxford Street,
Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly Circus, Fifth Avenue, 47th Street,
Broadway, etc.
NOTE 1: But (the) High Street, the Strand, the Mall (in
London), the Strip (in Las Vegas), the Plaza Square, the
Flinchly Road, the King’s Road, the Euston Road.
NOTE 2: Some names of foreign streets and squares are used
with the article: The Rue des Pyramides, the Place de la
Concorde. (the) Red Square.

Geographic names that are used with the zero article may take
the definite or indefinite article under the following conditions:
a). if a limiting attribute is used a geographic name may take the
definite article:
  It was not the France of his youth.
b). if a descriptive attribute is used a geographic name may have
the indefinite article:
  It was a different Paris, unknown to him.
c) the definite article is used in the following patterns containing
the preposition of: The Bay of Biscay, The City of New York,
The Mount of Olives, The Strait of Dover, etc.

2. The following geographic names are used with the definite
article:
a) Names of seas and oceans: The Pacific (Ocean), The Atlantic
(Ocean). The Mediterranean (Sea), The Yellow Sea, the
Caribbean (Sea) [kæri’bi:ən], etc.
b) Names of rivers, channels and canals: the Volga, the Severn,
The St Lawrence River, the Rubicon, the Lethe [’li:Θi],
the Danube [’dænju:b], the St Lawrence Seaway, the
English Channel, The Bering Strait, The Bosp(h)orus
[’bOspərəs], the Dardanelles [da:də’nelz], the Suez Canal,
the Bristol Channel, etc.
c) Names of archipelagos: the Canary Islands, the West Indies,
the Caribbean, the Bahamas, the Seychelles, the Windward
Islands.
               26   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



d) Names of mountain chains: the Andes, the Rocky Mountains,
the Cambrian Mountains, the Himalayas, the Cheviot Hills, etc.
e) Names of deserts: the Sahara (Desert), the Gobi, the
Atacama, the Mojave [məu’ha:vi:] Desert, the Kalahari, the
Namib, etc.


          Articles with names of astronomical objects
1. Articles are not used with:
a) the word space (Outer Space). But the cosmos.
b) Latin Names of constellations (but the definite article is
required with their English equivalents): Gemini (=the Twins),
Saggitarius (=the Archer), Pisces (=the Fish), Cygnus (=the
Swan), Ursa Minor (=the Little Bear, AmE the Little Dipper),
Taurus (=the Bull), etc.
NOTE: The definite article is used if the word constellation is
present: the constellation Hydra, the constellation Cassiopea,
etc.
Exception: The Pleiades [’plaiədi:z] (=the Seven Sisters).
c) Names of stars (but the definite article is used if the word star
is present): Polaris (=the North Star), Sirius (=the Dog Star),
Betelgeuse, Aldebaran, Mizar, Alcor, Deneb, Capella, Vega,
Alpha Centauri, Proxima Centauri, etc.
d) Names of planets and satellites: Mercury, Venus, Earth,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto; Phobos, etc.

2. The definite article is used with names of galaxies: the Milky
Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud, etc.
But: Dwingeloo 1, Dwingeloo 2.

     Articles with other semantic groups of proper nouns

1. Proper nouns of the following semantic groups take no
articles:
a) Names of universities and colleges: Tver State University,
Oxford University, Yale, Brasenose College
              27   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



NOTE: The article is used if the name contains the preposition
of: The University of Oxford.
b) Names of magazines: National Geographic, Punch, Private
Eye, Newsweek, World Soccer, Time, Reader’s Digest, etc.
NOTE: But The Economist, The New Yorker, The Lancet, etc.
c) Some names of buildings, bridges: Buckingham Palace,
Edinburgh Castle, Westminster Abbey, St Paul’s Cathedral,
Carnegie Hall, Westminster Bridge, Tower Bridge, London
Bridge, etc.
NOTE 1: But: the Tower, the Old Bailey, the Regent Palace, the
Albert Hall, the Canary Wharf Tower, the White House, the
Capitol, the Empire State Building, the Sears Tower, the
Pentagon, the Parthenon, the Acropolis, the Taj Mahal, the
Kremlin, the Forth Bridge, the Clifton Suspension Bridge, the
Golden Gate Bridge, the Brooklyn Bridge, etc.
d) Names of stations, airports, airlines: Kings Cross, Victoria
Station, Grand Central Station, Kennedy Airport, Heathrow,
Gatwick, La Guardia, British Airways, Lufthansa, etc.
e) Names of stadiums and football grounds if they do not contain
the words stadium or ground: Wembley, Old Trafford, Anfield,
Villa Park, Hillsborough, etc.
NOTE: But The Victoria Ground, The Olympic Stadium, etc.
f) Names of historical events and periods: the Renaissance, the
Reformation, the Great Depression, the French Revolution, the
Stone Age, the Tertiary period, the Cenozoic era, etc.
But ancient times, mediaeval times, paleolithic times

2. proper names of the following semantic groups are used with
the definite article:
a) Names of theatres, museums, monuments: the National
   Gallery,
the Hermitage, the Louvre, the Prado, the Tretyakov Gallery,
the Tate Gallery, the Bolshoi, the Old Vic, the Washington
Monument, the Jefferson Memorial, the Cenotaph, etc
b) Names of hotels, restaurants, clubs, cinemas: the Ritz, the
Hilton, the Sheraton, the Odeon, the Carlton Club, etc.
               28   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



c) Most names of newspapers: The Times, the Sun, the Chicago
Tribune, the Boston Globe, the Los Angeles Times, the
Sentinel.
NOTE: But USA Today, Pravda
d) Names of vessels: the Titanic, the QE2, the Lusitania, the
Kon-Tiki, the Sir Winston Churchill
e) Names of most political parties: the Conservative Party, the
Democrats, the Republicans, the Likud, etc.
NOTE: But Plaid Cymru [plaid ’kΛmri], Sinn Fein [ſin’fein]

               Use of articles with abbreviations

1. No article is used if the abbreviation is pronounced as a word:
NATO ['neitəu] (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization),
UNESCO [ju'neskəu] (the United Nations Educational,
Scientific, and Cultural Organization), NASA ['næsə] the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration), OPEC
['əupek] (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries),
ASEAN ['æsiæn] (the Association of South-East Asian
Nations), FIFA ['fifə] (Federation Internationale des Football
Associations), etc.

2. The definite article is usually used if the abbreviations is
pronounced letter by letter: the CIA [si: ai ‘ei] (the Central
Intelligence Agency), the FBI [ef bi: ‘ai] (the Federal Bureau of
Investigation), the UN [ju: ‘en] (the United Nations Organization),
the CIS [si: ai ‘es] (the Commonwealth of Independent States),
etc.



     SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF THE
                    ARTICLE

                 Articles with names of seasons
              29   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



1. Names of seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn) are
mostly used without articles, though the definite article may be
found even in general statements. The definite article may have a
generalizing meaning denoting time in an abstract way:
  In London there are certain afternoons in (the) winter when the
clouds hang heavy and low.
  “I hate (the) autumn,” Jane said.
2. Names of seasons are used with no article in the function of a
predicative:
  It was spring and the air was pleasant.
3. If names of seasons are modified by limiting attributes or
limitation is clear from the context or situation, the definite
article is used:
  It happened in the autumn of 2007.
4. The definite article is obligatory after the prepositions
during, for, through:
  The family moved to the country for the winter.
  During the autumn he often came to see me in my office and
one day asked me for a job.
  “He won’t last through the summer,” Cora repeated.
5. When names of seasons are modified by descriptive
attributes they take the indefinite article:
  It’s been a hard winter for me. (Cronin)
  And did you have a pleasant summer?
NOTE: No article is used when names of seasons are modified
by the adjectives late or early:
  It was late autumn.

      Articles with names of times of the day and night

1. Names of times of the day and night (day, night, evening,
noon, afternoon, dusk, twilight, midnight, nightfall, daytime,
sunrise, sunset) are used with no article:
a) when they denote “light” or “darkness”:
  Dusk fell without my noticing it.
  The sun set behind the hills and night came.
               30   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



b) after the prepositions at, after, before, by, till, until, towards,
past (at night, by evening, past midnight, at dawn, at dusk, before
noon, till morning, until midnight, etc.)
c) in the function of a predicative:
  It was evening.
d) when these nouns are modified by the nouns denoting days of
the week or the words yesterday, tomorrow, late, early:
  We’ll meet tomorrow morning.
  By late afternoon the guests began to arrive.
e) in the combinations of adverbial character: all day (long), all
night (long), day after day, day in day out, from morning till
night. night after night, day and night, from day to night:
  Quietly Dr Walker walked to his work day after day.
f) in names of holidays containing the word day: Independence
Day, Red Nose Day, etc.

2. Names of times of the day and night are used with the
indefinite article if modified by descriptive attributes:
  It was a frosty night.

3. Names of times of the day and night are used with the definite
article:
a) when a specific night or day is meant:
  The rain had stopped and the night was starry.
b) when these nouns are used in a generic sense:
   He spent the morning eating and the evening sleeping.
c) after the prepositions in, during, through (in the morning, in
the night, in the evening, during the night, during the day,
through the night, through the morning, etc.)
NOTE: After the preposition for both the definite and indefinite
articles are possible depending on the meaning:
  I must go to Sheffield for the day. (the day is specified)
  I must go to Sheffield for a day. (for one day)
d) when these nouns are preceded by the pronoun other:
  I went to the dentist the other day.
               31   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



USE OF ARTICLES WITH NOUNS DENOTING UNIQUE
        POSTS, RANKS AND OCCUPATIONS

1. Nouns denoting unique posts, ranks and occupations
(president, prime minister, chancellor, chairman, head, king,
queen, prince, princess, captain, director, principal, etc.) are
usually used with the definite article:
  The president knocked at the door, but I didn’t open.
  The director is waiting for you near the entrance.
Several people shouted at the chairman; feelings were running
high.

2. The definite article is optional with these nouns when:
a) they function as a predicative:
  He was (the) head of a great publishing house.
  Excuse me, are you (the) president of the United States?
b) after the verbs to appoint, to elect, to choose, to make, to call,
to consider, to run for:
  Women in the USA may run for president; but so far no woman
has become president.
  Who appointed me prime minister?
  They elected him president.
  They made him (the) captain of the team.
c) after the preposition as:
  When I don’t sleep, I work as prime minister.
  Bill Clinton attracted voters with his thorough plans for what
he would do as president and his concern for ordinary people’s
problems.
d) in the function of apposition after personal names:
  Mr Turner, (the) head of the firm, spent a few days there
waiting for a taxi.
  George Bush, (the) president of the USA, will make a state
visit to the far East next year.
NOTE: There is no article if the title precedes a personal name:
Queen Elizabeth, President Roosevelt, Princess Margaret, King
Midas, King Taufa’ahau Tupou IV, etc. (The article may
               32   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



precede some foreign titles: (the) Pharaoh Cheops [‘ki:əps],
(the) Emperor Nero, (the) Emperor Haile Selassie etc.)

   USE OF ARTICLES BEFORE THE WORDS LAST AND
                      NEXT

1. Nouns denoting time such as day, night, morning, afternoon,
week, year, century, millennium, etc. are used with no article
when they are modified by the adjectives last and next in present
time context:
  They arrived last year.
  I’m going to a football match next week.
In past time contexts the definite article may be used in similar
cases, but its use is not obligatory:
  (The) next day Mr Drinkmore woke up with a headache.
However, when the adjectives last and next are followed by an
ordinal numeral the definite article is obligatory:
  The next twelve years the students studied the use of articles.
2. When we talk about the period of time immediately before
or after the present one we use last and next with no article
(the prepositions on, in, at are not used either in these
expressions):

   last week                today                     next week

               Monday                   Sunday

  We saw Mr Scrooge last week.
  See you next week.
  I remember meeting you last century.
  Let’s talk about it next millennium.
  Last year was difficult.
The last and the next can be used to talk about a period of time
that continues up to the present moment:

         the last week today            the next week
               33   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



             Monday                     Sunday

  The last year was difficult.
I’m going to be very busy for the next week.
NOTE: The last and the next can also mean the last or the next in
a series (with no relation to the present):
  In the last week of the holiday a strange thing happened.
  That was the last day I went to University.

    ABSENCE OF ARTICLE IN PARALLEL STRUCTURES
The article is not used in parallel structures such as from town to
town, from house to house, arm in arm, hand in hand, face to
face, day and night, from right to left, from beginning to end,
etc.
  It went on raining day after day.

OMISSION OF ARTICLE IN ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS
Articles or other determiners (for example, possessive pronouns)
may be omitted in Nominative Absolute Constructions:
 She was electrically alive, eyes bright, smile inviting.

        USE OF ARTICLES IN SOME SET PHRASES

GROUND
to get something off the ground сдвинуть с места
to cut the ground from under    выбить почву из под ног
somebody’s feet
to suit somebody to the ground полностью устраивать кого-
                                либо
on the ground of …              по причине, под предлогом
to keep both feet on the ground не отрываться от реальности
to gain (get) ground            продвигаться вперед
to give ground                  отступать
to break new ground             начать новую деятельность
to go to ground                 затаиться
to gain ground on somebody      получать преимущество
                                перед кем-то
               34    С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



to be on dangerous ground                быть в опасности
to be on safe ground                     быть в безопасности
above (below) ground                     на поверхности земли (под
                                         землей)
on familiar ground                       в знакомой обстановке

RUN
to be on the run                         быть в бегах, в работе
in the long run                          на долгий срок, в конце
                                         концов
in the short run                         на кратковременный срок
out of the common run                    необычный
to have the run of something             иметь право пользоваться
                                         чем-то
a run of something                       период
a big run on something                   большой спрос на что-либо
to take a run                            предпринять вылазку,
                                         экскурсию)
to go with a run                         идти как по маслу
to give somebody a good run              1) получить полное
for their money                             удовольствие за свои
                                            деньги
                                         2) оказать сопротивление
at a run                                 1) бегом
                                         2) подряд

GO
to be on the go                          иметь много дел
to be all the go                         пользоваться популярностью
to have a go on something                попытаться что-либо сделать
to make a go of something                преуспевать в чем-либо
to be full of go                         быть полным энергии

TIME
all the time                             всё время
for the time being                       на первое время
at the time                              в своё время
               35   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



to pass the time                        проводить время
at a time                               за один раз (присест)
for a time                              какое-то время
to work against time                    стараться уложиться в срок
prime time                              час пик на телевидении
to do time                              отбывать срок заключения
to play for time                        выигрывать время
to make up for lost time                наверстать упущенное время
to be behind time                       опаздывать, отставать

LIGHT
to see the light                        понять, осознать
to give somebody a light                дать прикурить
in a new light                          в новом свете
in a good (bad) light                   в хорошем (плохом) свете
to come to light                        выйти на поверхность
Let there be light!                     Да будет свет!

LINE
to hold the line                        проводить политику
to draw the line                        подвести черту
to put something on the line            рискнуть чем-либо
down the line                           полностью, во всех
                                        отношениях
to read between the lines               читать между строк
to take a tough line against            проводить жесткую
somebody                                политику против кого-либо
to be in line with something            совпадать, согласовываться с
                                        чем-либо
to fall into line                       придти к согласию
to be in line for something             ожидать что-л.

EYE
to meet the eye                         бросаться в глаза
with the naked eye                      невооруженным глазом
to give somebody the eye                взглянуть на кого-либо
               36     С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



to look somebody in the eye               смотреть кому-либо в глаза
to be easy on the eyes                    приятно выглядеть
to be up to the eyes in work              быть по уши в работе
to cast an envious eye at                 завидовать
something
to keep an eye on something               следить за чем-либо
with an eye to something                  с расчетом на что-либо
to have a wandering eye                   иметь блуждающий взгляд
to have a good eye for                    иметь хороший глазомер
distances
to set (clap) eyes on something           видеть что-либо
to see eye to eye on something            соглашаться с чем-либо

EAR
pleasing to the ear                       приятный на слух

to get the ear of somebody                добиться чего-либо
                                          внимания
to have a good ear for                    иметь хороший слух
something
to have an ear to the ground              быть в курсе событий
to lend an ear to somebody                выслушать кого-то
to turn a deaf ear to something           быть глухим к чему-либо

AIR
in the air                                1) у всех на слуху
                                          2)в неопределенном
                                          состоянии
to clear the air                          устранить разногласия
to be on the air                          быть в эфире
to have an air of …                       иметь вид
to walk on air                            быть на седьмом небе
to put on airs                            важничать
to disappear into thin air                бесследно исчезнуть
to appear out of thin air                 появиться из неоткуда
                   37   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



HAND
to take the upper hand                      иметь преимущество перед
                                            кем-то
to have a hand in something                 быть причастным к чему-
                                            либо
to give somebody a hand in                  помочь
doing something
to give somebody a big hand                 аплодировать
to write a legible hand                     писать разборчиво
to keep a strict hand over                  держать в ежовых рукавицах
somebody
by hand                                     в ручную
to hear somebody at second                  знать что-либо понаслышке
hand
to be on hand                               быть в наличии
close at hand                               рядом, по соседству
to have somebody in hand                    контролировать кого-либо

HEAD
to come to a head                           достигнуть критической
                                            точки
to have a good head for                     хорошо разбираться в чем-
something                                   либо
not to make head or tail of                 не понимать
something
to tumble head over heals                   покатиться вверх
                                            тормашками

HEART
to take to heart                            принимать к сердцу
to lose heart                               падать духом, отчаиваться
at heart                                    в глубине души
by heart                                    наизусть

FACE
to disappear off the face of the            исчезнуть с лица земли
earth
               38     С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



in the face of something                  перед лицом чего-либо
to have the face to do                    иметь наглость что-либо
something                                 сделать
on the face of it                         на поверхности, на первый
                                          взгляд
to pull a long face                       скорчить гримасу
to lose face                              потерять репутацию
to save face                              сохранить репутацию


WAY
out of the way                            что-либо выдающееся
It is always the way!                     И вот так всегда!
by the way                                кстати
in a way                                  в некотором отношении
to be in a bad (good) way                 быть в плохой (хорошей)
                                          ситуации
to have a way with somebody               иметь свой подход к кому-
(something)                               либо
by way of something                       ради чего-либо, с целью; в
                                          качестве чего-либо; через
to give way to something                  уступить, не выдержать
to make way                               освободить путь
to be under way                           зайти достаточно далеко;
                                          идти полным ходом

TURN
to be on the turn                         меняться коренным образом
to make a left (right) turn               повернуть налево (направо)
to do somebody a good turn                оказать кому-либо услугу
to take a turn for the worse              меняться к худшему
to a turn                                 в самый раз
to have a witty turn of phrase            уметь хорошо говорить

ORDER
to be in good (bad) order                 быть в хорошем (плохом)
                                          состоянии
                39   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



in alphabetic order                      в алфавитном порядке
in order of importance                   в порядке важности
to get out of order                      испортиться, сломаться
to put something in order                привести в порядок
to keep order                            соблюдать порядок
in short order                           быстро
made to order                            сделанный на заказ
to call to order                         призывать к порядку

POINT
When it comes to the point …             Когда доходит до дела…
The point is …                           Дело в том, что…
to be beside the point                   не иметь отношения к делу
to be on the point of doing              собираться; почти сделать
something                                что-либо
off the point                            некстати
to the point                             кстати
to make a point of something             придавать чему-либо
                                         слишком большое значение
a boiling point                          точка кипения
to stretch a point                       немного обойти правила
in point of fact                         фактически
a case in point                          как раз тот случай
breaking point                           критическая точка

BOARD
to go by the board                       остаться за бортом; пойти
                                         насмарку
to sweep the board                       выиграть все, что можно
on board (the ship)                      на борту
to take something on board               принимать что-либо во
                                         внимание; соглашаться
to pay for board                         платить за питание
above board                              открыто, явно


END
              40   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



in the end                             в конце концов
to put an end to something             положить конец чему-либо
on end                                 1) беспрерывно, подряд
                                       2) стоймя, дыбом



                           REFERENCES


1. Barmina L.A., Verkhovskaya I.P. Learning to Use Articles.
   M., 1989
2. Briskin R.U. Articles and Their Use in Modern English. Kiev,
   1978
3. Swan M. Practical English Usage. M., 1984
4. S.Makarov’s Grammar Page:
   http://www.angelfire.com/ks2/grammar




                               CONTENTS
                  41   С.А.Макаров. Учебно-методическая разработка по теме «Артикль» Тверь, 2005



Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3
Use of articles with class nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     4
Meaning of articles with class nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       4
Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes . .                                 6
Use of articles with collective nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        9
Use of articles with material nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        9
Use of articles with abstract nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       11
Use of articles with uncountable abstract nouns . . . . . .                             16
Use of articles with proper nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       21
Articles with personal names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  21
Articles with geographic names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    22
Articles with names of astronomical objects . . . . . . . . .                           25
Articles with other semantic groups of proper nouns . . .                               26
Use of articles with abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  27
Special difficulties in the use of articles . . . . . . . . . . .                       28
Articles with names of seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  28
Articles with names of times of the day and night . . . . .                             29
Use of articles with nouns denoting unique posts,
ranks and occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             30
Use of articles before the words last and next . . . . . . . .                          31
Absence of articles in parallel structures . . . . . . . . . . . .                      32
Omission of articles in absolute constructions . . . . . . . .                          32
Use of articles in some set phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     32
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        39

				
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