Beginner Digital Camera by Mary_jMenintigar

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									Beginner’s guide to going digital




                                                                                                                                                  EQUIPMENT
DIGITAL photography offers some distinct
advantages over film photography, not the
least of which are instantaneous pictures and
ease of manipulation, storage and transfer
of image files. This article is aimed at
practitioners with little or no experience of
digital photography, who want to explore
the possibility of using digital images in their
day-to-day practice. It includes tips and
techniques applicable to a variety of clinical
disciplines, and considers how best to
present the resulting images.



KEITH BARRAND                                          Various media, including CDs, data sticks and Zip disks, make it
                                                       easy to store and use a wide range of high quality images




MANY vets take photographs in            around – the internet is a good place    greatly reducing picture quality.
their practices, whether of interest-    to compare prices.                       This is most apparent when images
ing cases or for specific purposes                                                with a relatively small number of
such as inclusion within RCVS            Cost                                     pixels are enlarged. Top-of-the-
certificate and diploma case books.      A basic camera can be bought for         range cameras produce images with
Photographs are always welcome, as       under £100, while a top-of-the-range     in excess of 8 million pixels.
they add interest, allow visualisation   model may cost upwards of £800.
and convey a ‘feel’ for a case in a
way that words cannot achieve.           Camera type                                                                           Keith Barrand
                                                                                                                               qualified from the
    Until recently, for case report      Digital cameras come in three main                                                    Royal Veterinary
illustrations 35 mm photographs          forms:                                                                                College in 1988. After
                                                                                                                               four years in mixed
were required, but digital pictures      s Basic compact cameras, which                                                        practice in Norfolk
can now be used if they are of suffi-    are similar to very basic, instamatic,                                                he joined his present
ciently high quality. The general        ‘point-and-shoot’ cameras;                                                            seven-vet mixed
                                                                                                                               practice in
information provided for RCVS            s Compact single lens reflex (SLR)                                                    Lincolnshire where
certificate candidates defines ‘high     type cameras, with built-in lenses;                                                   he is now the senior
                                                                                                                               director. He holds
quality’ as ‘sufficient to clearly       s Digital SLR cameras (‘DSLRs’),         This image of a dog’s eye has a grainy,      the RCVS certificate in
demonstrate their content to a stan-     which are the equivalent of 35 mm        ‘pixellated’ appearance. This loss of        small animal medicine
                                                                                  quality is due to excessive enlargement      and is an adviser
dard which would be necessary if         SLR film cameras. These are very                                                      to candidates. His
                                                                                  of the image after the photograph has
submitting for publication in a pro-     versatile and come with a wide           been taken                                   interests include
fessional refereed journal’; each        range of accessories, including inter-                                                all aspects of small
                                                                                                                               animal medicine and
journal will have its own specific       changeable lenses.                       Zoom                                         surgery. He made the
requirements with regard to images,         Compact SLR type and DSLR             There are two types of digital cam-          transition to digital
                                                                                                                               photography after
but some general considerations are      cameras are best for veterinary          era zoom, traditional optical and            many years of 35 mm
listed in the box on page 46.            photography. I use a compact SLR         digital; some cameras have both.             photography.
                                         type camera now costing under            Optical zoom allows the field of
                                         £200, which is very versatile.           view to be broadened or narrowed
GETTING STARTED                                                                   without any significant loss of pic-
                                                                                  ture quality. My camera has x10
There is a huge range of digital cam-    CAMERA FEATURES                          optical zoom (the equivalent of 38 to
eras on the market. Bear in mind                                                  380 mm in 35 mm photography).
that the technology is evolving at a     Pixels                                   Digital zoom, however, can reduce
great rate and what is a state-of-the-   Digital photographs are made up          the number of pixels in a picture,
art camera today may be obsolete in      of tiny ‘dots’ (pixels) in the same      making it look grainy.
a year. As with computer equipment,      way as a television picture. The
it is necessary to be prepared to        more pixels there are, the better the    Modes
upgrade at regular intervals.            quality of the picture. A minimum        Most digital cameras come with a
    The price of digital cameras         of 4 million pixels is recommended       number of pre-set modes such as
varies greatly from shop to shop, as     for reasonably high quality images.      portrait, landscape or sports mode.
do accessories such as batteries,        If an image has too few pixels, indi-    These can be very useful, but should         In Practice (2006)
memory cards, and so on. Do shop         vidual pixels can become visible,        be capable of being overridden if            28, 41-46


In Practice   q JANUARY 2006                                                                                              41
                                necessary. The most useful modes         IMAGE QUALITY AND                           be compressed further (with some
                                are portrait and close-up (‘flower’).    STORAGE                                     loss of quality, called ‘lossy com-
                                Close-up modes are essential for                                                     pression’) to speed up internet
                                photographing external lesions.          When taking digital photographs,            downloads and to send as e-mail
                                   Bear in mind that you may want        you should generally use the highest        attachments. For a description of
                                to use the camera for other things       image quality the camera is capable         other file formats, see Lamb (2004),
                                such as holiday and family photos.       of. It is possible to configure the         but a detailed knowledge is not nec-
                                Consider which modes you are             camera so that this becomes the             essary for storing digital images.
                                likely to need (although most are        default setting; that is, the setting the       Large files can cause storage
                                present on many cameras anyway).         camera defaults to when it is turned        problems. In the days of floppy
                                                                         on. Lack of detail in a picture cannot      disks and small computer hard
                                Flash                                    be corrected by manipulating the            drives, this created difficulties, but
                                Nearly all digital cameras come with     image later.                                present-day large hard drives and
                                a built-in flash, which is adequate         Most digital cameras record              other data storage facilities such as
                                for most purposes.                       photographs as JPEG (pronounced             CDs, DVDs, Zip technology and
                                    Problems like ‘red eye’ can be       jay-peg) files. Such files are given        data sticks have effectively solved
                                fixed by manipulating the image          the suffix ‘.JPG’. This is an image         the problem. Listed on page 43 is
                                later, but the flash should be capable   format which compresses graphics            the storage capacity of popular stor-
                                of being overridden.                     to a fraction of their size without         age media (note, 1 gigabyte [GB] =
                                                                         losing image quality. JPEG files are        1000 MB). The important point is
                                Memory card                              fine for most casebook applications.        that a huge amount of data can be
                                Most cameras come with a small           They can still be quite large, but can      stored easily, cheaply and safely –
                                (usually 16 megabyte [MB]) memo-
                                ry card, which may only hold about
                                20 high quality images. Invest             Manipulating images
                                in something larger: a 512 MB
Memory cards are very small     memory card can hold over 500
and easily lost or damaged.     reasonably high quality images (see
A storage clip such as this
blue plastic example is         box below).
useful                             Memory cards are small and deli-
                                cate. It is best to keep them in the
                                camera or a dedicated holder. The
                                camera manufacturer’s own memory
                                cards are usually the best option.
                                                                          (left) An original image of a dog and (right) the same image manipulated to
                                                                          correct the ‘yellow eye’ and add a realistic glint to the eyes
                                Batteries
                                One problem with digital cameras is
                                                                           In effect, it is possible to have the
                                that they are heavy on battery usage.                                             s Aim to present images as
                                                                           equivalent of a 35 mm darkroom
                                Most cameras come with a recharge-                                                you see them
                                                                           on your computer. Most image           s It is acceptable to enhance
                                able battery but these can ‘die’ with
                                                                           manipulation software programs         images for the sake of clarity
                                very little warning. Keeping a spare
                                                                           are reasonably easy to use and         s It is NOT acceptable to
                                battery to hand is a wise precaution.
                                                                           allow great flexibility.               misrepresent images
                                As with memory cards, the camera
A rechargeable camera
                                                                               The majority of cameras come
                                manufacturer’s own batteries are
battery (left) with a                                                      with basic software that allows manipulation of colour, contrast and
dedicated charging unit         usually the best option.
                                                                           so on, and basic cropping. Most programs have a very useful quick-fix
                                                                           or auto-smart-fix function. Red eye reduction can be useful, but
                                                                           animals usually have ‘yellow eye’ due to tapetal reflection, which
                                                                           needs more advanced software to correct.
                                                                               Some excellent intermediate software, such as Paintshop Pro 9,
                                                                           costs about £100. Adobe Photoshop Elements v3.0, available for both
                                                                           PCs and Macs, is a stripped-down version of Photoshop Professional at
  How many pictures can I store?
                                                                           about one-tenth of the price (about £80), but still requires some expe-
  High quality images make larger files than low quality                   rience to use well. This type of software is quite demanding in terms
  images, and can quickly fill up memory cards. However, with              of system requirements and may run slowly on or crash older comput-
  modern high-capacity memory cards, this should not be a                  ers – check system requirements on the manufacturer’s website.
  problem. The table below shows how many photographs can                      At the other end of the scale is advanced software such as
  be stored on different capacity memory cards.                            Photoshop Creative Suite CS2 (retailing at about £700). This is very
                                                                           good, but very expensive and requires time and effort to master.
  Number of pixels                      Memory cards                           Intermediate software lets you add text (or labels) to images. (With
  in each picture         128 MB          256 MB     512 MB                35 mm prints, the same effect was often achieved with Letraset!)
  3 million                   162            325          651                  The key is to try before you buy. Many trial versions of software
  4 million                   128            256          512              programs may be downloaded free of charge (typically for 30 days).
  5 million                   104            208          416              This also allows you to check whether the software is compatible with
  6 million                    80            160          320              your computer.
  8 million                    48             96          192                  Some useful website addresses are given at the end of this article.


                                42                                                                                            In Practice   q JANUARY 2006
but 3·5" floppy disks are impractical     memory card, but this does not
for storing images.                       allow image manipulation. If you           Portraits and close-ups
                                          need to manipulate an image, you
                                          can save it as a JPEG file and ask
  Storage capacities                      your local image processing service
                                          to print it, or send it to an online
  The storage capacities of vari-
                                          printing service, both of which are
  ous media are as follows:
                                          reasonably cost-effective options.
  s   3·5" floppy disk   1·44 MB              Most printing is carried out on
  s   CD                 650 MB           inkjet printers. Printers designed for
  s   DVD                4·7 GB           photographic-quality printing are
  s   Data stick         Up to 1 GB       best, but the cost of ink cartridges
  s   Hard drive         60+ GB           can make them expensive to run. Use
                                          your printer manufacturer’s ink car-
                                          tridges for the best colour fidelity.
                                                                                     Whole-animal or animal head-shots, such as the rough collie pictured
    In addition to storing data, the          It is possible to print off pho-       on the left, are easy to take. Close-up pictures of specific lesions are
above media are useful for backing        tographs straight from the camera          slightly more difficult – but can be taken with the right equipment.
up (that is, making extra copies in       without needing to use a computer.         (top right) A collar entrapment axillary wound in a cat, clipped prior
                                                                                     to repair, taken from a distant view for orientation, and (bottom
case the original is lost or damaged).    Some printers permit cameras to be         right) a close-up view of the same lesion
A copy on the hard drive of your          connected directly to them via a
computer should not be the only           USB cable, while others allow mem-
backup, as catastrophic hard drive        ory cards to be inserted, and pho-
failure can result in the irretrievable   tographs printed as required. Some
loss of picture files (as well as other   image manipulation is possible but
data).                                    such printers are relatively expen-
                                          sive as you are buying hardware and        Digital photographs have a
                                          software. Camera retailers and sites       number of professional and
BACKING UP                                such as www.amazon.co.uk are               leisure uses, as well as
                                          good sources to investigate.               educational and academic.
The general principle when dealing                                                   They may be placed on
with any electronic data, including       Paper                                      websites, in newsletters or
digital images, is back up, back up,      Photographic paper comes in a range        in personal photo albums.                 A data stick plugged into
back up!                                  of qualities, and the prices vary          However, due to the potential             a USB port. Most modern
                                                                                                                               computers have two ports
    Some older computers may only         accordingly. It is a good idea to buy      for manipulation, they are                on the front of the hard
be able to read CDs and not record        small packs initially, until you find      generally unsuitable for legal            drive housing, often behind
                                                                                     purposes. In the veterinary               a small trapdoor
information on (burn) them. However,      one that suits you.
relying on floppy disks as the sole          One concern is the tendency of          context, this is relevant with
backup is not practical, as each disk     prints to deteriorate over time. Using     regard to cruelty prosecution
holds only one or two high quality        good quality ink and paper should          cases, for which 35 mm prints
JPEG files. The cheapest ways to          minimise this.                             are preferred.
upgrade such a computer system are:
s Buy an external CD-R/RW writer
(costing £60 to £80) with appropri-       WHAT ABOUT EXISTING
ate CDs (under £1 each);                  PHOTOGRAPHS?                             DISPLAYING IMAGES
s Buy data sticks that plug directly
into a USB port (often located on the     A number of options are open to you      It is possible to embed images in
front of the hard drive box). Data        if you already have 35 mm prints or      wordprocessing or publishing docu-
sticks may cost up to £150, depend-       slides that you wish to incorporate:     ments, such as those produced
ing on capacity, but they are rela-       s Use the prints as they are by past-    in Microsoft Word or Microsoft
tively new and prices are falling         ing them into the casebook.              Publisher. This gives a very profes-
rapidly;                                  s Convert them to digital images         sional look to your report, although
s If your computer has a floppy           using a scanner. This might be a         it does preclude the use of photo-
disk drive as its only means of           flatbed scanner or a combined printer/   graphic paper, which is not suitable
saving data, it is likely to be quite     scanner/fax. Image quality is vari-      for text; hence, the quality of the
old (in computer terms) and a             able (although generally good),          pictures will not be optimised.
complete upgrade may be a cost-           depending on the quality of the orig-    However, for photographs in which
effective option. A good new              inal image and of the scanner. Once      fine detail is not vital this represents
computer system can cost anything         saved digitally, these images can        a good option.
from £500 upwards.                        be treated like other digital photo-        Alternatively, photographs can
                                          graphs.                                  be printed onto photographic paper
                                          s Some photographic retailers con-       and mounted in the book, either in
PRINTERS AND PAPER                        vert photographic prints or slides to    spaces between text or on separate
                                          digital images using high quality        pages. Double-sided sticky tape,
Printers                                  scanners. These are likely to give       photo-corners or paper glue can be
Many shops have machines that             better results than trying to convert    used. If desired, the page can be
allow printing directly from a            the images yourself.                     laminated.

In Practice   q JANUARY 2006                                                                                             43
Endoscopy images                                                        Microscopy images

                                                                                           (right) A digital eyepiece camera
                                                                                              (Woodley Equipment) inserted
                                                                                                into a binocular microscope


                                                                                                                               Clockwise from top
                                                                                                                               left: a Damalinia
                                                                                                                               species louse x 40,
                                                                                                                               from an Angora goat; a
                                                                                                                               fast-moving ear mite
                                                                                                                               (Otodectes cyanotis)
                                                                                                                               from a puppy’s ear –
                                                                                                                               the image of the back
                                                                                                                               legs suffers here from
                                                                                                                               movement blur; a
                                                                                                                               Cheyletiella species
                                                                                                                               mite x 100, from a
                                                                                                                               rabbit; and a cat flea
                                                                                                                               (Ctenocephalides felis)
                                                                                                                               x 40. Large mites can
                                                                                                                               be difficult to
                                                                                                                               photograph, due to the
                                             Videogastroscope:
                                                                                                                               limited depth of field
                                             video images recorded
Gastroscopy images of                        on this equipment can
grade 1 (top) and grade 2                    be used to make
(above) equine gastric                       photographic stills but,   There are three options for microscopic images:
ulcers. Pictures, Jane Nixon,                at about £9500 + VAT,
                                                                        s Digital eyepiece cameras cost about £100 (including software) and
Nixon Equine                                 it is expensive.
                                             Picture, Kruuse UK         fit most makes of microscope. The camera slots into the eyepiece of
                                                                        the microscope and connects to a computer via a USB cable (so it must
      Closed-circuit
      digital colour                                                    be used next to a computer). Images are displayed on the computer
      cameras                                                           and snapshots can be captured and saved as JPEG files. These can be
      can be attached
      to an endoscope.                                                  exported and manipulated in the usual way. Although the resolution
      At £2170, this                                                    is low (0·4 million pixels), image quality is adequate
      is another
                                                                        s Digital microscopes have built-in cameras; one example, the
      expensive option.
      Picture, Kruuse UK                                                Woodley Dig 30, costs about £1300 + VAT, and produces pictures of
                                                                        quite low resolution (0·4 million pixels)
                                                                        s Dedicated microscope cameras fit most makes of microscope and
                                                                        cost from £600 to £800, depending on picture quality. Examples are
Endoscopic images require specialist equipment. Moticam                 the Moticam 480, 1000 and 2000 (0·4 million, 1·3 million and 2 million
cameras (£600 to £800, from Woodley Equipment) can be                   pixels, respectively). They also fit onto most makes of endoscope and
used to obtain images from endoscopes and have the advan-               so can be used for endoscopic pictures. Note that Moticam cameras
tage of connecting to most makes of microscope.                         are not compatible with Mac computers



Ophthalmology images                                                    Pictures of the eye and adnexa are not difficult to take. Using a close-
                                                                        up mode with the flash on often produces unsatisfactory results. Better
                                                                        results are obtained as follows:
                                                                        s Take photographs in a dimly lit room with the flash on
                                                                        s Stand well back. Use the optical zoom to frame the area of interest
                                                                        s Crop images to the area of interest
                                                                        s Alternatively, take the picture outdoors with the flash off. This may
                                                                        result in unwanted reflections in the animal’s eye
                                                                           Photographs of the retina require specialist training and equipment.
                                                                        Retinal cameras such as the Kowa Genesis Digital Fundus camera
                                                                        (Keeler) cost around £10,000. Unfortunately, there is no inexpensive
                                     Image of the retina and
                                     optic nerve of a dog with
                                                                        option. Buying a second-hand 35 mm retinal camera such as the Kowa
Image of a normal canine retina
taken using a Kowa RC-2 camera       papilloedema associated with a     RC-2 (1950s vintage), if you can find one for sale, and scanning the
and scanned into a computer          brain tumour taken with a Kowa     pictures into your computer is probably the cheapest option. As the
                                     Genesis-D digital retinal camera
                                                                        price of digital retinal cameras falls, more Kowa cameras may come
                                                                        onto the second-hand market. The British Association of Veterinary
                                                                        Ophthalmologists has a website (www.bravo.org.uk) with links to
                                                                        suppliers of second-hand ophthalmic equipment.
                                                                           Due to the high cost, relatively few retinal cameras are owned by
                                                                        vets in the UK. Advisers to candidates of the certificate in veterinary
                                                                        ophthalmology may own a retinal camera or know of colleagues who
                                                                        do. Contacting your adviser for advice is a good idea.
                                                                           The images on the left were provided by Dr David Williams. For
                                                                        more examples of good ophthalmology pictures, visit www.davidl
A meibomian gland adenoma in         Glaucoma in a Staffordshire
a 10-year-old Gordon setter          bull terrier                       williams.org.uk.


                                44                                                                                      In Practice   q JANUARY 2006
  Radiography images
  Digital radiography is a luxury enjoyed by only a few, largely due
  to the cost of the equipment. Most certificate candidates still use
  conventional radiography, which results in an ‘analogue’ image.
  Digitising radiographs by means of a digital camera is a cheap and con-
  venient alternative for most people. For this, the camera can be set to
  black and white or fluorescent lighting mode, if available. If not, a por-
  trait or close-up shot may be appropriate, with the colour being
  removed during image manipulation.
     The best way to photograph radiographs is in a darkened room with
                                                                              Digital photographs of radiographs:
  the radiograph on a viewer. Stray light from the viewer around the          distal femoral fracture in a cat (above)
  edges of the radiograph should be masked off.                               and a similar fracture after treatment
                                                                              (right) with crossed K-wires
     These conditions can confuse the autofocus, so focus manually if
  possible. If this is not possible, focus on something equidistant from the plate, such as the manufacturer’s
  name plate on the x-ray viewer, and then use the camera’s focus-lock button to overcome this problem. The flash must be turned off, so
  long exposures may be necessary which can result in movement blur if the camera is hand-held. Using a tripod helps. Ideally, the timer
  function on the camera should also be used, as manually depressing the shutter can cause the camera to move slightly.
     A more detailed description of the technical aspects of digital photography of radiographs is provided by Lamb (2004).


    Manipulating radiographic images
    s Connect your camera to your computer with the cable provided.            yellow. This can be removed by converting the image to
    This will usually autostart the photograph manipulation software,          monochrome
    which will guide you through uploading the images from the                 s Adjust brightness and contrast to achieve the desired result
    camera onto the hard drive                                                 s Save the image (usually as a JPEG) to the hard drive
    s Radiographs are essentially monochrome (black and white)                 s Crop to the area of interest, if required
    images. Photographs of radiographs often have a colour cast, usually       s Back up the image and print out the picture



  Ultrasonography images                                                       Histopathology images

                                                 Colour-flow Doppler                                                 Photomicrograph of the
                                                 echocardiogram obtained                                             proximal phalanx of a dog
                                                 from a dog with suspected                                           showing an interface
                                                 heart disease. Picture, BCF                                         dermatitis consistent with
                                                 Technology                                                          symmetrical lupoid
                                                                                                                     onychodystrophy
                                                                                                                     (haemotoxylin and eosin).
                                                                                                                     This type of picture is best
                                                                                                                     left to histopathologists to
                                                                                                                     provide. Picture, David Shearer,
                                                                                                                     Finn Pathologists

                                                                               Producing digital histopathological images yourself requires
                                                                               expensive equipment and training. Most pathology laborato-
                                                                               ries offer a photomicrography service at a reasonable cost –
                                                                               this is often the best option. Remember to acknowledge
  Older diagnostic ultrasound machines are analogue, while newer               both the lab and the photographer when publishing material.
  machines are digital.                                                        Include a scale on the image or a magnification factor in the
  s Analogue ultrasound machines. The easiest way to obtain images is          caption, along with details of the stain used.
  probably to use a dedicated printer, but these cost in the region of             Many histopathology labs have high quality digital equip-
  £650. An alternative for analogue images is to use a video frame cap-        ment and, for a fee, will photograph slides for vets. Results
  ture device, with the appropriate connections and software. They cost        can be excellent and this can be the cheapest option.
  from £50 to £100 and plug into the back of the ultrasound machine.
  ‘Captured’ frames can be uploaded and manipulated in the usual way
  s Digital ultrasound machines usually have software for transferring
  images onto a computer in the form of JPEG or bitmap (BMP) files. It is
                                                                               ECG traces
  also possible to attach a video camera, if the machine has a video                                                    Close-up of a single
  input (found on more expensive models), to download ‘stills’ from it                                                  complex on an ECG trace
                                                                                                                        (lead II) from a dog with
     With both types of machine, you can freeze the ultrasound image                                                    suspected atrial standstill
  and photograph it using a digital camera in the same way as radi-
  ographs (see above); some experimentation with settings may be
  necessary. Such images can be manipulated to produce pictures of
  adequate quality, but probably of inferior quality to those produced
  using the above methods.
     Obtaining images from diagnostic ultrasound machines can be               Electrocardiograph (ECG) traces can simply be pasted into
  complex. Contact the manufacturer of your machine for advice on              casebooks. However, a better result can be achieved by pho-
  obtaining the best image.                                                    tographing the relevant portion of a trace.


In Practice   q JANUARY 2006                                                                                    45
                                                                                 The up-to-date requirements for           Intermediate
  Intraoperative photographs                                                 the various RCVS certificates are             Vets who are ready to progress from
                                                                             available at www.rcvs.org.uk by               the beginners’ stage, who use their
  It is not possible to take pictures when gowned and gloved!
                                                                             following the links.                          camera for things other than their
  Any suitable member of staff, such as a nurse, can take
                                                                                                                           casebook, or who have a general
  photographs at appropriate moments during surgery, but
                                                                                                                           interest in photography, should con-
  make sure that they know how to use the camera before the
                                                                             GOING SHOPPING?                               sider buying a mid-price camera with
  operation starts.
                                                                                                                           intermediate-level software such as
                                                                             Beginner                                      Adobe Photoshop Elements. You may
                                                                             The easiest and cheapest way to get           also like to use an online printing ser-
                                    CASEBOOK REQUIREMENTS                    good photographs is to buy a digital          vice or inkjet printer specifically
                                                                             camera which comes with some                  designed to produce high quality
                                    Most certificate boards welcome          basic image manipulation software.            prints.
                                    photographs of radiographs, ECG          Buy a spare rechargeable battery and
                                    traces or endoscopic images, but         a large-capacity memory card.                 Advanced
                                    discourage or do not accept original         Using an online photograph                You don’t need me to tell you what
                                    radiographs. Some certificates (eg,      printer, print-docking station or             to do! Consider a DSLR camera with
                                    Certificate in Veterinary Diagnostic     basic inkjet printer should give              advanced software. Good colour laser
                                    Imaging [CertVDI]) require original      reasonable results.                           printers produce excellent prints.
                                    radiographs, or accept ECG traces if
                                    pasted into a casebook (if you do        Acknowledgements
                                                                             Thanks to: Chris Lamb (Royal Veterinary College) and Jimmy Simpson (Royal [Dick] School
                                    this, do not laminate the page – the     of Veterinary Studies) for reading and commenting on the manuscript; David Williams
                                    paper is heat-sensitive and lamina-      (Cambridge veterinary school) for pictures and for proof-reading the ophthalmology
                                                                             section; Paul Lymer, of Woodley Equipment, for the loan of a digital eyepiece camera;
                                    tion obliterates the trace).             Gavin Mitchell, of BCF Technology, for advice on and proof-reading of the ultrasonography
                                        RCVS certificates are in a state     section; and Stuart Wilson, of Kruuse UK, for advice on endoscopic imaging.
References and further
reading
                                    of flux at present. Certificates
ANON (2005) Adobe Photoshop         in individual subjects will be           Useful contacts
Elements 3.0 Classroom in a Book.   replaced by a modular certificate in     s Adobe Photoshop, www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/main.html
Peachpit Press, Berkeley, USA                                                s BCF Technology Ltd, telephone 01506 460023, www.bcftechnology.com
LAMB, C. R. (2004) Digital          advanced veterinary practice, but        s British Association of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (BrAVO), www.bravo.org.uk
photography of radiographs.         existing certificates (and case report   s David Williams, www.davidlwilliams.org.uk
European Association of                                                      s Jasc Paintshop Pro, www.jasc.com/products/paintshoppro/
Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging       requirements) will probably be           s Kruuse Ltd, telephone 01977 681523, www.kruuse.com
Yearbook. pp 1-16                   around for some time.                    s Woodley Equipment Ltd, telephone 01204 669033, e-mail sales@woodleyequipment.com




  Images for publication

  Below In Practice provides some basic considerations for anyone producing electronic
  photographic illustrations to accompany an article or paper for submission to a pro-
  fessional journal.
                                                                                                                                               These images were
  General considerations                                                                                                                       taken at different
  s Check whether the publisher requires printed as well as electronic images. Ensure                                                          image quality
                                                                                                                                               settings. While
  any hard copies are labelled with the figure number and your name                                                                            they would appear
  s Images embedded in wordprocessing (eg, Microsoft Word) documents are not                                                                   very similar on a
                                                                                                                                               computer screen,
  suitable for print publication. The original JPEG or TIFF files are required (see below)
                                                                                                                                               note the difference
  s Avoid the temptation to crop pictures excessively during image manipulation.             2816 x 2112 pixels (~6 megapixels)                in print quality
  This will allow a greater degree of flexibility in print
  s Name your electronic image files to correspond with the figure numbers in the text
  s If images require arrows, labels, etc, it is best to indicate the position of these on the hard copies
  only, so that the journal can ensure a consistent style in print
  s For histology/cytology images, include details of magnification and stain used
  s Retain copies of all images supplied, whatever the format
  s Beware copyright issues: obtain explicit permission to use other people’s images and include acknowl-
  edgements where appropriate

  Taking digital photographs
  s When taking digital pictures, choose the highest image quality setting the camera offers. For good
  quality reproduction in print, image size should ideally be in the region of 2000 x 2000 pixels (4 megapix-
                                                                                                                                 640 x 480 pixels (~0·3 megapixels)
  els) or above, depending on the camera. Note that images of less than 1000 x 1000 pixels (1 megapixel) are
  only suitable for viewing on television and computer screens, and are not suitable for print publication
  s Submit digital images as JPEG or TIFF files                                                                                  Specific requirements will
                                                                                                                                 vary. Refer to the published
  Scanning prints or slides                                                                                                      ‘notes for authors’ or check
  s Scan images at a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi) at a width of at least 15 cm (or                              with the publisher direct if
  approximately the size the image will appear in print)                                                                         you have any queries.
  s Submit scanned images as JPEG or TIFF files


                                    46                                                                                                In Practice   q JANUARY 2006

								
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