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					City of Santa Cruz and Soquel Creek Water District
Proposed scwd2 Regional Seawater Desalination Project




 Community Guide
 a handbook for the Draft Environmental Impact Report
 MAY 2013
“Economic vitality, environmental health, and quality
 of life depend on sufficient, safe, and reliable
 water supplies. Addressing water shortages in our
 community is challenging and complex.”
—Laura Brown, Retired General Manager, Soquel Creek Water District
Table of Contents
01 |   INTRODUCTION  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 04
        What is the proposed project and the purpose of this
        guide? Why has an environmental document been
                                                                                                 06 |   ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED PROJECT  .  .  .  . 24
                                                                                                        What alternatives to the proposed project are considered in the
                                                                                                        Draft EIR and how do they compare?
        prepared?




02 |   PROJECT BACKGROUND  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 06
       What agencies are involved in the proposed project?
                                                                                                 07 |   ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCESS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 28
                                                                                                        How does the process work and what is involved?

       Why is the proposed project needed?




03 |   PROJECT OBJECTIVES
       AND DESCRIPTION  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 10
                                                                                                 08 |   COMMENTING ON THE DRAFT EIR .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 30
                                                                                                        What is the public review period? How can I submit comments?

       What are the objectives of the proposed project?
       What are the components of the proposed project and
       how would it be operated?
                                                                                                 09 |   NEXT STEPS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 32
                                                                                                        What is the timeline for the proposed project?
                                                                                                        What Agencies are involved with project approvals and permitting?

04 |    PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL
        ANALYSIS SUMMARY  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 12
        What are the key environmental effects of the proposed
        project and how are they being minimized?                                                10 |   GLOSSARY  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 34
                                                                                                        Glossary of terms used in this document




05 |   COMPARISON OF COMPONENT
       ALTERNATIVES  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 22
       How were the component alternatives for the proposed
       project identified and how do they compare?
01 | Introduction
What is the proposed project and the purpose of this guide? Why has an environmental
document been prepared?
PURPOSE OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT: Both the City of Santa Cruz (City)         WHY HAS AN EIR BEEN PREPARED? The California Environmental Quality
and Soquel Creek Water District (District) have conducted extensive         Act (CEQA) requires an EIR be prepared for this proposed project . Under
evaluations of their water needs and available sources, and are pursuing    CEQA, every development proposed project that requires a discretionary
integrated approaches to water supply planning that include conservation    governmental approval requires some level of environmental review .
programs and curtailment (or cutbacks) of water during periods of           The EIR is an informational tool used by governing bodies, permitting
drought . In addition to these conservation and curtailment programs,       agencies, and the community to understand the environmental
the City and District have also identified the need for a supplemental      consequences of the proposed project . The EIR identifies the significant
supply of water . The City and District independently analyzed several      effects of the proposed project on the environment and considers
alternatives and decided to pursue seawater desalination as a source of     feasible alternatives or mitigation measures to substantially lessen or
supplemental supply .                                                       eliminate the significant environmental effects .

                                                                            The first step in the EIR process, called scoping, allowed the public
 The City and District are jointly evaluating the proposed scwd2 Regional
                                                                            and interested parties to help define the issues and alternatives to be
 Seawater Desalination Project (proposed project) that, along with
                                                                            evaluated in the EIR . During the scoping period, the public provided input
 conservation, would address water supply shortages by supplementing
                                                                            on the environmental topics, potential effects, mitigation measures,
 existing supplies by up to 2 .5 million gallons per day .
                                                                            and alternatives to be analyzed in the EIR . Following scoping, technical
                                                                            and environmental studies were conducted to inform and complete the
PURPOSE OF THE COMMUNITY GUIDE: Over the next several months, the           Draft EIR .
communities served by the City and District will be participating in the
                                                                            For a more detailed look at the environmental review process,
public review process for the Draft Environmental Impact Report (Draft
                                                                            see SECTION 7 of this guide .
EIR) . The Draft EIR contains a large volume of information and complex
analyses . This community guide is intended to provide a summary and
overview of the proposed project and key elements of the environmental
analysis provided in the Draft EIR, including environmental design              Public comments must address the contents of the Draft EIR
features, mitigation measures, and feasible alternatives . The guide also       and not the contents of this community guide. Readers who
provides information about the environmental review process and how             would like to review all of the information contained within the
to provide comments on the Draft EIR (see SECTION 7 of this guide) .            Draft EIR should review a copy online at www .scwd2desal .org
                                                                                or at one of the locations listed on page 30 .



  4    Introduction
   “We have conducted a thorough analysis to identify and
evaluate any environmental effects of the proposed project
     so that policy makers, community members, and other
stakeholders can be informed and able to participate in the
                           environmental review process.”
            —Heidi Luckenbach, scwd2 Desalination Program Coordinator




                                                             Introduction   5
02 | Project Background
What agencies are involved in the proposed project? Why is the proposed project needed?
                      CITY OF SANTA CRUZ                                       CURRENT LEVELS OF GROUNDWATER PUMPING ARE UNSUSTAINABLE:
                     The City’s water system relies entirely on rainfall,      Groundwater pumping from the City’s Live Oak wells, along with other
                     runoff, and groundwater within watersheds located         groundwater pumping in the aquifer, is not sustainable . Groundwater
                     in Santa Cruz County; and no water is imported            pumping in the Soquel-Aptos area has resulted in a slow but continuous
                     from outside the Santa Cruz area (such as from the        drop in groundwater levels . This unsustainable level of groundwater
                     State Water project) . As a result, the City’s system     extraction threatens future supplies and increases the risk of seawater
is vulnerable to shortage in dry years .                                       intrusion, which could cause irreversible contamination of the
                                                                               groundwater supply . Seawater intrusion is the movement of seawater
Three primary factors create significant challenges for the City to            into freshwater aquifers which can lead to contamination of drinking
provide adequate water supply now and in the future:                           water supplies . See further discussion about groundwater pumping for
DEMAND EXCEEDS SUPPLY IN DRY YEARS: While the City usually has
                                                                               the District on pages 8-9 .
adequate supplies to meet demand in wet and normal years, water                In addition to these main factors, climate change and pending water
supplies fall short of demand levels in dry years . Low surface flows in       rights and entitlements could also result in a decrease in long-term
North Coast streams and the San Lorenzo River coupled with depleted            water supply .
surface water storage in Loch Lomond Reservoir reduces the available
supply to a level that cannot support existing demand, causing
water shortages .

THE CITY IS BEING REQUIRED TO REDUCE SURFACE WATER DIVERSIONS:
The City relies on local rivers and streams, important habitat for protected
steelhead trout and coho salmon, for over 80 percent of its water supply .
The City is in the process of developing a Habitat Conservation Plan
                                                                                 Why is the proposed project needed for the City?
(HCP) with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife and National
Marine Fisheries Service (fisheries agencies) to obtain permits under                 Water supply falls short in dry years (drought conditions)
the state and federal Endangered Species Acts . As part of this plan, the
City needs to significantly reduce the amount of water it has historically            More water needs to be left in streams and rivers
diverted from North Coast streams and the San Lorenzo River to provide                to protect threatened and endangered fish and their habitat
more water for steelhead trout and coho salmon . The HCP will require
                                                                                      Groundwater supply is at-risk of being contaminated
the City to reduce reliance on its flowing sources . This, combined with
                                                                                      by seawater
the City’s ongoing vulnerability to water supply shortages, is a primary
factor driving the need for an additional water supply .

  6    Project Background
City and District Water Service Areas                                                         THE SANTA CRUZ WATER DEPARTMENT is a municipal utility
                                                                                              that is owned and operated by the City . The City provides
                                                                                              water service to an area of approximately 20 square miles
                                                                                              in size, including the entire City of Santa Cruz, adjoining
                                                                                              unincorporated areas of Santa Cruz County, a small part
                                                                                              of the City of Capitola, and coastal agricultural lands north
                                                                                              of the City .

                                                                                              THE SOQUEL CREEK WATER DISTRICT is a local government
                                                                                              agency that provides potable water service and groundwater
                                                                                              resource management within its service area . The District’s
                                                                                              service area encompasses seven miles of shoreline along
                                                                                              Monterey Bay, and extends from one to three miles
                                                                                              inland into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains,
                                                                                              essentially following the County Urban Services Line .
                                                                                              The District serves portions of the City of Capitola and the
                                                                                              unincorporated communities of Aptos, La Selva Beach, Rio
                                                                                              Del Mar, Seascape, Seacliff Beach, and Soquel .

                                                                                                While both agencies have made ongoing and
                                                                                                new conservations programs a priority and have
                                                                                                investigated numerous alternatives, a supplemental
                                                                                                water supply is still needed .




San Lorenzo River: One of the           Sells Well Site: Soquel Creek Water     Loch Lomond Reservoir: Built in       Cornwell Tank: One of Soquel Creek
City’s surface water sources            District relies solely on groundwater   1960 for the City of Santa Cruz       Water District’s 18 storage tanks
                                                                                                                                   Project Background   7
Based on nearly a century of hydrologic data, the City could experience     A number of water supply alternatives were investigated during a
some water shortage approximately every 2-3 years, with shortages that      lengthy public planning process and only one was determined to be
could be as high as 39% in the near term and up to 46% in the long-term .   viable: a seawater desalination plant . The IWP specifically identified
These figures include reductions in customer demand through ongoing         the need for a desalination plant with a capacity of 2 .5 mgd, with the
and new conservation programs . Depending on the outcome of the HCP         ability to expand the plant to 4 .5 mgd to meet future needs . Because
development process, shortages could be substantially higher than those     the needs of the City and District are complimentary, the City elected to
reported above . Water shortages above 35% are considered by the City       partner with the District to further investigate a seawater desalination
to be a Stage 5 Critical Emergency that could threaten the health, safety   plant as a supplemental water supply project . This cooperative 2 .5 mgd
and security of the community, as well as lead to substantial economic      supplemental supply project constitutes the proposed project being
impacts to the area .                                                       evaluated in the EIR .

The City has been engaged in extensive planning over the past 25 years                              SOQUEL CREEK WATER DISTRICT
to address these water supply issues . The City’s adopted Integrated                                The District relies entirely on groundwater from
Water Plan (IWP) calls for a diverse strategy that includes increased                               the Soquel-Aptos area, which is currently being
conservation and up to 15% curtailment (or cutbacks) of water in dry        pumped at an unsustainable rate and is in a state of overdraft . This
years . The City’s per capita water usage rate is nearly half of the        means that more water is pumped out through wells than is replenished
average rate for California and among the lowest reported . Additional      by rainfall seeping deep underground into the aquifers . If the total
conservation measures were determined to be insufficient to prevent         groundwater extraction from the District and other pumpers (including
severe water shortages in dry years . As a result, a supplemental water     the City, the Central Water District, mutual water companies, and private
supply has been identified as a necessary element of the City’s water       well owners) continues at the current rate, the groundwater levels will
planning strategy .                                                         be too low to protect against seawater intrusion . This condition could
                                                                            worsen with predicted effects from climate change . Changing water
                                                                            quality requirements may also affect the use of a portion of the District’s
                                                                            groundwater sources .

                                                                            The District, as the primary aquifer user, needs to reduce its groundwater
                                                                            pumping substantially and allow the basin to naturally recover to protect
                                                                            the aquifer from seawater intrusion . Similar to the City, water usage rates
                                                                            in the District already reflect substantial efforts in water conservation,
                                                                            and the District is continually advancing water conservation strategies .
                                                                            However, in addition to forecasted conservation savings, the District
                                                                            must reduce its groundwater pumping by approximately one-third (1,500
                                                                            acre-feet or 489 million gallons per year) to recover the groundwater
The City has been engaged in extensive planning in collaboration with the   basin . Without a supplemental supply, this would require year-round
public over the past 25 years.
                                                                            cutbacks of approximately 35% for at least 20 years .
  8    Project Background
                                                                Given the groundwater overdraft conditions in the Soquel-Aptos area,
Why is the proposed project needed for the District?            the District has been actively pursuing a supplemental water supply,
                                                                along with conservation and groundwater management measures .
                                                                Over the last 20 years, a number of supply alternatives have been
    Sole reliance on a shared groundwater basin that is being
                                                                evaluated during public planning processes and were determined not
    overpumped at an unsustainable rate
                                                                to be viable .The District’s adopted 2012 Integrated Resources Plan (IRP)
    Groundwater supply is at-risk of being contaminated         Update includes, but is not limited to, development of conservation
    by seawater                                                 and demand management programs, drought curtailment, and
                                                                proactive groundwater management, as well as further evaluation
                                                                of water exchanges and a cooperative 2 .5 mgd supplemental water
What is Seawater Intrusion?                                     supply project identified as the proposed desalination project .

Healthy coastal aquifer                                                                scwd2 DESALINATION PROGRAM
                                                                                       The City and District have partnered to develop
                                                                                       and implement the scwd2 Desalination Program .
                                                                                       The scwd2 Desalination Program is overseen
                                                                by a Joint Task Force formed by the City and District (comprised of
                                                                two City Council Members and two District Board Members) to
                                                                provide direction on the evaluation of the proposed project . The City
                                                                and District have partnered to undertake the environmental review
                                                                for the proposed scwd2 Desalination Program . The proposed program
                                                                includes construction and operation of a seawater reverse osmosis
                                                                (SWRO) desalination plant and related facilities to provide up to 2 .5
Coastal aquifer contaminated by seawater                        mgd of water . The plant could be expanded to 4 .5 mgd to meet future
                                                                needs; however, additional environmental review, approvals, and
                                                                permits would need to be pursued to allow for such an expansion .

                                                                The City and District propose to cooperatively operate the desalination
                                                                plant to cost-effectively share the resource and meet the different
                                                                objectives and needs of the two agencies . The District would have
                                                                priority use of the desalination plant during the wet months of the year
                                                                to help supplement water demand needs while reducing groundwater
                                                                pumping . The City would have priority use during the dry months .
Seawater intrusion is the movement of seawater into
freshwater aquifers which can lead to contamination
of drinking water supplies.
                                                                                                                  Project Background    9
03 | Project Objectives and Description
What are the objectives of the proposed project? What are the components of the proposed
project and how would it be operated?
   The overarching goal of the proposed project is to allow both                   •	   Effectively meets future changed conditions and ensures
   agencies to continue to provide safe and reliable water to the                       accommodation of planned growth
   communities served by the City and District .                                   •	   Avoids or minimizes significant environmental impacts
                                                                                   •	   Does not increase greenhouse gas emissions
The specific objectives of the proposed project are summarized below . The
objectives address the need for a supplemental water supply as identified          •	   Is relatively cost-effective
by the City IWP and the District IRP . The complete description of the project
objectives can be found in SECTION 1 .3 of the Draft EIR .

PROJECT OBJECTIVES
  •	   Provide for a supplemental water supply in a timely manner that meets
       the agencies’ water supply program objectives for both near-term and
       long-term needs
  •	   Allow the City to reduce its surface water withdrawals and provide
       operational flexibility as more water is required in local streams and
       rivers to protect threatened and endangered species
  •	   Provide the District with a supplemental water supply to protect the
       groundwater basin and reduce the potential for seawater intrusion
  •	   Protect the local economy and community from the effects of an uncertain
       water supply due to the consequences of drought or contamination of
       the groundwater by seawater intrusion
  •	   Plan for climate change and be consistent with the City’s Climate
       Adaptation Plan
  •	   Provide a supplemental water supply that:
       •	    Has regional benefits and promotes efficient use of resources
       •	    Is readily available, drought-proof, avoids risk and/or uncertainty


 10         Project Objectives and Description
PROJECT COMPONENTS                                                            •	   Brine storage and disposal – the byproduct of reverse osmosis
The proposed project consists of many different components, all of                 filtration is concentrated seawater that is typically twice as salty
which work together to meet the objectives of the proposed project . The           as ambient seawater and requires appropriate dilution prior to
components of the proposed project consist of:                                     disposal back to the ocean, as further described below . Storage of
                                                                                   the brine in tanks on the plant site is needed to regulate the flow
1 . SEAWATER INTAKE SYSTEM: A seawater intake and conveyance system                and dilution rate of the brine
  consisting of an intake structure, intake pipeline, pump station, and
                                                                              •	   Support facilities associated with the plant components
  transfer piping . The EIR evaluates eight location alternatives for the
  intake . Only one of these location alternatives would be implemented .
                                                                              Preliminary architectural rendering, as shown on page 16 shows how
2 . SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANT: The EIR evaluates three location             the proposed project could be designed to blend in with existing
  alternatives for the seawater desalination plant . Only one of these        surroundings .
  location alternatives would be implemented . A seawater desalination
  plant would include:                                                      3 . BRINE DISPOSAL SYSTEM: The concentrated seawater, or brine,
                                                                             resulting from the reverse osmosis process would be mixed with the
  •	   Pretreatment of seawater to remove debris and solids
                                                                             effluent from the City’s existing Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF)
  •	   Residuals handling and disposal of the solids that are removed in     so the combined effluent (treated wastewater plus brine) would have
       pre-treatment                                                         similar salinity levels as ocean water to avoid any potential effects on
  •	   Reverse osmosis filtration to remove dissolved salts and minerals     the marine environment . To achieve this mixing, new facilities would
       –achieved by forcing the pre-treated water through membrane           be needed to store and convey the brine to the WWTF outfall, which
       filters at high pressure                                              would be modified to appropriately dispose of the brine .
  •	   Energy recovery devices to capture and reuse energy from the high
                                                                            4 . POTABLE WATER SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS: New facilities to pump
       pressure filtration process
                                                                             and convey the desalinated water to the existing water distribution
  •	   Post-treatment conditioning                                           systems would be needed . These would consist of a new connection
       prior to delivery to the                                              to the City’s distribution system and a new intertie system between
       domestic water distribution                                           the City and District service areas, including new pipelines and pump
       system to comply with                                                 station improvements .
       public health regulations
       and to protect distribution                                          5 . ENVIRONMENTAL      DESIGN     FEATURES:     Environmental design,
       systems against corrosion                                             construction, and operational features consisting of measures that
                                                                             would be implemented to avoid, reduce, or minimize potential
  •	   Systems to store and deliver
                                      Seawater is pumped through             environmental effects that might occur in the absence of such elements .
       chemicals used in treatment    membranes which remove salt and let    Key environmental design features are identified in SECTION 4 .
       process                        fresh water pass through

                                                                                                                 Project Objectives and Description   11
04 | Project Environmental
Analysis Summary
What are the key environmental effects of the proposed project and how are they being minimized?

                                                                           When a project is subject to CEQA and requires preparation of an EIR,
                                                                           agencies responsible for implementing CEQA (Lead Agencies), such as the
                                                                           City and District, are required to evaluate the project by:

                                                                                  Identifying the significant environmental effects of their
                                                                                  proposed actions;

                                                                                  Avoiding or mitigating those significant environmental effects,
                                                                                  where feasible; and/or

                                                                                  Presenting feasible alternatives that lessen the significant
                                                                                  effects while still achieving most of the primary objectives
                                                                                  of the proposed project .

The use of solar panels will provide renewable energy and reduce the
carbon footprint of the proposed project.                                  Based on the CEQA Guidelines, the IWP Program EIR, and the
                                                                           outcome of the scoping process performed in 2010-2011 (see the
                                                                           Environmental Review Process below), the Draft EIR addresses the
The basic intent of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)        following environmental resource topics in detail .
is to develop, maintain and enhance a high-quality environment for
California residents and visitors, and to avoid environmental damage;      •	   Hydrology and Water Quality         •	   Cultural Resources
while providing for a decent living environment . CEQA focuses primarily
                                                                           •	   Marine Biological Resources         •	   Utilities and Service Systems
on physical effects on the environment and excludes social or economic
                                                                                                                         (includes Energy)
effects . Through its formal and structured public review process, CEQA    •	   Terrestrial Biological Resources
gives agencies and community members an opportunity to consider            •	   Land Use, Planning, & Recreation    •	   Aesthetics
and provide comment on the environmental consequences of the                                                        •	   Hazards and Hazardous Materials
                                                                           •	   Air Quality and Climate
proposed project .
                                                                                (includes Greenhouse Gases)         •	   Traffic and Transportation

                                                                           •	   Noise and Vibration                 •	   Growth Impacts

                                                                           •	   Geology and Soils                   •	   Cumulative Impacts
  12    Project Environmental Analysis Summary
For each topic, the Draft EIR describes the existing environmental           The following provides a summary of the environmental impacts
setting and regulatory framework, evaluates potential impacts based on       associated with these topics and the recommended approach for
the proposed project description and its incorporation of environmental      reducing or avoiding these impacts .
design features, and recommends mitigation measures that could reduce
or avoid potentially significant impacts . The environmental analysis also    MARINE WATER QUALITY
describes any distinctions between the three alternative desalination
plant sites and eight alternative seawater intake sites being considered       FIND OUT     Section 5 .1, Hydrology and Water Quality &
for the proposed project .                                                      MORE IN     Appendix J, Dilution Analysis for Brine Disposal Via
                                                                                 THE EIR    Ocean Outfall


    During public scoping, the community voiced concerns over
    a number of environmental topics and raised questions on how             OVERVIEW: The analysis of marine water quality impacts focuses on
    the City and District intended to resolve these concerns . This          whether the brine discharge could meet regulatory requirements
    Community Guide summarizes key conclusions and                           for water quality and not exceed existing salinity of the ocean . The
    environmental impacts for these areas of community interest:             proposed project would dilute the brine from the desalination process
                                                                             with the City’s WWTF effluent prior to discharge through the existing
    •	   Marine water quality                                                WWTF outfall to avoid adverse effects of elevated salinity on the
    •	   Marine biological resources                                         marine environment . In addition, the analysis examines the effects
                                                                             on marine water quality during construction of offshore components .
    •	   Terrestrial biological resources
    •	   Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change                         IMPACTS: With the implementation of environmental design features,
                                                                             the brine discharge from operation of the proposed project via the
    •	   Energy
                                                                             existing WWTF ocean outfall would not violate water quality standards,
    •	   Water supply quality                                                and the salinity of the discharge would be similar to existing ocean
    •	   Growth                                                              conditions .Temporary marine water quality effects during construction
                                                                             are minimized through mitigation measures .




     Brine from the desalination process would be diluted with treated
     wastewater already being sent out to the Bay, resulting in a blend that
     closer matches existing ocean salinity.
                                                                                                           Project Environmental Analysis Summary   13
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES
  •	 Brine would be blended with less salty water coming from               MARINE BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
       the existing WWTF to dilute the brine to match existing ocean
                                                                             FIND OUT     Section 5 .2, Marine Biological Resources &
       salinity
                                                                              MORE IN     Appendix G, Open Ocean Intake Effects Study
  •	   Storage of brine at the desalination plant would control the rate       THE EIR
       of discharge to account for fluctuations in flows from the WWTF
  •	   New valves on the existing discharge ports of the WWTF outfall      OVERVIEW: A new intake system
       would help spread the combined effluent along the entire            and piping would deliver
       diffuser length providing for improved mixing and better control    seawater to the desalination
       of flow rates                                                       plant for treatment . Piping
                                                                           would be drilled below ground
  •	   Automatic control devices and monitoring would ensure proper
                                                                           from a location onshore to
       blending of the brine
                                                                           the intake location offshore . A
  •	   Underground tunneling for the installation of the seawater          screen would be attached to the
       intake pipelines would avoid beach and bluff construction and       offshore end of the pipe . At the
       minimize sediment and turbidity in the marine environment           onshore end, a pump station
MITIGATION MEASURES                                                        would be constructed to draw Small slot-size screens and slow intake
  •	 A construction drilling-fluids management plan for seawater           the water through the screened velocity would reduce impacts to marine
                                                                                                               biological resources.
       intake pipeline tunneling would minimize water quality effects      opening, and to deliver the water
       from potential release of fluids during tunneling (Mitigation       to the desalination plant . The analysis of marine biological resources
       Measure 5 .1-2a)                                                    focuses on what happens when marine organisms are drawn along with
                                                                           the ocean water through the screen and through the filtration process
  •	   Marine construction best management practices             would
                                                                                                                   .
                                                                           – an effect known as “entrainment” Also, the Draft EIR analyzes the
       minimize turbidity (Mitigation Measure 5 .1-2b)
                                                                           potential for organisms to get trapped or pinned on the outside of the
                                                                                                                          .
                                                                           screens – an effect known as “impingement”The Draft EIR also examines
                                                                           potential effects of the brine discharge and temporary construction on
                                                                           marine life and environments .

                                                                           IMPACT: With the implementation of environmental design features,
                                                                           the operation of the proposed seawater intake system and brine
                                                                           discharge via the existing WWTF ocean outfall would not: (1) have a
                                                                           substantial adverse effect on special-status or other marine species; (2)
                                                                           substantially reduce the habitat of a fish or wildlife species; (3) cause
                                                                           a fish or wildlife population to drop below self-sustaining levels; or (4)
                                                                           threaten to eliminate a plant or animal community . Construction-phase

 14      Project Environmental Analysis Summary
impacts on marine life and habitat due to temporary water quality            ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES
effects, underwater construction noise, and the placement of the intake        •	 Provide intake screens with small (2mm) openings and low
structure are minimized through mitigation measures . These effects are             through-screen velocity consistent with regulatory guidelines
further described below .                                                      •	   Brine would be blended with less salty water coming from the
Entrainment and Impingement Impacts: A year-long Open Ocean Intake                  existing WWTF to dilute the brine to match ocean salinity
Effects Study was conducted for the proposed project to understand             •	   Storage of brine at the desalination plant would control the rate
the impact to marine life of entrainment . The study concluded that the             of discharge to account for fluctuations in flows from the WWTF
proposed project could cause the white croaker (the most abundant              •	   New valves on the existing discharge ports of the WWTF outfall
species collected) to have a potential loss of up to one female fish’s              would help spread the combined effluent along the entire diffuser
lifetime reproductive capacity each year . This would be an extremely               length providing for improved mixing and better control of flow rates
small amount and represents far less mortality than that resulting
                                                                               •	   Automatic control devices and monitoring would ensure proper
from other natural sources and human activities, such as commercial
                                                                                    blending of the brine
or recreational fishing . The intake screens would further reduce the
entrainment by excluding organisms greater than the 2mm screen                 •	   Underground tunneling for the installation of the seawater intake
openings, including adult and juvenile fish, and some of the larger                 pipelines would avoid beach, bluff, and intertidal construction
larvae of fish and invertebrate species . Additionally, because the flow            and minimize sediment and turbidity in the marine environment
rate through the screens would be relatively low, the risk of organisms
getting trapped or pinned on the outside of the screen is extremely low,
as confirmed by extensive monitoring of a test screen .

Brine Discharge Impacts: As described above for marine water quality,
the discharge of brine would not increase salinity of the ocean above
existing conditions and would not exceed other water quality standards
and objectives . Therefore, no adverse effects on marine life would result
from the brine discharge .

Construction Impacts: The intake would be placed far enough offshore
to be beyond the kelp forests offshore of Santa Cruz . The pipeline to
the intake would be tunneled underground to avoid construction in
kelp forests, tidal beach, and bluff areas . Construction-phase impacts
on marine life and habitat due to temporary water quality effects,
underwater construction noise, and the placement of the intake structure     New valves on the existing wastewater outfall discharge ports would
are minimized through mitigation measures .                                  ensure mixing of the combined wastewater effluent/brine discharge.


                                                                                                              Project Environmental Analysis Summary   15
MITIGATION MEASURES
  •	 Construction-phase mitigation measures include the same                      TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
       measures noted above for marine water quality impacts
                                                                                  FIND OUT       Section 5 .3, Terrestrial Biological Resources
       (Mitigation Measures 5 .1-2a and 5 .1-2b)
                                                                                   MORE IN       Appendix R, Biotic Resources Survey Report
  •	   The effects of underwater construction noise on special-status and           THE EIR      Appendix S, Monarch Butterfly Habitat Assessment
       other marine life due to particular construction activities would
       be controlled through the preparation and implementation of a           OVERVIEW: The new on-shore structures and buildings for the proposed
       hydroacoustic (underwater noise) monitoring plan (Mitigation            project would be located on parcels within the City of Santa Cruz that
       Measure 5 .2-4) .This measure would apply only to certain seawater      are either already developed or are within and surrounded by existing
       intake sites (SI-4, SI-5, SI-7, SI-14, SI-16, and SI-17)                developed areas . New on-shore underground piping would be located
  •	   A pre-construction survey of the selected intake location will          primarily in existing paved public roads in the City, County, and
       identify the precise site for the intake structure and areas to         Capitola alongside other existing utilities such as water, wastewater,
       avoid during construction . The placement of the seawater intake        power, and telecommunication lines . The approach evaluated whether
       structure would avoid kelp forest habitat through the use of            the construction of the proposed facilities would have a substantial
       such a survey . (Mitigation Measure 5 .2-5) . This measure would        adverse effect on: special-status terrestrial or freshwater aquatic
       apply only to certain seawater intake sites (SI-4, SI-5, SI-7, SI-14,   species; sensitive habitat; protected wetlands; wildlife movement; and/
       and SI-16)                                                              or resources protected by local policies, such as heritage trees .


Design features of the intake
would reduce impacts
on marine life to far less
mortality than that resulting
from other natural sources
and human activities,
such as commercial or
recreational fishing.                                     An artist rendering of a potential option for the desalination plant exterior: The landscaping
                                                          at the desalination site would include butterfly nectar plants to provide foraging resources for
                                                          butterflies and other beneficial insect species.
 16      Project Environmental Analysis Summary
IMPACT: The proposed project would not result in substantial adverse
effects to protected wetlands . With the implementation of identified
                                                                                 ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS,
mitigation measures, construction of the proposed on-shore facilities            & CLIMATE CHANGE
would not have substantial adverse effects on: state and federal special-
                                                                                 FIND OUT      Section 5 .5, Air Quality and Climate (for discussion of
status species, migratory birds; riparian habitat; or heritage trees . No
                                                                                  MORE IN      GHGs and climate change), Section 5 .9, Utilities and
significant impacts to butterfly overwintering habitat related to tree
                                                                                   THE EIR     Service Systems (for discussion of energy), Appendix
removal would occur at Sites A-1 or A-3 . If Plant Site A-2 is selected, the
                                                                                               O, Summary of Energy and GHG Reduction Approach,
removal of on-site trees could result in a substantial adverse effect to
                                                                                               Appendix T, Air Quality and Climate Calculations
monarch butterfly overwintering habitat in Natural Bridges State Beach,
if these trees provide a secondary wind break to that habitat .
                                                                               OVERVIEW: The energy requirement of seawater desalination and
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES                                                  associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are among the key
  •	 The landscaping at the desalination plant site would include              community and stakeholder
       butterfly nectar plants to provide foraging resources for butterflies   issues in the evaluation of the
       and other beneficial insect species                                     proposed project . The approach
MITIGATION MEASURES                                                            to the analysis of energy impacts
  •	 Pre-construction surveys would be conducted and protection                from the proposed project
       measures implemented for special-status species, including              involves evaluating whether the
       Central California Coast steelhead, California red-legged frog,         proposed project would require
       foothill yellow-legged frog, San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat,        new or expanded energy
       and special-status and migratory birds (Mitigation Measures             generation or transmission
       5 .3-1a through 5 .3-1d and 5 .3-5)                                     facilities or conflict with existing
                                                                               energy standards . The approach
  •	   Riparian setbacks shall be implemented per the City-Wide Creeks
                                                                               to the analysis of GHG impacts
       and Wetland Management Plan methodology and measures to
                                                                               from the proposed project
       protect riparian areas during construction shall be implemented
                                                                               involves evaluating whether
       in areas adjacent or in riparian areas (Mitigation Measures 5 .3-2a
                                                                               the GHG emissions would
       through 5 .3-2c)
                                                                               have an adverse effect on the
  •	   To the extent feasible trees shall be retained at Plant Site A-2 .      environment or conflict with an
       An arborist report shall be prepared to protect any trees retained      applicable plan or regulation
       onsite from damage during construction . (Mitigation Measure            intended       to   reduce     GHG
       5 .3-3a and 5 .3-6)                                                     emissions .                          Energy recovery devices allow for reuse
                                                                                                                   of energy at the desalination plant.
  •	   Any trees removed on Plant Site A-2 shall be replaced in such a
       way as to minimize loss of any potential wind protection to the
       monarch butterfly roosting area at Natural Bridges State Beach
       (Mitigation Measure 5 .3-3b)                                                                            Project Environmental Analysis Summary     17
IMPACT: With the implementation of environmental design features, the
proposed project would not result in substantial adverse effects related to          WATER SUPPLY QUALITY
energy use or GHG emissions, as the proposed project would not result in the
                                                                                      FIND OUT       Section 5 .1, Hydrology and Water Quality
need for new or expanded energy supplies or distribution facilities, would not
                                                                                       MORE IN       Appendix D, Final Seawater Reverse
conflict with applicable energy standards, and would not result in a net increase
                                                                                        THE EIR      Osmosis Desalination Pilot Test Program
in GHG emissions .
                                                                                                     Report & Appendices

   The City and District have made a commitment that the operation of
   the proposed project would be net carbon neutral which would result              OVERVIEW: Seawater from Monterey Bay would be pretreated,
   in no net increase in GHG emissions .                                            desalted using seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) treatment,
                                                                                    and conditioned for the existing drinking water system at the
                                                                                    proposed desalination plant producing up to 2 .5 million gallons
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES
                                                                                    per day (mgd) of potable drinking water . A desalination pilot
  •	 High-efficiency energy recovery devices would allow for reuse of energy
                                                                                    program was implemented to test and evaluate alternative
       at the desalination plant
                                                                                    treatment systems . The results of the pilot program were used
  •	   High-efficiency pumps and motors would reduce energy requirements            to determine whether drinking water standards could be reliably
  •	   SWRO membrane configuration would meet water quality goals while             met . In addition, the pilot program determined whether a new
       minimizing system energy requirements                                        source of desalinated potable water would adversely affect the
  •	   Compliance with the City’s Green Building Program, which includes            water quality of the existing treated water supply .
       concepts common to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental                IMPACT: The City of Santa Cruz undertook a comprehensive pilot
       Design (LEED) program, would allow the proposed project to meet              plant test program from 2008 to 2009 to evaluate alternative
       established energy sustainability goals                                      treatment systems for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO)
  •	   Commitment to net carbon neutral operations would result in no net           desalination plant and to analyze the water quality of potable
       increase in GHG emissions . This would be achieved through the above         water produced from the seawater offshore of Santa Cruz . Based
       features and the pursuit of one of two options for offsetting the net        on the Pilot Study Report and subsequent evaluation conducted
       increase in GHG emissions, including a portfolio of energy and GHG           for the Preliminary Design Report, the pre-treatment process
       reducing proposed projects and actions, or the purchase of certified         chosen would consist of rapid mixing, dissolved air flotation
       GHG offsets                                                                  (DAF) units and pressurized microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF)
  •	   Energy Minimization and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Plan would be               membranes . This pretreatment process was selected because it
       implemented to ensure that the net carbon neutral objective of the           is the most reliable under all anticipated water quality conditions .
       proposed project is achieved on a long-term basis .                          The DAF process causes organic and inorganic material in raw
                                                                                    seawater, such as algae, to coagulate and float to the surface
MITIGATION MEASURES
                                                                                    for easy removal . After pre-treatment, reverse osmosis filtration
None required



  18     Project Environmental Analysis Summary
would be used to remove dissolved salts and other impurities . Reverse
osmosis involves forcing water at very high pressures through a series      GROWTH
of membranes with pore sizes small enough to exclude salts and other
                                                                             FIND OUT     Section 6, Growth
minerals, resulting in highly purified product water . The addition of
                                                                              MORE IN
potable water from the proposed project to the water supply distribution
                                                                               THE EIR
system would not have adverse effects on water supply quality, as the
pilot study demonstrated that potable water from the desalination
                                                                           OVERVIEW: Typically, a proposed project is considered growth-inducing
plant would meet all regulatory drinking water standards . Compliance
                                                                           if it encourages growth or a concentration of population in excess of
monitoring required of all public water systems would ensure this .
                                                                           what is assumed and planned for in appropriate land use plans, or in
                                                                           proposed projections made by regional planning agencies such as the
                                                                           Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments (AMBAG) . Significant
                                                                           growth impacts could also occur if the proposed project provides
                                                                           infrastructure or service capacity to accommodate growth beyond the
                                                                           levels currently planned by local or regional plans and policies .

                                                                           The approach to the analysis of growth-related impacts from the
                                                                           proposed project involved assessing existing conditions, planned
                                                                           growth and growth/population proposed projections, as well as water
                                                                           supply and demand conditions for both the City and the District and
                                                                           determining whether the proposed project would directly or indirectly
                                                                           induce growth above and beyond that which is already planned .


The scwd2 pilot study demonstrated that potable water from the
desalination plant could meet all regulatory drinking water standards.         The proposed project would supply water only to meet existing
                                                                               and proposed projected shortfalls due to growth already
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES                                                  planned and approved and due to changed water conditions
  •	 SWRO membrane configuration would meet water quality goals                (requirements for increased stream flows for fish, seawater
      while minimizing system energy requirements                              intrusion into groundwater supplies, global warming, etc) .
MITIGATION MEASURES
None required




                                                                                                        Project Environmental Analysis Summary   19
IMPACT: The proposed project would not directly induce growth, because
it would not result in the construction of new residential development
or the creation of substantial new long-term employment in the City or
District service areas . The proposed project also would not indirectly
induce growth because it would not result in excess capacity to serve
additional growth beyond what has already been planned for in the
adopted general plans of the City, County, and Capitola or the University
of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Long Range Development Plan (LRDP);
remove an obstacle to growth; change the service area boundaries of
the City; or provide water to an area that is not currently served .

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN FEATURES
None required

MITIGATION MEASURES
None required




   The Draft EIR provides a detailed analysis of the environmental
   impacts, potential mitigation measures and environmental design
   features of all 14 topics listed on page 12 .

   See SECTIONS 5, 6 and 7 of the Draft EIR for more information .




  20    Project Environmental Analysis Summary
“Additional water supplies are needed now for existing customers.
If and when UCSC were to increase their water use, they would be
required to offset their new water demand by funding conservation
                           programs within the City’s service area.”
                                 —Bill Kocher, Santa Cruz Water Director



                                        Project Environmental Analysis Summary   21
05 | Component Alternatives of
the Proposed Project
How were the component alternatives for the proposed project identified and
how do they compare?
A wide range of desalination-related alternatives were considered              The City Council and District Board will weigh all the information on
during the development of the proposed project or were raised from             these site alternatives to ultimately pick one final intake site and one
the comments submitted during the scoping process for this EIR . These         final desalination plant site .
included site locations for the desalination plant and seawater intake,
the type of pre-treatment and desalination processes, brine handling
methods, City-District intertie alignment alternatives, etc . Ultimately,
three alternative desalination plant sites and eight alternative seawater
intake sites were identified and evaluated at an equal level of detail in
the Draft EIR . The Draft EIR provides a comparison of the environmental
impacts and the ability of each component location alternative to meet
the proposed project objectives .

Any of the seawater intake and plant site location alternatives could
be implemented for the proposed project, as all sites would allow for a
facility that would meet the primary objectives of the project and would
be technically feasible to construct and operate . In most cases, where
impacts are determined to be significant in the EIR, feasible mitigation
measures are available to reduce impacts to less than significant
and distinctions between the site alternatives from an environmental
perspective are not substantial . However, Plant Site A-2 could result in a
substantial adverse effect to monarch butterfly overwintering habitat in
Natural Bridges State Beach, if trees to be removed provide a secondary
wind break to that habitat, even with the implementation of identified
mitigation measures . Therefore, it is assumed that the proposed project
would not involve the selection of Plant Site A-2 as the preferred plant
site, based on its current configuration and related potentially significant
resource impacts .

  22    Component Alternatives of the Proposed Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aptos Pump Station Upgrade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  OVERVIEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RAILROA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ú                                                                                                                                                                A-3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A-1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         B
                                                 U
                                                 TU
                                                  T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A-2

                                                                              CITY OF SANTA CRUZ                                                                 SOQUEL CREEK WATER                                                                                                                                                             A-3
                                                                              WATER SERVICE AREA                                                                 DISTRICT SERVICE AREA                                                                                                                                                                                            C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aptos Pump Station Upgrade                                                                  A-1
                                             PROSPECT                                                                                                                                                            2.5 miles to the southeast (see inset above)
                                              HEIGHTS

                3
                Ú                                                                                       SOQUEL
                                                                                                                   DR
                                                                                                                                                                                                             SOQUEL DR




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NATURAL BRI
                            Morrissey Pump




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E
                                                                                                                                                                                  MAIN ST




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     PARK AV
                            Station Upgrade                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PACIFIC               OCEAN




                                                                                                                                                  41ST AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ú




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DGES DR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Desalination Plant Site Alternatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A-1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      McGregor Pump                                                                     POTENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Station Upgrade                                                                 STAGING AREA                                                         A-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 New Brighton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 State Beach                                                                                                               A-3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Assessor's Parcel Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2005 IWP Program EIR-Identified
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pacific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Desalination Plant Sites (shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ocean                                                                                                                     only on overview)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A-2                                                                          ´
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See Figure 4-2 for Brine Discharge Pipeline Alternatives,
                                                                                                                           U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ´
             Potable Water Pipeline Alignments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Raw Water Transfer Pipeline Alternatives, and
                                                                                                                           T        DeLaveaga Tanks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Seawater Intake Alternatives in this area. Actual
                     Morrissey PS to DeLaveaga Tanks - Morrissey Alignment Option                                          3
                                                                                                                           Ú        Pump Station (PS)                                                                                                                                                                                                                         locations of these features will depend on which plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              site is ultimately selected.
                     Morrissey PS to DeLaveaga Tanks - Trevethan Alignment Option                                                   Intertie location at Soquel Dr                 0                                 0.5                                                       1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ´
                     DeLaveaga Tanks to City-District Intertie                                                                      Soquel Creek Water District                                           SCALE IN MILES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0                200               400
                     City-District Intertie to McGregor PS                                                                          Service Area Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Base map source:                                                                                                                                                                       MAIN MAP SCALE IN FEET
                                                                                                                                    City of Santa Cruz Water                                             Microsoft Bing Maps                                                                     AVE
                                                                                                                                    Service Area Boundary                                                                                                                               DELAWARE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Imagery source: Microsoft Bing Maps

                          City of Santa Cruz and Soquel Creek Water District                                                                                                                                                     Figure 4-5
City-District Intertie System Area
                          scwd2 Regional Seawater Desalination Project                                                                                                                                   City-District Intertie System Area                                            Desalination Plant Site Alternatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                City of Santa Cruz and Soquel Creek Water District
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                scwd2 Regional Seawater Desalination Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 4-4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Desalination Plant Site Alternatives
                         intentional blank line                                                                                                                                                                       intentional blank line                                                   intentional blank line                                                                            intentional blank line


                                                                                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                                                                             Ú
                                                                                                                                                                                                 SI-18    3
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ú
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A wide range of desalination-related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       alternatives were considered during the
                                                                                                                                                                      EXISTING
                                                                                                                                                                    WASTE WATER                             Sa
                                                                                                                                                                     TREATMENT                                nt
                  US HWY                                                                                                                                                                    St
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                     1                                                                                                                                FACILITY       y                               Cr
                                                                                                                                                                                  Ba                                    uz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 un
                                                   Mission St Extn                                                                                                                                                                  ic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       i




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       development of the proposed project or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           pa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              l
                                                                                                                                    Woodrow Ave




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  W
                           Natural Bridges




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         r   f
                                                              A-3                                                                                                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ú
                                             A-1 3
                                                 Ú
                                                                                                              Almar Av




                                                                                                                                                                      Ave                                                                                                SI-9
                                                                                                                                                             Delaware
                                                                                 Swift St
Shaffer Rd




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SI-17



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       were raised during the scoping process
                                                                                                                      e
                                Dr




             Antonelli                       A-2
              Pond




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for this EIR.
                                                                                                              y
                                                                                                    Oxford Wa
                                                                                                                           3
                                                                                                                           Ú
                            Natural                                          3
                                                                             Ú                                                             3
                                                                                                                                           Ú
                            Bridges                                                                       JUNCTION
                          State Beach                          Modest                       Wanzer St
                                                          d




                                                                     o Ave                               STRUCTURE
                                                      Blv




                                                                                                          (EXISTING)
                                                     ton
                                                   an




                                                                                                                          SI-5
                                                 Sw




                                                                                 3
                                                                                 Ú
                                                                                                                             SI-4                                                                                                                                                      STUDIES AND REPORTS THAT IDENTIFIED COMPONENT ALTERNATIVES:
                                         SI-14                               SI-16
                                                                                  SI-7                                                                                                                                                                                                 Appendix I: Seawater Intake Facility Conceptual Design Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendix K: Site Selection for Seawater Desalination Treatment Plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendix AA: Intake Alternatives - Review and Status of Subsurface Intakes
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ´
                         Existing Waste Water Treatment Facility (WWTF) Effluent                                          Desalination Plant Site Alternatives
                         Outfall Pipeline; new valves to be installed on diffuser ports
                                                                                                                                     A-1
                         Brine Discharge Alternatives; includes brine discharge pipeline
                         and brine discharge/WWTF outfall point of connection                                                        A-2                                                         0          1,000                             2,000                                    Appendix BB: Desalination Plant Hydraulic Modeling and Analysis
                         Raw Water Transfer Pipeline Alternatives                                                                    A-3                                                                    FEET


         3
         Ú               Seawater Intake (SI) Alternatives; includes pump
                         station (PS), intake pipeline, and intake structure
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Base map source:
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Microsoft Bing Maps
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendix CC: Comparison of Desalination Technologies

Desalination Seawater Desalination Project
      scwd Regional
                          City of Santa Cruz and Soquel Creek Water District
                    System Area              2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Figure 4-3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Desalination System Area                                         Appendix DD: Additional Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine Disposal Options
     intentional blank line                                                                                                                                                                                           intentional blank line

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Component Alternatives of the Proposed Project                                      23
06 | Alternatives to the Proposed Project
What alternatives to the proposed project are considered in the Draft EIR
and how do they compare?
In addition to the environmental analysis of the proposed project,          ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED IN DETAIL IN THE DRAFT EIR:
an EIR is required to describe and evaluate a reasonable range of           Eight alternatives to the proposed project are evaluated in detail in
alternatives to the proposed project that meet most of the proposed                                                                       ”
                                                                            the Draft EIR, including the required “No Project Alternative . The
project’s objectives while avoiding or substantially lessening any          alternatives include:
significant environmental impacts from the project . A number of
                                                                              •	   CITY NO PROJECT: The City would continue its current water
alternatives to the proposed project are evaluated in detail in the Draft
                                                                                   supply practices with its current facilities and the proposed project
EIR, some of which qualify as feasible alternatives under CEQA, and
                                                                                   would not be constructed . The City’s existing Water Shortage
many of which were considered because of community comments
                                                                                   Contingency Plan would be implemented to meet water supply
received during scoping .
                                                                                   shortages .
ALTERNATIVES NOT CONSIDERED IN THE DRAFT EIR: Several alternatives            •	   DISTRICT NO PROJECT:The District would continue to rely solely on
were considered for the proposed project or were reviewed as a result              groundwater from the Purisima and Aromas Red Sands aquifers
of scoping comments received, but were eliminated from further                     in the Soquel-Aptos area and the proposed project would not be
analysis . These included alternatives such as: more groundwater,                  constructed . The District’s existing Water Shortage Contingency
reservoirs, off-stream diversion, reclamation/recycled water, and                  Plan would be implemented to meet water supply shortages as
District-only desalination within the District’s service area . Many of            needed .
these alternatives were considered by the City during preparation of
                                                                              •	   CITY-ONLY DESALINATION: A desalination plant and related
                                                       .
the IWP and District during preparation of the IRP In general these
                                                                                   facilities would be constructed and operated only by the City .
alternatives were eliminated because they did not meet most of the
proposed project objectives, were found to be infeasible, and/or did          •	   DISTRICT-ONLY DESALINATION: A desalination plant and related
not substantially lessen or avoid the significant environmental effects            facilities would be constructed and operated only by the District .
of the proposed project . A discussion of the eliminated alternatives and     •	   DESALINATION PLUS DIRECT POTABLE REUSE (DPR) PILOT: This
the reasons for eliminating them from further consideration is included            alternative includes the proposed project along with a small direct
in the Draft EIR (see SECTION 8 .2) .                                              potable reuse (DPR) pilot system at the proposed desalination
                                                                                   plant site . An opportunity exists to study the feasibility of
   Under CEQA, “feasible” means “capable of being accomplished in                  incorporating DPR into the long-term water supply portfolios of
   a successful manner within a reasonable period of time, taking into             the City and District . Should regulations change in the future to
   account economic, environmental, social, and technological factors .”           allow for DPR, the seawater desalination plant could potentially
                                                                                   be transitioned to a DPR facility .


  24    Alternatives to the Proposed Project
  •	   REGIONAL    RECYCLED WATER        FOR
       IRRIGATION: This alternative considers
       the regional use of recycled water
       for landscape irrigation to reduce the
       demand on the City and District potable
       water supply systems .
  •	   CITY PACKAGE: A variety of actions and
       programs are considered that could
       potentially reduce the City’s demand
       for water or have other beneficial
       effects on the water supply system . The
       actions and programs proposed under
       this alternative include:     additional
       conservation and demand management;
       water-neutral    development;       new
       reservoir operations policy; and water
       exchanges with neighboring districts .
  •	   DISTRICT    PACKAGE:      A number of
       measures and programs are considered
       that could potentially reduce the District’s
       water supply shortfall allowing the
       District to achieve its recovery pumping
       goal so that the basin can recover .
       The actions and programs under this            “We often get asked the question, ‘What about more conservation
       alternative include: mandatory water
       rationing programs and water exchanges            and water transfers instead of the desal project?’ The City and
       with the City .                                 District Package Alternatives address this question and the Draft
The following table highlights the attributes of                  EIR includes evaluation of these alternatives in detail.”
each alternative including the cost, ability to
meet the proposed project objectives, amount                  —Melanie Mow Schumacher, scwd2 Public Outreach Coordinator
of potable water produced, and ability to reduce
the significant impacts of the proposed project
(see SECTION 8 .3 for further information) .
                                                                                                Alternatives to the Proposed Project   25
COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF THE ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED PROJECT
ALTERNATIVE          DOES ALT MEET PROJECT                         DOES ALTERNATIVE REDUCE                   DOES ALTERNATIVE CAUSE OTHER                          AMOUNT OF SUPPLEMENTAL                APPROXIMATE COSTS
                     OBJECTIVES?                                   POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL                   POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS?                      WATER SUPPLIED BY
                                                                   IMPACTS OF PROPOSED                                                                             ALTERNATIVE
                                                                   PROJECT?
                             City                  District                                                                                                                City             District     Capital       Annualized Unit
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Costs         Cost/ ($ per AF)
                                                                                                                                                                   MGY       AFY     MGY        AFY
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (million $)
                     No     Yes     Partial   No   Yes   Partial

Proposed                    ✕                      ✕               NA                                        NA                                                    Up to     Up to   490-       1,500-   $115          $3,500-4,300
Project                                                                                                                                                            910       2,800   910        2,800


City No Project       ✕                       ✕                    YES                                       YES                                                   0         0       NA         NA       NA            NA
                                                                   Alternative would avoid most of           Alternative would hinder the City’s ability to com-
                                                                   the environmental impacts of the          mit to or implement stream flows associated with
                                                                   construction and operation of the         a HCP and, therefore, could result in continued
                                                                   proposed project.                         unavoidable impacts on listed anadromous fish
                                                                                                             and fisheries habitat. The alternative would also
                                                                                                             result in adverse impacts related to the City’s
                                                                                                             water supply, including availability, distribution,
                                                                                                             and treatment.

District No           ✕                       ✕                    YES                                       YES                                                   NA        NA      0          0        NA            NA
Project
                                                                   Alternative would avoid most of           Alternative would result in continued unavoidable
                                                                   the environmental impacts of the          impacts related to groundwater overdraft. The
                                                                   construction and operation of the         alternative would also result in adverse impacts
                                                                   proposed project.                         related to the District’s water supply, including
                                                                                                             availability, distribution, and treatment.


City-only                             ✕       ✕                    SOMEWHAT                                  NO                                                    Up to     Up to   0          0        $108          $3,300-5,200
Desalination                                                                                                                                                       910       2,800
                                                                   Alternative would result in similar en-   Alternative would result in similar environmental
                                                                   vironmental impacts as the proposed       impacts as the proposed project.
                                                                   project, but those impacts would
                                                                   be somewhat reduced in certain
                                                                   categories due to intermittent use of
                                                                   the plant by the City and the fact that
                                                                   the City-District intertie system would
                                                                   not be needed.

District-only         ✕                                       ✕    NO                                        NO                                                    0         0       490-       1,500-   $107          $3,300-3,700
Desalination                                                                                                                                                                         910        2,800
                                                                   Alternative would result in similar en-   Alternative would result in similar environmental
                                                                   vironmental impacts as the proposed       impacts as the proposed project.
                                                                   project.

* See Section 8.3, Alternatives to the Proposed Project (Table 8.3-22) for detailed footnotes and sources for this table.




 26        Alternatives to the Proposed Project
ALTERNATIVE         DOES ALTERNATIVE MEET PROJECT                DOES ALT REDUCE POTENTIAL                 DOES ALTERNATIVE CAUSE OTHER                           AMOUNT OF SUPPLEMENTAL                   APPROXIMATE COSTS
                    OBJECTIVES?                                  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF                  POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS?                       WATER SUPPLIED BY
                                                                 PROPOSED PROJECT?                                                                                ALTERNATIVE
                           City                  District                                                                                                                 City                District     Capital       Annualized Unit
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Costs         Cost/
                                                                                                                                                                  MGY       AFY        MGY        AFY
                                                                                                                                                                                                           (million $)   ($ per AF)
                    No    Yes     Partial   No   Yes   Partial

Regional             ✕                                      ✕    SOMEWHAT                                  YES                                                    305       950        80         250      $100          $5,100
Recycled Water
                                                                 Alternative would avoid any marine-       Given that the Alternative would not provide
for Irrigation
                                                                 related impacts, as no construction       adequate water, it would result in continued
Alternative
                                                                 or operational activities would occur     unavoidable impacts related to groundwater
                                                                 in the marine environment. Other          overdraft and would hinder the City’s ability to
                                                                 impacts would be similar to proposed      commit to or implement stream flows associated
                                                                 project as the City’s wastewater          with a HCP and therefore could result in continued
                                                                 treatment plant would need to be up-      unavoidable impacts on listed anadromous fish
                                                                 graded and a new separate recycled        and fisheries habitat. The alternative would also
                                                                 water distribution system would need      result in adverse impacts related to the City’s and
                                                                 to be built.                              District’s water supplies, including availability,
                                                                                                           distribution, and treatment.
Proposed                   ✕                     ✕               NO                                        NO                                                     Up to     Up to      490-       1,500-   $117          $3,500-4,300
Project Plus                                                                                                                                                      910       2,800      910        2,800
                                                                 Alternative would result in similar   Alternative would result in similar environmental
DPR Pilot
                                                                 environmental impacts as the proposed impacts as the proposed project.
Alternative
                                                                 project.

City Package         ✕                      ✕                    SOMEWHAT                                  YES                                                    200       610        NA         NA       $48           $4,200
                                                                                                                                                                                                           (Water        (Water
                                                                 Alternative would avoid any marine-       Given that the Alternative would not provide ad-
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Transfer)     Transfer)
                                                                 related impacts, as no construction       equate water, it would hinder the City’s ability to
                                                                 or operational activities would occur     commit to or implement stream flows associated
                                                                 in the marine environment. Other          with a HCP and, therefore, could result in contin-
                                                                 impacts would be somewhat reduced         ued unavoidable impacts on listed anadromous
                                                                 in certain categories as only the City-   fish and fisheries habitat. The alternative would
                                                                 District intertie system would need to    also result in adverse impacts related to the City’s
                                                                 be constructed.                           water supply, including availability, distribution,
                                                                                                           and treatment.

District             ✕                                      ✕    SOMEWHAT                                  POTENTIALLY                                            NA        NA         Water Rationing     Water Rationing
Package
                                                                 Alternative would avoid any marine-       Given that the Alternative would not provide a                              590        1,800    $50 – 127              $1,700 -
                                                                 related impacts, as no construction       guarantee that enough water could be provided                                                                          $5,500
                                                                                                                                                                                                           (Total Program
                                                                 or operational activities would occur     for the District, it could result in continued
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Costs to District)
                                                                 in the marine environment. Other          unavoidable impacts related to groundwater
                                                                 impacts would be somewhat reduced         overdraft, Overall, the effect of the Alternative on
                                                                 in certain categories as only the City-   groundwater conditions is unknown.
                                                                 District intertie system would need to                                                                                Water Transfer      Water Transfer
                                                                 be constructed.                                                                                                       0-110      0-340    $48                    $4,200
Acronyms: MGY = million gallons per year, AFY = acre-feet per year, NA= not applicable


                                                                                                                                                                                  Alternatives to the Proposed Project                27
07 | Environmental Review Process
How does the process work and what is involved?
The Draft EIR document has been published and is available for public          The City Council and the District Board of Directors are required to
review before any decisions are made about the proposed project . The          consider the information in the Final EIR, along with any other relevant
public has the opportunity to provide formal comments on the Draft EIR         information, in making their decisions about the proposed project, and,
during the public review period and at public hearings as noted on page        if they choose to approve a proposed project, to make findings regarding
30 . Following the close of the public comment period, the project team        each significant effect identified in the EIR . CEQA also requires that all
will respond to comments submitted, make any necessary revisions to            feasible measures be considered to mitigate any identified significant
the EIR and then publish a Final EIR . The Final EIR will also be available    effects . If no feasible mitigation measures are available, then the lead
in advance of consideration of EIR certification at the locations identified   agencies must also consider feasible alternatives to the proposed
on page 30 and on the City’s and District’s websites .                         project that would lessen any identified significant effects that cannot
                                                                               be mitigated . If no feasible mitigation measures or alternatives exist to
Upon completion of the Final EIR, the City Council and District Board of       avoid significant environmental effects, then that must be explained in
Directors (the Lead Agencies under CEQA) may consider certification            the findings .
of the EIR and approval of a proposed project . Certification of the EIR
is the process by which the decision-making bodies officially find and         The lead agencies are also responsible for preparing and implementing
formally acknowledge that the EIR has been prepared in full compliance         a program to monitor and report on mitigation measures, to ensure
with CEQA and adequately addresses the environmental effects of a              that mitigation measures identified in the EIR are carried out . In some
proposed project .                                                             cases, impacts may be proactively avoided through measures and
                                                                               commitments made by the City and District . The environmental design
                                                                               features for the proposed project are such measures and will be included
                                                                               in the mitigation monitoring program to ensure compliance .

       Certification of the EIR is not the same as project approval .
       Approval of a proposed project would involve additional
       considerations beyond the environmental analysis . Project
       approval would also be subject to a vote of the City of
       Santa Cruz electorate* .




*Officials are also considering ways to involve District and non-City
 customers in the decision making process.


  28    Environmental Review Process
The Santa Cruz City Council and the Soquel Creek Water
     District Board of Directors, as joint Lead Agencies,
 must certify the Final EIR prior to making the decision to
          approve, deny, or modify the proposed project.




                                       Environmental Review Process   29
08 | Commenting on the Draft EIR
What is the public review period? How can I submit comments?
The Draft EIR will be available for public and agency comment for a                       Two public meetings will be held to inform the public about the Draft
60 day period, beginning on May 13, 2013, and concluding on July                          EIR and to receive written and oral comments on the adequacy of the
15 2013 . CEQA only requires a 45 day public review period for Draft                      information present in the Draft EIR . Two meetings are being held in
EIRs submitted to the State Clearinghouse for review (PRC Section                         order to accommodate both agency personnel, who typically work
21091), however given the public interest in the proposed project, the                    during daylight hours on weekdays, and the public at large, for whom
lead agencies have decided to provide a longer comment period of 60                       evening or night meetings are typically more convenient . The same
calendar days .                                                                           information will be provided at both meetings .

During the public comment period, written comments on the adequacy
of the Draft EIR must be submitted by all interested public agencies,
organizations, community groups, and individuals to:                                      PUBLIC MEETINGS
                                                                                                 JUNE 3, 2013 AT SEACLIFF INN
Heidi Luckenbach, scwd Desalination Program Coordinator
                             2
                                                                                           1     7500 Old Dominion Court     12:00 PM – 2:30 PM
City of Santa Cruz, Water Department
                                                                                                 Aptos, CA 95003
212 Locust Street, Suite C
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Email: hluckenbach@cityofsantacruz .com
                                                                                                 JULY 1, 2013 AT FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
Written comments can be submitted until 5PM, July 15, 2013 .
                                                                                           2     900 High Street             6:30 PM – 9:00 PM
                                                                                                 Santa Cruz, CA 95060
  How to get a copy of the Draft EIR
  Electronic copies of the Draft EIR are available on the scwd2
  Desalination Program website at http://www .scwd2desal .org/Page-
  Project-phases_EIR_Reports_Docs .php . The Draft EIR will also be
  available for public review during the 60 day comment period at the
  following locations:

      •	   Public libraries within the agencies’ service areas
      •	   Soquel Creek Water District located at 5180 Soquel Drive, Soquel, California
      •	   City of Santa Cruz Water Department located at 212 Locust Street, Suite C,
           Santa Cruz, California

 30        Commenting on the Draft EIR
Given the public interest in the proposed project, the
City and District have decided to extend the required
                   45 day comment period to 60 days.


                                        Commenting on the Draft EIR   31
09 | Next Steps
What is the timeline for the proposed project? What Agencies are involved with project
approvals and permitting?
The following is a summary of the process leading to approval of the proposed project:

  •	   Draft EIR is made available for 60-day public review and comment
  •	   City and District receive and respond to comments and prepare a Final EIR
  •	   City Council and District Board consider certification of the Final EIR
  •	   If Final EIR is certified, City Council and District Board consider conditional project approval, make required findings,
       and adopt a mitigation monitoring and reporting program
  •	   If conditionally approved by City and District, project approval is subject to the vote of the City electorate
  •	   If approved by the City electorate, necessary permits, authorizations, and consultations from federal, state, and local
       agencies would be pursued, as listed on following page .
TIMELINE
                                                             WINTER 2010:                                   SUMMER 2013–WINTER 2013:
                                                             SCOPE                                          RESPOND
                                                             • Release NOP/IS                               • Respond to comments
                                                             • Scoping period                               • Prepare Final EIR


         2008                  2009                 2010                  2011                    2012              2013                  2014


SPRING 2008–FALL 2010:                                            SPRING 2011–SUMMER 2013:                                   WINTER 2013–
INFORM                                                            EVALUATE                                                   FALL 2014:
• Community Information Meetings                                  • Complete environmental and                               CONSIDER
• Operated Pilot Plant                                              technical studies                                        • Final EIR
• Conducted environmental and technical studies                   • Prepare and circulate Draft EIR                          • Consider EIR Certification
                                                                  • Public Hearings                                          • Consider project approval
                                                                                                                             • City of Santa Cruz Vote

 32      Next Steps
PROJECT APPROVAL AND PERMITTING
FEDERAL AGENCIES                                STATE AGENCIES                               REGIONAL AND LOCAL AGENCIES

U .S . Army Corps of Engineers                  California Coastal Commission                Regional Water Quality Control Board
                                                                                             (Central Coast Region)
U .S . Fish and Wildlife Service                California State Lands Commission
                                                                                             Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration   State Water Resources Control Board          Control District
(NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service
                                                California Department of Fish and Wildlife   City of Santa Cruz
NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program,
Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary          California Department of Public Health       Soquel Creek Water District

U .S . Coast Guard                                                                           County of Santa Cruz

                                                                                             City of Capitola




                                                                                                                     Next Steps     33
1 0 | Glossary of Terms
BRINE: The byproduct of the reverse osmosis process which contains a           HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN (HCP): An HCP is a plan that allows for
concentration of salt, making it almost twice as salty as average seawater .   “take” of species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the
                                                                               federal Endangered Species Act . A similar plan is required for “take” of
COMPONENT ALTERNATIVES:There are four basic functional components              species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the California
of the proposed seawater desalination project: (1) seawater intake; (2)        Endangered Species Act . The federal and state oversight agencies for
pretreatment and salt removal through reverse osmosis filtration; (3)          endangered and threatened fish species that occupy the rivers and
disposal of by-products including brine and solids that are removed in         streams that the City of Santa Cruz relies on for 80 percent of its water
the pretreatment process; and (4) conveyance and delivery of the product       supply, are requiring the City to reduce surface water withdrawals,
water to existing City and District water distribution system . Alternative                                ,
                                                                               pursuant to a pending HCP for protection of steelhead and coho salmon .
sites for the seawater intake system and the desalination plant have
been included and are evaluated in detail in this EIR . To the extent that     IMPINGEMENT: Impingement is the entrapment of fish and invertebrates
potentially feasible component alternatives are identified, the intent of      on seawater intake screens .
the EIR is to evaluate each at a sufficient level of detail such that any
                                                                               INDIRECT POTABLE REUSE (IPR): IPR is where highly purified recycled
combination of components could be identified and considered by the
City and District for approval . Ultimately, only one seawater intake site     water is purposefully introduced into an untreated drinking water
and one plant site would be selected .                                         supply source, such as groundwater in an aquifer or surface water in a
                                                                               large reservoir .
DIRECT POTABLE REUSE (DPR): DPR refers to the introduction of purified
                                                                               INTEGRATED RESOURCES PLAN (IRP): The Soquel Creek Water District’s
water, derived from municipal wastewater, directly into a municipal
water supply system after extensive treatment and monitoring to assure         IRP is a long-term water plan with a goal of protecting and recovering
that strict water quality requirements are met at all times .                  the District’s groundwater resources, through a diversified strategy
                                                                               emphasizing:
ENTRAINMENT: Entrainment is the passage of planktonic organisms
through a water intake system .                                                  •	   Water-use efficiency through demand management
                                                                                      (i .e . conservation and re-use);
GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG): Gases that form a layer in the atmosphere                  •	   Groundwater management, and;
that can trap heat in much the same way as glass in a greenhouse,
which is why this phenomenon is known as the “greenhouse effect .       ”        •	   Supplemental supply development .
The greenhouse effect is the result of heat absorption by GHGs, and
re-radiation downward of some of that heat . Increases in emissions of
GHGs, such as those resulting from the combustion of carbon-based
fuels, can increase this effect, resulting in changes in climate dynamics .




  34    Glossary of Terms
INTEGRATED WATER PLAN (IWP): The City of Santa Cruz Integrated Water         PROPOSED PROJECT: In this Community Guide, “proposed project”
Plan was prepared to address drought-related shortages and to plan           refers to the proposed City of Santa Cruz and Soquel Creek Water District
for growth planned through 2030 . The IWP includes investigations and        (scwd2) Regional Seawater Desalination Project .
strategies related to:
                                                                             PILOT PLANT: From March 2008 through April 2009, scwd2 conducted a
  •	   Water demand projections;                                             comprehensive pilot plant program at UCSC’s Long Marine Laboratory to
  •	   Water conservation programs;                                          evaluate treatment system alternatives and investigate water quality data .

  •	   Customer curtailments in times of shortage, and;                      PROJECT ALTERNATIVES: CEQA requires the analysis of alternatives to a
  •	   New water supplies and infrastructure .                               proposed project for purposes of avoiding and reducing environmental
                                                                             effects . A range of alternatives to the proposed project are considered
MITIGATION AND MONITORING PROGRAM: If mitigation measures are                in the EIR .
identified in an Environmental Impact Report to reduce or eliminate
potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed project, the      REVERSE OSMOSIS: Reverse osmosis filtration involves forcing water
lead agency is required to implement and adopt mitigation measures . In      at very high pressures through a series of membranes with pore sizes
order to ensure compliance, a mitigation and monitoring program must         small enough to exclude salts and other minerals, resulting in highly
be formulated, adopted, and implemented .                                    purified product water .

NET CARBON NEUTRAL: A commitment by the City and District whereby a          SEAWATER INTRUSION: The movement of seawater into freshwater
combination of project design and GHG reduction commitments provide          aquifers (groundwater supplies), which can lead to contamination
for the avoidance of a net increase in GHG emissions above existing or       of drinking water sources . Seawater has a higher salt content than
baseline levels . The intent of a net carbon neutral objective is to avoid   freshwater, and therefore is denser, giving it a higher water pressure
any potential adverse effects of the proposed project on climate change .    that can displace freshwater in an aquifer . A common cause of seawater
                                                                             intrusion is pumping of freshwater from a groundwater basin faster
NPDES PERMIT: A permit issued under the program the National Pollutant       than it can be recharged through rainfall or other recharge methods .
Discharge Elimination System, as authorized by the federal Clean Water
Act (CWA) . NPDES permits are required for any direct (e .g ., pipeline)     WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY (WWTF): The City of Santa Cruz
discharge to waters that are regulated under the CWA . NPDES permit          operates and maintains a regional wastewater treatment plant and
coverage is also required for construction projects over a certain size .    ocean outfall disposal for Santa Cruz County Sanitation District (includes
                                                                             Live Oak, Capitola, Soquel, and Aptos) and the City of Santa Cruz . Ocean
                                                                             outfall disposal is also provided for the City of Scotts Valley .




                                                                                                                                Glossary of Terms   35
                    Proposed scwd 2 Regional Seawater Desalination Project
                                      Community Guide
                                     www.scwd2desal.org
                               This guide was printed on recycled paper with soy-based inks.

Soquel Creek Water District                                                                   City of Santa Cruz Water Department
5180 Soquel Drive, Soquel CA                                                              212 Locust Street, Suite C, Santa Cruz CA

				
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